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Full text of "Recensio Synoptica Annotationis Sacrae.CDSAA.NT. and Lexicon.Bloomfield.1826-1828.1840. 8vols.1 vol lex."

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ISitttmio i^pnoptita 

ANNOTATIONIS SACRiE; 

BKINO A 

CRmCAX. DiaSST 

AND 

SYNOPTICAL ARRANGEMENT 

OP THE MOST IMPORTANT 

ANNOTATIONS ON THE NEW TESTAMENT, 

EXEGETICAL, PHILOLOGICAL, AND DOCTRINAL: 

CAREPULLY COLLECTED AND CONDENSED, PROM THE BEST COMMENTATORS, 
BOTH ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

AND SO DIOE8TBD AS TO FORM ONE CONSISTENT BODY OF ANNOTATION, 

In which 

Catt l^rtion 1^ ^^umaticanp attdftuteH to it^ rei^ectitie $(ut(or, 

AND THE POREION MATTER TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH; 
The whole accompenicd with 

A COPIOUS BODY OP ORIGINAL ANNOTATIONS. 



By THE Rev. S. T. BLOOMFIELD, M. A. 

OP SIDNEY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, VICAR OP BISBROOKE IN RUTLAND, AND RUIDENT 
CURATE OP TUOBY, LEICESTERSHIRE. 



Ov aw^icrral ^KOfxev, ohbk kntmeiv troiftoif BearaX be fidyoy t&v 
yey pa fifiiv^Vy i^erdSofiey t^v Tpa^iir. 

Philostr. Jan. Icon. 1. 94. 

"Okou oifK ^<ni vitnis, Axavra voereiy Kal ohb^y aWo >/ fJidxai rlKrovrat 
Xrfywf, Tov viOavoripov rbv h-epov iiyaTpiTreiy boKovyTOS' *II mtrris 
wpOaXfiSs i(my' 6 fii^ i\wy d^OaX/uovs ovbky ehpitrKeiy &\Xa fji6yoy 

^Jjrel. Thcophylaci, Troin Chrysostom. 



VOL. IV. 



LONDON: 



C. AND J. RIVINGTON, 

6^, 8T Paul's chukch-yardj and 3, watbrloo-place, pall-mall. 

MDCCCXXVllI. 



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•18'-'*. to 



1^ 



RMVAII OOLLME LIIRART 






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V 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



In thus, at length, ushering into the world the 
Second Part of the arduous Work which he has been 
enabled to accomplish, the Author feels it is due to 
the Public to preface it with a brief statement of the 
causes which occasioned so long a delay in publica- 
tion, and especially the reasons which induced him 
to adopt some alterations (and, as he trusts, improve- 
mentsj in his plan. These had partly occurred to 
him from experience and mature reflection, and 
partly had been suggested by some distinguished 
personages, who kindly took ^n interest in the 
Work, and to whose opinions much deference was, on 
various accounts, justly due. Both combined to point 
out that, in consequence of the immense mass of anno- 
tatory matter to be digested and reviewed in this se- 
cond Part (comprehending nearly three-fourths of the 
difficulties of the New Testament), and of the mar- 
vellous diversities, nay, contrarieties^ of interpreta- 
tion perpetually to be encountered, it would be im- 
possible to make the Work answer the cAt^ purpose 
in view, or, indeed, to do any tolerable justice to the 
subject, within the prescribed limits; which, indeed, the 
Author had rather hoped than expected would suffice. 
That, moreover, in this portion of Scripture the nature 
of the subjects treated of rendered it necessary to in- 

VOL. IV. b 

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VI ADVERTISEMENT. 

troduce some alterations in his method of working 
up the materials, whether original, or otherwise ; in 
fact, at onqe to enlarge, and yet contract his plan. 
Enlarge it by exploring the fountain heads of inter- 
pretation, as they are found in the Fathers of the 
first four centuries, and the Greek Commentators, 
Scholiasts, and Glossographers ;♦ and especially 
by perpetually interweavtbg his own critical and 
and explanatory remarks, and applying, de sua, 
what seemed essential to complete the Corpus 
Annotationis } moulding, at the s^me time, the 
whole into a perpetual Commentary^ in which 
every point of the least importance should be dis« 
cussed, the true reading, in all doubtful and im- 
portant caaes, canvassedf the connexion traced, the 
course of reasoning indicated, all probable expoaitiona 
detailed and reviewed, and the true interpretation, as 
far as possible, ascertained and determined. In con- 
sequence of such a material enlargement of the plan, 
it was necessary to devise every possible method of 
otherwise contracting it, especially by using the criti- 
cal knife freely, by getting rid of heavy masses of 
unimportant or precarious matter, and bringing what 

* The use^ though limited^ which the Author bad made, in the for- 
mer Party of the antieot Fathers and Commentators, had shown him 
their great importance to the interpretation of Scripture^, and how 
unmerited was the neglect into which they had so long follen among 
Protestant Commentators. In this judgment he was confirmed hy 
the opinion of some distinguished Scholars, and eminent Church- 
men, whose encouragement determined him to regularly examine 
at least Chrysostom, Theophylact, Theodoret, (Ecumcnius, and the 
Greek Scholiasts, for the purpose of the present WoA. By this 
course, as will be seen, the Editor has laigely profited. 



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ADVERTISEMENT. vii 

was essential into the itiost condensed form. Hence it 
became expedient to modify, and occasionally aban* 
don his rule of ascribing each portion to its respec- 
tive author ; to blend together much various matter, 
partly original and partly compiled,^ nay, some- 
times to express the substance rather than detail 
the words of an annotation. But though the ap- 
portioning of minute and scattered remarks to their 
respective authors was often impracticable, yet he 
has been every where diligent in stating the chief 
authorities by which any interpretation has been 
supported. Considering, too, the Doctrinal nature of 
almost the whole of this second Part, and the unsound-* 
ness in doctrine, as well as inferiority in learning and 
judgment, of most^ of the recent Foreign Commen* 
tators thereon, it Was thought advisable to introduce 
far less matter from that quarter. The Author has, 
indeed^ endeavoured not to introduce, from what^ 

* Henoe the Editor has Bometimet not been able sufficiently to 
distinguish his^ own original annotations from those of other 
Commentators ; though^ upon the whole^ the discrimination is suf- 
ficiently marked. Conscious of being guided by a general spirit of 
Hteraiy honesty, the Author trusts that the praise^ in this point, 
awarded to him by the Revien^ers 6f the formei* P^rt^ will not be 
found less merited in the present. 

t For this is not meant to apply to aU of the recent German, much 
less the Dutch, school. To use the words of a great orator, Xiyw ik 
ravre^ oh Kara vdrriaVy AXAa Kara r&y kv6)((av rois clptifiivois ovriav. 
The names of Storr, Knapp, Staudlin, Tittmann, Winer, Borger, 
Fritzche, Laurman^ Flatty Schott, Wahl> and generally speakings of 
Moms, Koppe, and Schleusner> are exceptions. To the erudition, 
acumen, and research of Kuin. Ros. Pott, Heinr. Dindorf. Jaspis, 
and others, the Author bears willing testimony ; and, as his refer- 
ences will show, he has largely profited by their learned labours. 

b2 



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via ADVERTISEMENT. 

ever source, any objectionable interpretation, ex- 
cept for the purpose of pointed censure and direct 
refutation. 

It is obvious that these material alterations (by 
which the Work became less of a Synopsis, or Cor- 
pus AnnotationiSy and more of a Recensioj or Cri- 
tical Digest,) would considerably increase the Au- 
thor's difficulties, and therefore will satisfactorily 
account for a delay of nine months in the publi- 
cation. It is, indeed, scarcely possible for the most 
experienced writer to conceive the labor improbus 
which the adoption of these alterations in the plan 
occasioned the Author ; under which, and a variety 
of difficulties he has had to struggle with, his chief 
support has been the very favourable reception 
which the FiVst Part has met with from the Public in 
general, especially the friends to enlightened yet 
sound theology, amongst professing Christians of va- 
rious denominations. Nay, even among some placed 
at the antipodes in respect of doctrine, and equally 
distant from the established Church, critiques have 
appeared, distinguished by a candour and cour- 
tesy as unusual towards the Church as it is honour- 
able. But while the Author can, with truth, say 
that he has endeavoured to profit by every remark 
and suggestion thrown out by public criticism, from 
whatever quarter, he cannot dissemble his surprise 
at one or two mistakes respecting his opinions, and 
some misconceptions of the true features of his 
Work, even by some who must be considered alike 
intelligent and well affected to the undertaking. In 
the present Part, however, the perpetual discussions 



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ADVERTISBMENT. IX 

into which the importance of the subjects and the al- 
teration of plan led him, must have so completely un- 
folded his prevailing opinions and principles as to pre- 
clude all future misapprehensions. In reference to one 
source of error, the Author must be permitted to 
observe, that, consistently with those broad and im- 
partial principles so essential to the exercise of right 
judgment and just decision, it was not for him too 
hypercritically to scan the merits of annotations by 
justly celebrated Commentators, or diminish the 
reader's means of judging for himself, by suppressing 
aught that might, by any possibility, be the true 
interpretation, or contribute to its discovery. Were 
it not for some mistakes that hav6 arisen, it were 
hardly necessary for the Editor to say that he must 
not be considered as participating in every opinion by 
him introduced, unless with a formal disclaimer. 
The limits prescribed to this Work would not have 
permitted such perpetual animadversions ; hience the 
Author has thought it sufficient to studiously sup- 
press whatever he considered decidedly objectionable^ 
or only to introduce it for the sake of censure* and 
refutation. In all other cases, he wished to afford 
his readers as much opportunity as possible of judg- 
ing for themselves. In the exercise, indeed, of his 
Editorial and Critical functions, he cannot hope to 
have satisfied all; yet he trusts he shall not often 
fail of attaining it from those whose approbation it 
is his especial wish to gain ; those, namely, who, 

* Yet not a vestige, he trusts, will be found of that bitter, objur- 
gatory, cahimnious spirit, which, to the injury of the Gospel, has 
made the Odium Theologicum *' a bye»word among the Heathen.*' 



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X ADVBRTISBMENT. 

while they hail every beam of real lights atid rea* 
dily embrace whatever can be considered as solid 
improvement in religious knowledge, yet strenu** 
ously oppose all needless changes of interpretation, 
all innovating refinements^ and metaphysical sub* 
tilties— in other words^ the supporters ^ sound, 
yet enlightened orthodoxy* Novelties of interpre*^ 
tation, indeed^ the Author^s experience has taught 
him habitually to distrust, since it has shown him 
thft the truth usually lies somewhere amongst the 
antient and earlier modern Commentators ; though 
it may, not unfrequently, have to be dragged forth 
piece-meal^ and sometimes, according to the adage, 
may be said ^^ to lie (overwhelmed with hu^ 
masses of useless erudition) at the bottom of a 
welL'^ It has been the Author's fortune sometimes 
to justify and confirm^ by the siifirage of auti* 
quitys what had been unjustly distrusted and re- 
jected as mere novelty; but ^ar nwr A frequently to 
show the solid grounds of interpretations which it 
had been too long the fashion to reject, merely he^ 
cause they were common; though from their anti* 
quity and general reception, they might have been 
presumed to he true ; for, to use the wOTds of Ci- 
cero^ *^ Opinionum commenta delet dies, Nature 
ac veritatis judicia confirmat." Hence may we 
learn, in the words of the Oracle, oicii^rov jxiq icsveiy. 

To advert to some peculiar features of the present 
Part, the Author can, with truth, say that he has 
employed the same diligence in selecting all oppo- 
site illustrations of the phraseology or sentiment 
from the Classical writers^ by a careful recensio of 



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ADVBRTISEMBNT. XI 

tbe immense Cdlectanea of PricsBus^ Grotiua, 
Raphel, Eisner^ Kypke, Wetstein, &c. The labour 
of this may easily be imagined, when it is considered 
that the quotations even in Wetstein's New Testae 
ment amount^ it is said (see Dibd. Introd. vol. L 
p« 165«)» to a fmllitm I The Author was induced to 
especially attend to this branch of bis plan, since the 
publications in question are rare and expensive, and 
tbe persons for whose use the present Work was 
especially intended, have seldom complete cdlections 
of iheGrreek Classics* The Author*8 own illustra* 
tions of this kind will, in the present Part, be found 
far more numerous, and important. He has also^ in 
this Second Part^ used thesiune diligence in formiiig 
glossarial notes on every word and phrase which 
present the lightest difficulty. These, he trusts^ will 
be found eminently serviceable to the Student: and 
thou^ this kind of matter admits not of cdmjrfete 
originality, yet a con^parison of these glossarial noted 
with the matter ibund in Lexicographers or Com*- 
mentators, wiU show that the Author has chkAy 
depended upon his own powers and resources. 

A most important feature c^ the present Part is^ 
the introduction of a new version and close para- 
phrase, by the Author, of most of the sentences of 
the original here annotated on. In the selection of 
Rabbinical illustrations the Editor confesses that he 
has been more sparing, partly because that kind of 
matter is here less valuable than on the Gospels, and 
since the nature of the subject-matter admits far less 
direct elucidation from that quarter ; nay, on points 
which involve doctrine^ are of very questionable 



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XU ADVERTISEMENT. 

utUity. No well informed Theologian can be ignorant 
of the abuse to which this mode of illustration is 
liable, and to which it has been applied by heterodox 
Commentators. 

As a faithful and firmly attached ^on^/^ Churchy 
an Ecclesice Anglicance Miles^ the Author cannot 
dissemble his high satisfaction that the extensive 
researches prosecuted in the present Work do so 
decidedly tend to confirm the doctrines of his vener- 
able nursing mother, as they are embodied in her 
articles and liturgy, and her discipline^ as contained 
in her canons. Esto perpetua! 

In conclusion, the Author cannot but entreat the 
Divine blessing on these his labours, that they may 
be made instrumental to that combination of hnouh 
ledge toith zeal, by which both are eventually puri- 
jiedy and by the union of which alone can Ministers 
be enabled " rightly to divide the world of truth," 
or " contend* for the truth once delivered to the 
Saints.^' With feelings of the deepest gratitude 
does he, in thus penning the concluding sentence of 
so arduous a Work, acknowledge the gracious aid, 
under various trials, anxieties, and sickness,*^ afforded 

* Especially in times like our own, marked by innovating refine- 
ments^ by restless insubordination, and by that mischievous spirit of 
dogmatism which draws its strength not ettn from perverted learn' 
ing, or ingenious sophistry, but fiom hardiness of assertion, coarse- 
ness of language, and mysticism in doctrine. 

t It may not be quite uninteresting to the reader to know that, 
hurried forward by a scarcely temperate ardour, the Author's ex- 
ertions so £sur exceeded his strength that they had nearly cost him his 
life. For towards the conclusion he was so utterly exhausted, 
and was seized with such alarming symptoms, as left him but foint 
hopes of accomplishing the work. 



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ADVERTISEMENT. XIU 

him by that Almighty Being who, " when his heart 
was in heaviness, was the strength of his confidence; 
who hath brought his feet out of the mire and clay, 
and hath set them on a rock, and ordered his goings ; 
and who hath thus put a new song into his mouth, 
even a thanksgiving unto his OodT 

MONO GEO SQTHPI 'HMON, AIA IHSOY XPI2T0Y TOY 
KYPIOY'HMON AOATA KAI METAAOSYNH, KPATOS KAI 
EWOYSIA, KAI NYN KAI EIS HANTAS TOYS AIONA2, 
AMHN. 



Vicarage^ Tugby, Oct. 15, 1S^7- 



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CORRECTIONS-* 



Vol. IV. 



Page 6, fin./or Ji rMrcf a«-13, line 1^, amcil alter— ^13, L 8, read 
fLipov$ — 15, 1. 14, for of read in — 16, sub med. read Bergler— 51, 
1. 4, read tbae — 2% fin. read Sfe^(^iipi70rctv^-^, 1. 92, read h as " 2 9, 
tub in. read \cy<(/ien7 v— id. read writert^d. 1. 35, imeri or*-30, 
1. 10, reod Barkey's— ^2, sub mcd. r«cd »ci— '3H, 1. 6« read Storr— r 
51, 1. 6, for to, read for — ^id. 1. £6. r«id nu — 61, sub fin. qfler 
their tiuer< good— 63, sub in. for who read the latter of whom— 
C6, 1. 11, /or said read called — id. 1. 2b, for spirits read spirit — 76, 
1. 32, read Scholia. — 83, sub nusd. for M read ^M — 92, med. read 
follow — 97> 1. 23, read Mary — 109, 1. 7. read wiaaas — 111, sub m. 
read xarcpa«- 122,1. 25, afier yet insert observes — 128, sub in. for 
than read then — 160, 1. 7, read rcdiero— id. 1. 8, read expecTa-* 
164, Diid. for had read have— 166, 1. 27, for from read of — 170, 1. 7, 
cancel Grotius — 181, 1. 23, read fiovXeifei — 190, 1. 14, read *)V*— 
195, 1. 34, /or Saec. read Pse— 201, 1 24, add (Kuin.)— 221, fin. 
for i£ read of— 231, 1. 37» read Kuin. — id. /or dragon read serpent 
235, sub med. /or an read no — 242, fin. read /iavre7a*-246, 1. 29, 
read n^v— 257, mid./or Thus read The— 262, 1. 10, for Dio read 
Div— 263, 1. 8, read iivriiriirT€iy^294, Qu.for iva read «ya— 297, 
1. 8, (^ter wit add replied — 303, sub mid. for ve read hk — id. /or 
Eunuch read Apostle— 304, 1. 29, read suppose— 305, 1. 5, read 
ovpaylf oicraviq, — 307> sub fin. after mind add and — 315, 1. 15, 
read amaurosis — 316, 1. 29, afier which add will — 330, mid. /or 
not read now— 343, 1. 12, after to add feed— 344, sub fin. after 
linen add in — ^348, 1. 12, read i^deipoyres — 348, 1. 29, after preposi- 
tion add which— 361, 1. 12, read <iiir($xf>ir-384, 1. SI, for in read on 
— 385, 1. W, after this read custom — id. fin./or in read is — 389, 
1.8, read kvfx^^^^ — ^91, 1. 30, read positively — ^393, mid./or 
vc^s read xetp<^<'— 401, in. /or by read with— *401, 1. 11, read Hi* 
Jipw{€v— 404, 1. 28, read Menachenis — id. read Chalcis— 413, in./or 
vdvT€is read fiayrets — 418, sub fin. read raised— 420, 1. 17« read 
letters— ^24, 1. 16, read compounded — 438, mid./or add read and 
— 461, fin. for Aristoph. read Aristot.— 482, 1. 11, for verbiou read 

* For typographical errors (unavoidable in such a Work) the Author muBt throw 
himself on tne indulgence of lUs considerate readers, when he informs them that hit 
great distance from the press prevented him from correctbg the proof sheets more 
than once, and his remoteness from a Post town, which rendered it necessarv to 
employ special messengers, and exposed him to many disappointments, allowed him 
too short a time for correction. He has now, however, carefully examined the whole, 
and trusts that the following list (not perhaps longer than might be expected in a 
work of nearlv 4000 closely printed pages of leaned matter) mcludes nearly every 
error of the least consequence } and he cannot bat intreat hji readers to toe it for 
the purpose of actual correction. 



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CORRECTIONS. XV 

verse — 529, in. read The word oocur»-*543, 1. 6, read rpo^icXiy* 
pova6a4— 557> mid. /or apposite read oppoeite^ — 561, fin./or esteem 
read esteems — 571> in. after must add refer — 573, ixL for iy^^a read 
^yOa — 574, 1. 14, for uii read utri^-583, fin. read xeipovpyrifiaTi 
— 594, L 41, after only camel aot-*-«599, 1. 7, for row read ro-^ 
608, sub mid. read Uecatei—a^Oy &n. read troviaptovSSS, sub 
io. cancel But — i8tis-^53> fin* read Karnyopias — 654, L 8, read 
^^eipoff-oc^roi— 655, in. for dear read dear. 

VouV. 

Paob 13, line 11, read Bekker-^S, a.f. read XoXotbT«ff— ^, 1. 17, 
read n^HA — 41, L 9, read firatrem-i-4S, fin* read xp^lais^^S, 
mid. for add read and'^-48, 1. 11. for to read of — 48, mid. read 
€vufyvfABy^b% fin. read iiayaffvarres'-^l, 1. 33, afier them add 
and — 62, fin. add Whitby — 64, sub fin. read and as nothings— 77, 
10, read KtXU — 87, sub fin. read bdp%i> — 96, 1. 4, /or assigned read 
consigned — ^97, mid. /or then read these — 99, L 31, for was read 
owns — 103, mid. read r^rvioi/— 104, L 33, after Priest place a 
bracket — 112, U 5, /or is read of— 127, 1- 11> read citizen — 13(X 1. 
76, /or day read days — 136, mid. point ovrrdfim, iywyr6ym'^\A% 
void, for and read in-*143, in. after where add etee ■ l45, raid, for 
treois read deois — id. for rixrpmovs read xarptfovt-— 152, 1. 9, after 
Ernest! add lexr^lS4, 1. 29, after than read b^— 160, fin. read nor 
acquit and set — 178, mid read Varus — 180, sub fin. for surround- 
ing read succeeding — 182, sub fin. after once add elsewhere — 183, 
mid. read^^yovrriar — 189, in. /or a sk r«ad ask— 198, mid. /or to 
read the— 202, 1. 29,/or or read as— -203, fin. for critics reod cities 
^-207, 1. 34, read xe^/iwvc— 209, 1. 25, read ^Trov— 214, 1. 10, after 
this add drivelling — ^217, in. read &pxvy — 227, sub fin. for Rhes. 
read Rhet. — 230, sub fin. read principle — 243, mid. for irexalpas 
read /idxa^s— ^43, 1. 31, after of which read sense— 243, 1. 35, 
read '^po^aei — ^254, mid. read wpotnreXa&ayTos — 256, mid. read ovs 
fiky. — ov$ bk — id. fin. after they were add or many were — 25T, sub 
fin. /or <ra Tut read aa Fw — 259, 1. 7, read to take one to — 272, 1.^, 
read Cluverii and Dorvelii*— 273, sub fin. read after, or perhaps before 
-«-285, sub fin. read Apostolo — 296, mid. after extends add At — 900, 
L 29, cancel that*-301, 1. 14, read nVi:Q— 308, 1. 8, read hyialyeiy 
— id- 1* 1-8, read p^^nn — 309, mid. read communication — 312, sub 
fin. (rfter that add it— id. fin. read iwikdoyrt — 813, 1. 30, read but, 
at the same time, with — 314, 1. 12, read BaplMtpoi — 326, sub fin. 
for it read that— 327, mid. after for read in — ^331, 1. 10, for now 
read ^r — 333, 1. 29, for that religion, read that system— ^39, ro. 
for Timant. read Timarch. — ^343, 1. 4, read beiicvvs — 343, 1. 30, read 
.putarunt — 347, 1. 2, read Agricols^ — id. sub fin. after apud insert 
alium — ^350, 1. 7» after stories add and — id. 1. 15, read interpreters 
— 350, sub med. read Seoffrvyris — 351, 1. 13, read irpotrewtyovyrtn 
— 353, sub fin. read evavyderos — 364, in. read Trypho— 366, mid 
for quia read quae — 368, 1. 4, ccmcel of— 1383, 1. 31, read the arche- 
type— ^84, sub fin. after means add ill — 388, fin. cancel which— 
389, 1. 6, read boastest— 3^ sub fin. cancel his— 405, 1. 25, read 



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XVI CORRECTIONS. 

regards— 407, 1. 14. read dislichs— 412, 1. 36, for this read the — 
4^, mid. read in^«i and n^H — ^id. sub fin. /or little read literal — 
4?8, sub fin. read rcO^i^Oa*— 429, sub med. read k6tos and ircirpoi, 
and also biatpipwy and ntnnD— 429, fin. for and answers reaJ an- 
swering— 433, sub. fin. read *)B^1— 434^ sub fin. /or therefrom read 
therefore— 444, mid. for affecting read effecting — 447, mid. read 
irifioeiif. — id. fin. for uses read is used— 449, 1. 16, after before place 
a period— 458, sub fin. read refero— 468, 1. 29, after put read out 
— 471> fio. read Fsesii— 478, sub fin. signification, and Gloss Phi- 
loxen.— 480, sub. fin. /or casual read causal — 482, 1. 29, read to be 
(acknowledged to be) by — 484, m. read l3»aH — 486, I. 6, for com- 
pares read combines— 489, 1. 9. read poMn — id. f. read Kareyoifitre 
and caai— 498, I. 21, cancel that — 501, 1. 17,/or this read them — 
505, 1. 14, after apposite add and — 507> 1. 14, read &woicoitrlyat — 
516, 1. 7, for best read better— 517, s. f. after and add were — 538, 
I. 5, read by hend — ^538, 1. 6, read -naD and ]9 — id. m. read Ifiwo* 
peverai — 539, m. read trvi^y — 540, 1. 9, rtad trvfu^vrot — 548, s. m. 
caned not — 552, 1. 9, read concupiscentia — 560, 1. 8, read poetic^ — 
566, f. read and also those who^578, I. 6, for avrb read &iro — 583, 
1. 2, caned and — 591, f- read nutuque — 592, caticef ike stop after 
row- 594, 1. 7, read hireo(ioX£is — 603, s. m. read &vj}piyrai— 632, m. 
for of read for— 643, f. jor /*€ read firi^-663, s. f. after yet o^d since 
— 671, i' for abo read alas! — 672, s. m. read nnion — 695, 1. 5, 
after. Winterbui-g p/occ a period — 701, 1. 12, cancel the ^ — ^714, m. 
read acceptance — id. after Madd (Koppe) — 716, m. after even add 
thee — 717, f. read Airirwiriov— 723, s. f. read forborne— 743, m. 
caned it — 746, 1. 9, for fbr read from whence-*746> m./or iyOeadai 
read rlOeaOai, and for rarrdfieyoy read raydky. 

Vol. VI. 

Page 18, for exoteric read esoteric — 22, fin. read ip and mp— 
23, f. for saitable read sailable — 26, line 8, read ehpiSrjy — 27, I. 4, 
read mo— 30, s. f./or or read 1. e. — 31, I. 6, for jest read gist — id. 
s. f. read KadeXeiy — ^32, 1. 14, read na — ^3a, m. read ^a— 39, s. f./or 
greatness read goodness— 45, 1. 6, for et read at — id. m. for senato 
read sanato— 46, m./or yiyei read X^yci — 53, m. read ariXexos-^ 
58, m. read c^ciVaro— 64, 1. 11, read oval — 87, 1. 5, for Chapter 
read Epistle— 107, s. f. read Ha:i— 117, s. f. read ifxiropiov — 121, f. 
for Horatian read Virgilian, and ignara — 123, for fiicilfe read facile 
126, s. f. cancel usually — 127, m. read vpoy — 132, m./or later read 
Latin — 135, s. f. read wpovpyov — 136, m. read ^3 »dj — id. read 
divinitus — 141. L 14, read lD$)DO — 145, 1. 6, for fie read firj — 149, f. 
cancel the — 151, 1. 6. read K\i\(/€i$ — 165, s. f. after meats add of the 
Mosaic Law — 177, m. read evOvvos^lJS, 1. 4, read antanaclasis— 
183, s. m. read advanced — 186, m. after it add not — 187, 1. 1, read 
UD^ — 189, 8. f. read bvyafieyos — 190, f. read 'ETriTroO/ay — 208, m. 

read superstition — 211, f. read irXrjpwfiati — ^213, m.read CD^» 

216, 1. 1 1, read ain— 236, f. read 'Aircic^ex— 237, m. read mih and 
ayevBvyovs — 238, 1. 6. read |DHi— 240, s. f. read fiaSrirris — 244, L 
10, read ktnraiofiai — 246, 1. 5, read ^>l;n — 247, 1. 4. rmd irpoafiyo' 



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Google 



CORRECTIONS. XVII 

p/as— 248, ID. read <rd^/av— 281. in. read Mp — id. m. *]hrt — 295, no. 
read eydvfiov/neyos — 299, m. for Samuel read Shammai — 302, m. 
read iifiQv — ^304, m./or avoid read award, and \^vth — ^317, 8. m./or 
ivere read ^x^e — 318, 1. 13, /or ill clothed read unclothed — 327, 
L 3, read proncisci— 329, for their read its— 335, f. read tcarepya- 
aaiJLevov — 339, J. 11, canc^i late — 340, ft r. 8Ugge8tB-^-341, 8. m./or 
nation r. notion — 342, 8. f./or of r. to — 343, in. r. Plato in Thestet 
— 357, 8. m. r. ponitur— 358, 1. 9, r. &Uoy — 365, f. after aladr^iv 
add ohhk ope^iy MihuKri — 366, s. f. far rpoi^ r. rpv^^i — 368, 1. 1 1, 
r. avfi^yai — ^id. f. after sinneth add against — 372, s. f./or illustrata 
r. illustria— 376, in. read tt^DVn— 379, 1. 17, after is the add same 
— 398, f. r. writer— 413, f./or mere r. more^-415, L 6, r. kawlav 
— ^id. 11, cancel by^-417> f* point Duxi uxorem, quam ibi miseriam 
vidi ! nati filii : alia cura— 458, f.r. kXafijiayey and {jyvarfKy — 159, 
m. r. £iera{ero— 461, s. f. r. Kaxr)(&fiai^^\d. 8. m. after lay add iiii 
— 480, r. irj/€v/Aartic5f^86, s. f./or hC r. ot—- 491, 1. 15. r. oXoOpev- 
roiJ — 504, m. r. heathens — 512, r. ikyand a little further on h^ki^v 
—525, 2, for are r. is, and for by r. in — 526, 1. 12, /or sit r. ut— 
539, f. for bei'jryely r. bei voyely — 554. m. r. hurried away— 560, I. 
16,/or last r. past — b67,for above adopted r. just laid down — 574, 
f. r. irirfrerat — 576, 8. f. r. Xex^vac — 596, f. r. Iseta — 605, m./or 
ther. some— -612, m. r. /cpov^riica— 614, I. 11, r. ai/Xjirai and Aoia- 
y6rfra — 624, m. r. acquiescence — 627, no. r. o5 — 645, r. ?{w X<(yov— 
652, 8. m. r. Kovfiim — 656, 1. 5, r. ky or ircpl— 667, m./or 2, 23. r. 
1,21—664, 1. 11, r. l/crpwcriff— id. 1. 13, /or suit r. fruit— 665, 1. 8, 
r. reckling — 666^ s. m. r. pretend— 687, 1. 9, r. KirSifjiatn — 695, m. 
r. eireiairdn^ra — 701, /or by r. as — ^709, s. f. r. habituri — ^711, 8. m. 
r. 1^4—720, m. after especially aJd at— 720, f. r. itXeioya itcvktiliy. 
721, m. r. ahr^ — id. f./or are r. were — 725, m. r. ^IHW— 729, m. 
r. \apis^^h4, in. r. dvairavO^vac. 

Vol. VII. 

Page 52, f. read ^o^ioreveiK-— 537, r. ica/cvvetv— -61, s. f. r. {nnype* 
riicraadai — ^75, m. for further r, formal — 82, line 7, r, iXeetirdac — 
87, f* after dispatch add it— 93, s. f. cancel an and r. agonistae— < 
109, m. r. 6ci — 123, 1. 2, for on r. in — 125, m./or was r. were— 
126, r. Necyom — 130, f.r. Air6>ikver6€ — 146, m. r. pn— 153, in. for 
these r. there — 163^ for this r. his — 167, s. f. r, fiovKoXois and avy 
KaraSeeris — 169, f. r. taken— 177, 8. f. r. ^o-wOev— 178, s. m. r. 
IxmfJ^y — 190, 1. 11, r. a£fectu — ^201, s. f. r. ab and ex. — ^212, s. f: 
r. Trefjut^Oiyres — ^216, in.r. IX€yx6^241, s. m. after stulti add sunt 
— ^245, m. for readily r. ready — ^250, 1. 11. r. ^po^^eiK — 252, m. 
for connexion r. thought — ^268, 1. 17, r. persecutions — 272, s. f. r. 
clause — ^280, s. m. r. velum — ^281, s. m. for imitated by r. imitated 
from — 282, s. f. r. expositions — ^283, I. 13, cancel of— 287, place 
lai after ay, and r. fn— 304, 1. 6, r. ni^W— 309, s. m./or this r. they 
— 320, 8. m.r. CD»n o^v — 341, h 10, r. recognise — 343, /or forms 
r. oaths — 358, s. m. r. «in— 360, f. r. nwi and VJM — 362, 1. 4, r. 
AXXo — 363, 8. f. cancel always— 365, m. r. SticaiwOiiffcrcu— 368, 1. 
10, r. yya»f(f|c^d. s. in. cancel is — 374, m. after they are of, acW no 



Digitized by > 



XVlli CORRECTIONS. 

r-^77> I* m* ctmcel on— 384> 1. 1, r. namely— 386> J. % r. seem — 
396, 8. m. r. ^ia/Sw>^— 405> in. r. pffidagogicml— 416, 8. f. r. au- 
gendi> and cancel et'^-419> L 4» read iyiavroys^'^^, 1. 8, /or 
them r. mo— id. m. concei ro— 439, in. r. p— 440> 1. 16^/or if r. of 
— id* 1. 19> q/^er seme add of— 487> K 9« r. Iirecxe(>— 494, L 3, r. par- 
tide— 495, B. f. for Forag, r. Fragm.-^U, m. r. T>a — 515, m. r. 
onft^nn — 517» f* r, ma— 583, f. r. r^ ex — t^f-^^SO, 1. 3, r. rptrjf— 
544, 8. m. r. indigne Tirum— 546, m. r. ^SiciO^im and xp^pr^rV* 
—553, 1. 5, r. 2inp)— id. o/irer and add at— 559, 1. 10, r. efficiency 
—566, L n fiep/£i — 570> m. after better add a— Id. m. r. Ignat. ad. 
— 574# f. T. ^jcrajcety— 578, m. r. 9eo^<Spos;— 5 18, in. /or tamely n 
lainely-^-583, m. r. ktter— id. m. r. niTi ni7--585, s. m. r. xd^c — 
586, concei on and iir^eaBe, oi alto dx^e^e— 594, m.for that r. 
bow— 595,8. £ r. dxe^aXre — 596, f. r. competit— 606» m. r. d^^vr 
•^id. 8. £ r. Aarea«-615, f./or the r. they, and cancel former — 616, 
8. m./or yon r. ai:in— 617,^ r. ^pydSev, KKdwifj^y, and aKv(ia\i9/jia 
«-618> 8. f. r. h^ and fru— 680, 1. 9, for thus r. otherwise — id. m. 
for eyi€ lyro* r. iytev^firai — id. 8. m./or arerse to r, 8lifling*-683, 1. 
11, r. mn»J— 694, 1. 3, /or false r. ba8e— 684, 1. 18, r. intemperance, 
and a/ier illicit add gratification— 685, 1. 11, cancel the— 686, m. 
r. bonestai— 688, L 4,/or word r. world — 689, 1. 13, r. dxar^— 630, 
8. m. o/ier manner add imparted — 638, s. f./or its r. at — 640, 8. f. 
poitU ^faXfwisp vfiyols, and glials— 641, L 8, a/ter parts add with— 
id. /or it r. tbem — id. s. m. r. both in words and music— ^47> 1. 8, 
r. drip'— 4d. m. /or Sir r. See,. and canceZ of— 650^ f. r. C3»Dn and 
C310— 660, 1. 8, r. noiD— 661, m. r. ta^ — ^id. s. t r. kyQpwirdp€9Kop 
—666, £ r. xoXii*" oJ<mv— 670 — 8. m./or parts r. effects — 673, f. n 
ipa/mriicofiam{— id. 8. f. r. irSv^^ftet^ot— -683, m. r. xpoayay«iv^— 
686, 8. m. r, anMT)— ^97> 8. m./or could r. would— 697> 8, m./or 
ix<Jio^ci' r. Mioaip — 699, s. in. r. £^f^700, k 80, cancel two-* 
703, r. not only— 718, 1. 6,/or their r. his — id. m./or snatch r. seize — 
715, 8. f. r. n»n— -788, s. m. after flpom add and— 733, after came 
odd nigh— >id. m. r. xapo/SovXeveo/icro* — ^734, 1. 13, r. I{ drOpwxwr 
— ^736, in. for shorten r. be shorter— id. m. for unsound r. un- 
founded— 738. 1. 9, r, cararofi^r— 739, 1. 8, r. xexocO<$res — ^741, s. 
in./or r^ r. rjf*-idl m. for aatient r. eminent— 751, 1. 9, r. dxd^at 
^— 755> L 7, after and odd holding •ut, and after following add it-* 
757, for blindness r. blackness — 760, m. potnl resisting, this very 
body will— 4d. m. r. &xoiex<^/ic6a— id. 8. m* r. 1^017901'^— 764, m. r. 
•UDOa— 778, 8. m. r. xopr^^esrOac, as alto 773, 1. 1—773, L 3. r. a 
surplus. 

Vol. VIII. 

Paob 1, line 14, cancel koi MvriX^rjy^-lO, fin. /or Macknight r. 
Campbell— 11, f. r. tUity — 36, 1. 7» r. ypd/t/uc— 48, 1. 4, r. Ince* 
dens— 43, 1. 15, r. elementari religk>ni-^-43, f. r. re— 53, m. r. ror 
—54, a. m. r. Zr^^y^ — 64, 1. 3, r.«8 (ar— id. s. m. r. and desires — 
66, 8. f. r. AXari— 67} 1* 1 4,/or or r. and — 70, s. f. r. oration, and 
avieX^yra — ^71, m. r. inconclusive — ^77, 1. 11> for are done r. have 
been— id. m« r. efiected — 91, 1. 13, r. fia^TvpeeSuv^f^, t for re- 



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Google 



. CORRIXntONS. XIX 

puled r. refuted-^5, 1. &• r. Bubaud^^-^, in. afier rather add teem 
— 104, 1. 4,/or it Bi^ifies r. they import— 109, tn. r . 9n^k>9 — 1^, 
Lfor molt r. 8ome-*l^> s. t r. ♦MH — 1S5, L 8,ybr had r* have — 
141, 1. A, after those oc/ci ordinary— 144, L 10, after trying ocM it— 
148, f.for is r. was— 153, f. r. jcarojio^i^ac—- 156, s. m. r. uitione- 
158, 8. m. r. uw:i — 179, s. m. r. dxar|7-^193, 1. 1, r. are both — 
204, s. m. f. nDM-*205, 1. 18, afUr another add world— e07> 0. m. 
for of the senser. and the sense — 908, 1. 9,ybrppedispoBition r. pre- 
dictions — 213, m./or are r. were, and blessings— 4tl6, !. 19, r. thus 
offered, and that persons of any-— 221, L 14, r. nt^jr— id. s. f. r. dn- 
ciftni-^d. f./or binding r. braiding**223,/or head r. hand— 229, 1. 
18,/or however r. therefore— 231, s. f. r. l/ixXi^rrdf^id. s. m./or 
guilty of r. enslaved to — ^id. s. f. r. 6ellulariam---2S2, s. m. r. ma* 
raader— id. 1. 15,/»f therefore r. for— 234, m. r. objectors— id. 1. 9, 
r. vcoicar^iyrof— ^8, f. cones/ rov— 245, 1. 11, r. more agreeable— > 
247* m. r. &ir<5XavotK— 249, 1. 2. r. irapair. and d^oorp^etr^c— 
id. m. coitcei A, and for r^ie r. r^^— <^id. s. f. r. irX}70'ia£oy-*254, 
s. m. for conjoins r. enjoins^-id. s. f. r . ^Ity^iiyic;) — 257,1. 12, r. vewr^- 
povs — 262, f. point Deaconnesses. But-*268, 1. 15, q/^erSehleus- 
ner add adduces — 270, 1. 13, r. vpoaunroXffxj/ias — 275, f. r. Xoyaplwy 
—276, m. for fiky r. /ir)— 281, 1. 6, cancel is certain — ^282, s. f. r. 
actions — ^id. f. r. strive to lay— 286, s. f. r. ^wy — ^288, f, r. iavroTs 
304, 1. 8, r. &yiDva — 309, ni. for the same r. He— 311, 1. 5, after 
Rivington add to which, and for oo which r. appointed — 313, m. r. 
nequibunt— 317> &• oA* r* to awaken ftrom deep sleep — 320, 1. 1, r. Ju- 
venal and Horace, Nay Thucyd.-r*id. L 5. cancel (I would r.iiri&pa) 
— 321, f. r. J^oXoyov^iK— 322, 8. f. r. cooperti — 323, 1. 4, r. wpoa' 
woiovfjiiy^y^^e, 1. 7, r. Plotin. and ^{i^dn^v— 328", f. r. dprtos^^ 
331, 4.f. n of these and other^^33, 1. 3, r« KPtfanAaas and rapa* 
/jivdiiffaaOai — id. 8. m. cancel at least, and for ao illustrious r. a 
Wriking— 336, 1. 7> r. creatures— 337, f. r. Q. That— 338, 7, /or or 
r, on— 345, s. f./oc l)y r. at— 351, s. m. r. Aei i/^eiWae— 4d. r . Xiyfa- 
rac onct Bauer, and for swit r. swift— 356, s. f. r. 9e/3do'/ica^^3l>9> s« 
m. r. Mencsch.- id. s. f. petn/ waXiyerofieit al ;— 363, m. r. but, in 
some measure from its power, by supplying, &c. — id. f. r. ireptov^ 
oios — 367, s. m. for have r. having — id. f. cancel done — ^369, 1. 5. 
r. callings— 379, m. r. observes — 383, 1. 4, cancel parenthesis— id. s, 
f. for one r. opinion — 384, m. for row r. ro — 388, m. r. elaaySyros 
— ^389, m. after subject add whether— 403, m. r. turns— 405, 1. 9, 
r. all the best-r-id. s. m. for external r. eternal — 106, 1. 6, r. 
GrsBcism— 407, !• 1» r. made— 414, m. r. wpn— 415, f. r. indignant 
—419, s. f,/or off. by— 423, s. m. r. felicitas 8eterna^-426, 1. 27, r. 
they will attain— 427> 1. 2, r. couched — ^id. 1. 6, r. l/i9r^(7p— id. 1. 16, 
r. vestrCim — id. s. m. r. Ivcpy^* — id. s. f. r. Av^pi and dvi^d/ieois— > 
428, /or sanctification r. sacrifice— 431, s. f. r. Priesthoods— 433, 
m. r. Tcp/rei/iac— 435, f. r. Job. 35, 12, and t3»yn— 438, s. f. r. 
teachers— 444, 1. 9. r. we will proceed— 446, 1. 7, r. ^Di— 448, 1. 6, 
r.h nm — 453, m. r. ^8iy ix^fiev — id. m. r. irpc^poftos— 462, s. f. r. 
iSpt<r6ij— 465, 1. 4, /or in r. on— 467> 1. 9, r. ^x^yyvo*— 481, 1. 8, r. 
AiroK^icpv^Oai— 483, 1. 31, r. asserts— id. m, r. include— 485, 1. 8, r. 



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Google 



XX CORRBCTIONS. 

reXeid^ac — ^id. 6. f./or consist r. sub8i8t^488, 1. 16, r. astriferum— 
490, 1. 14, r, Barnab. Eptet. — 506, 1. 14. n exiX^ycc— 509, s. f. r. 
one — 51 1, f. r. ^icSoxih-512, 1. 4, for so r. as — 519, 1. 13, for then r. 
thing8^528, 1. 10, r. to be so— 549, r. al/iareicxv^^as — 552, f. r. 
oVw — 558, f. r. Kpeirrova — ^559, m. r. ^KaOape — 560, 1. 25, cancel 
and — 564, m. r. iarm and — 566, 1. 89, r. united with ^573, in. /or 
recapitulation n coounemoration — 607> 1. 15, r. nvelrai— ^16, m. 
r. ^arai'^v — ^id. s. f. cancel two— 627> 1. 11. r. Poet mid r^yjyra— 
629, 1. 12, r. l3B^:i— 635, m./or house r. soul— 638, I. 12, r. xape- 
x«S^/iOi^-641, /or supported r. cheers — 652, s. f. for it r. them— 
682, /or Val. r. Vit.— 691, 1. 23, for frigidly r. briefly— 696, 1. 22, for 
and r. but— 704, 1« 16, r. day-star — ^710, 4, r. raprap^aas, hurling 
—710, f. r. Lenep— 712, 1. 9, r. airOa^els — ^722, m. r. IfiwalKTos — 
743, 1. 9,% for into r. according to— 744, m. r. that excessive — 746, 
m. r.CD»o»n nnn^a — ^751, 1. 14. read quod attinet ad — 7^S, for 
Doctors r. Docetce — ^766, f. r. magis, potentius — 767> s- 1 r, speak 
of— 789, f. r. 'EWiyyicov— 803, s. f./or single r. sinfiil— 804, 1. 20, 
r. to denote — 811, 1. 10, for interprets r. intermits— 812, m. r. that 
originally centered in— 813, f. r. ^^Sere. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The Author avails himself of this opportunity to inform his 
readers that, conformably with his promise in the Prefiftce, he has 
drawn up a copious Appendix (to be bound with Vol. 1.) of sup- 
plementary matter on that portion of the Gospel of St. Matthew, 
which extends to ch. xii. This will be ready for delivery with 
PMIK 



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THE 

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 



Aii Kal ifiavTOv fiaXitrra eis ravnfv iLyayKcUus caO^ca r^v xpay 
jiarelayt &9T€ iwiwaffatrBai tovs iiyyoovyraSf Kal /iij Ai^iyai 
roaovTOv XayBivtiv koX avoKpvirreirOai Briiravpov' ohhk yap IXdrroya 
Tuy ehayyeXlwy fifids ^(peXfitrai ivvrftreTaif roaavrris l^xx^irXij^rai 
^iXoffOi^las Kal ioyfidrtoy 6pB6TriroSy ical fidXi^ra t&v TyevfiaTOs 
elprifiiywy. (Chrysoetom. ) 



Preliminary remarks on the style of St. Luke, as it 
is found m this book, collected from KuinoeVs Pro- 
legomena, 

As to the style of St. Luke, one may observe, 
generally, that it is far more accommodated to the 
genius of the Greek language than that of the other 
sacred writers. This Evangelist is especially stu- 
dious of brevity (see 18, 1. seqq. 14, 10, 20. 16, 3, 
19> 2 & 4^ &cO> and often omits what may easily be 
supplied from the rest of the narration, or even other 
passages (see 8, SG. 10, 23. compared with 11, 12. 
11, 3. 15, 5 & 34., &c.); not unfrequently passes 
from the indirect to the direct form of expression 
(see 1, 4. ly* 3. 23, 22, 23. 25, 8, &c. j) often so 
uses the relative pronoun that it answers to the 
case of the preceding noun, and not the verb fol- 
lowing (see 1, 1. 3, 25. 9, 13. 17, 3. 20, 38, &c.)>j 
frequently employs the word o/todt//xaSoy (see 1, 14, 
2, 1 & 46. 4, 2^. 5, 12. 7, 57. 8, 6, &c.), and the 
verb v^wnco^€^€w (Acts 1, 14. %i/iSi 46. 6, 4. 8, 
13, &c.). The words and formulas peculiar to Luk« . 

VOL4 iv« B 



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9 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

and which occur in no other writer, are the fol- 
lowing : avip€9 Kar' i^o)(rip r^y ToX6a>y, 25, 23. a^€- 
%€yiM9, 19, 27. a4>fXoT7jy, 2, 46. e^apri^eiv, used of 
time, 21, 5. ivcori^ea-daii 2, I*. 6Tl^aXX6lVTw y^Tgay, 
suscipere^ 12, 1. /too-p^oToi^rv, 7j 41. ^^piaorgaTreiv, 
9, 3. wpotrwroD'Krfjnrri^j 10, 34. Trpaa-ireivo^i 10, 10. ;fg6- 
porpi^lif (a verb which very rarely occurs), 20, 16. 
aiS7v69 vinciila^ 2, 24. 

The words and formulas not used by the other 
writers of the New Testament, are the following : 
Qurevayri, adversus, 17- 7* a7ro(^fl^yy6<rOai, 2, 4 & 14. 
16, 25. 3iWiy, 26, 4. SiaXfKToy, 1, 19. 2, 6 & 8. 21, 
40. 22, 2. 26, 14. iia<rTp€(f>€^\f awo, 13, 8. Sa>SfKa<puXov, 
26, 7« ^'f T61W1V Ti^v ;c^7pa, a Hebrew ibrmula, used of 
the Deity, 4, 30, 67ramyic€y, 15, 28. «rivoia, 8, 22. 
KarayyfXfuy, I7, 18. Xtiju-aiWo-Qai, 8, 3. jxera^i, post^ 13, 
42. oTiojfta, career^ 12, 7- :rp<KricXiW<rOai, 5, 36. o-uj^- 
ir6<rflai, 20, 4. ravSv, 4, 29. 5, 38. 17, 30, 20, 32. 27, 
22. Tid^vai Trapdi rouy TroW, 4, 35. 5, 2. 7, 57- ^ao-if , 
21.31. See Michaelis apud £ichorn*s Introduction. 

To which I add O7rravo|x6y. 

CHAP. I. 

Verse 1. riv jx€v tt^iStov "Koyov ^To«}^aftijy tt. t.— cw 
i^p^aro i 1. With the Commentaria which he formed 
on the sayings, doings, and fortunes of Christ, the 
Evangelist has connected this book on the Acts of 
the ApostleSf repeating from ver. 1 to 14, the history 
of Christ's ascension unto Heaven, and offering a 
more copious detail of that everjt. (Kuin.) Thus 
Chrysostom, in his Proleg. calls this book the avor* 
ra<r€a>r a^(>Sfi^ir, and he adds that this* may, in a 
rough and brief way, be called the whole scope of 
the book. Now there are some minute points con- 
cerning the phraseology of this Evangelist, which 
must be adverted to. The use of /t€v without the 
apodotic 8e, an idiom which is found in the best 
Greek writers, and especially at the proerae of a 
book. Many examples of this are produced l^ 
commentators from Aenophon. It occurs, too, in 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CUAP. I. 3 

all the books of Herodian; as also in SopfaocleSt 
Philp, and Eurip. Hipp. See Kypke and Valckn, 
UpdoTov is for Trporepov ; as is required by propriety 
of language, when there are but two things. This 
use of the comparative is not, however, unexampled. 
The commentators compare Cic. de Invent. 2, 3. 
Aoyov eiroiTjo-ojxijv. Aoyoy is often used by the best 
Greek writers in the sense which it here bears,^ 
namely, of narration, history, or a book of history. 
For when any work, especially a history, is divided 
into several parts, those parts are called \6yoi ; as in 
the histories of Herodotus and Herodian. Hence 
historians are, by Herodotus and others, called 
Xtyowoio). Nor, indeed, is this without example in 
the Hebrew language ; since *ai sometimes denotes 
a book of history ; as in 1 Chron. 29, 29- Jer. 29,29. 
Thus Xoyov ToieTv, or woieTo-flai, will have the sense of 
compose a history. Of the examples adduced by 
Wetstein, Kypke, and Valck., the most apposite are 
the following. Diog. Laert. 7> 1» 21. where he tells 
us that Zeno X^ov T€7roii}K€vai Tcepi rou icadi}icovror, de 
officio. Theophr. Char, wpwrov [lev ouv Toir^traliii rhp 
Xoyov. Philo T. 2, 4f4f5. b [jJev Trporepo^ Xoyo^ ^y ^V^^t 
<2 66o8or6, - 7r€^) roS Travra SoSXov ^ouXov. Galen de 
Usu, Part 2. 7r€p\ vpeirtoy raiv Sa/cruXcuy iTotTia-afAr^y 
riv Xoyoy. 

^Qp ^p^aro TToieTv Kol 8iSaa'K€iv is for a evoirfl'e kol$ 
€^i^a^€. For the pronoun relative, by an Attic 
idiom, does not answer to the case of the noun pre* 
ceding, but the verb which follows. The idiom is^ 
indeed, familiar to Luke, and is found not only ia 
the New, but the Old Testament; as Gen. 2, 3; 
Thus Markland observes that the antecedent being 
in the genitive case, causes the relative to be put in 
the same case ; and the relative draws the following 
adjective after it; instead o^v€p\ TrpayiMtrofU a wavra 
eron}(rf. He then compares a similar construction 
inXuk^ 3, 19* ''cgJ vavrm^ wp hroirice TomifSv i *Hpa»- 
8ijy: & 19, 37. Acts 10, 39. 22, 10. Most com- 
mentators also suppose a pleonasm in ^^aro wouTv 

fi2 



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4 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. T. 

for iwoly^tre ; since fl(g;^€<r6ai, like the Heb. 77n, when 
joined to verbs is redundant; and, as Glass ob* 
serves, ^y€<r6ai is sometimes used of complete 
action. The words ir€o) ttolvtodv must not be pressed, 
but are to be regarded as a popular mode or speak- 
ing, in which rigid accuracy is not observed. 

irvcuiuiTOs ayiwj ouy €^€Xf^aro. There has been much 
doubt on the construction, and consequently the 
interpretation of this passage. The ancient Fathers 
and' Commentators join 8iA vve^iLOLros with fVT€iXa- 
[kefo^. And so the English Version. Some inter- 

Ereters tell us that Jesus is here considered as a 
)ivine Legate ; and that Zik w^iyLartks signifies " by 
divine impulse and authority.*' They render ivr^i- 
7^diu€909 promised the Apostles divine assistance, 
endowments, and faculties necessary for their work. 
Others, however, observe that (A9 i^€\4^aTo will then 
be pleonastic. But that may be doubted. Some 
moaern commentators, as Beza, Sanctius, Eisner, 
Barrington, and Heinrich, join i^ey^e^aro and h&. 
But (as Kypke observes) ots ^^^e^aro thus yields a 
very languid sense, and the trajectio is exceedingly 
harsh ; since not only are these words separated, 
but also the words ooy i^€7\^^aro and aTroo-ToXoiy. 
Utterly unauthorized, too, is the sense qtwd attinet 
ady which some ascribe to Sio^. Kuinoel follows the 
mode of construction adopted by Beza, Heumann, 
Kypke, Michaelis, and RosenmuUer, who place a 
comma after aTroerroXois', thus uniting hk irveviJiaro^ 
ayiou ^l^x^laro, and transposing only 069. This tra- 
jectio is, he thinks, the easiest, and, (since in what- 
ever way the words be taken, some trajeetio must be 
admitted) is, upon the whole, preferable. This 

Eunctuation is found in some MSS., and is confirmed 
y the Syriac, Arabic, and ^thiopic versions, as 
also Cyrill. Nor is the transposition unusual. Ex* 
amples of it are found in 3, 24. rpo^rai airl SajxotujX^ 
Koi rm KuBe^^i ocoi i\d%r^^av for 7rpo0^Tai 00-01 k. t. X. 
Joh. 9. 40. Cic. Verr. 8, 81. cum civitatibus^ fru*. 
jnentum, in cellam quod sumi oporteret, aestimavit. 

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ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES^ CHAP. U 6 

" Thus (continues Kuinoel) the words aTo<rToXoi^ 069 
SiA nv6u/xarof aylou 6^6X€^aT0 may be explained either 
* whom he had chosen by Divine impulse' (see the 
note on Matth. 4, 1 . Luke 4, 14), or * according to 
the Divine virtue and power, with which he had 
been endued, in order to the fitting them for their 
Apostolic office.* 'EvreiXajuievos', having given or- 
ders/ In ver. 3. (continues Kuinoel, from Bengel) 
Luke expresses generally what the Lord had said to 
the Apostles during those forty days : but at ver. 2. 
he adverts to what he had said on the day of ascen- 
sion. Therefore weiXa/xevoy must be referred to the 
things which are here mentioned, ver. 4. seqq. 

After all, however, the first mentioned mode of 
interpretation seems the most satisfactory, and, as 
being supported by the weighty authority of the 
ancient Fathers, may deserve the preference. Nor 
do I see how oSy €§€X€$aro can be thought super- 
fluous. This mode of interpretation is adopted, too, 
by Wetstein, who renders, * He issued his commands 
fry the Holy Spirit (i. e. a prophet predicting future 
events), that they should not depart from Jerusalem, 
but wait for the effusion of the Holy Spirit. (See 
infr. 11, 28. 21, 4. Heb. 11, 22. Gen. 18, 19. 47, 
33. 2 Sam. I7, 28. 2 Kings 20, 20.) Not as other 
men, who, at the approach of death, make their 
wills, wholly ignorant of the events which shall fall 
out.' This, however, though ingenious, is very pret- 
carious. Schoettgen observes that the whole will 
be clearer and less difficult, if the words Sia ^veuftaro^ 
ayiou be understood of the Divinity of Christ (on 
which he refers to his note on Rom. 1, 3.) ; since 
those things which Christ commanded and ordained, 
respecting the Church, he coinmanded and ordained, 
npt as a mere man, but as God, as King of the 
Church, who could, of his own proper authority, 
issue his commands with respect to it. 

Certainly we are not authorized to limit the term 
hr€iXot^€vt^9 Itaving issued his orders to any one order, 
but must apply it generally to any order which re- 
spected the right discharge of their Apostolic office. 

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P ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP* I. 

3. iy ^oXXoTs* r€/c/ti}gfoi^« Valckn. notices the differ* 
ence between (rijfitf la and rfKfjLrjpia, the former having 
a physical^ the latter a moral sense. Thus Antipp. 
ap. Ammon I27. says that past events obtain faith 
by o-i3ft€ia, that future ones are conjectured by t€k- 
fMipla. So Eurip. in GEnom. 1. (cited by Wets.) TeK- 
juuxipoofda To7y TrnegoSo'i r a^ayij. Aristol. Rhet. (cited 
by Wets.) explains T€K/t7)pia by o-ij/xeia apayKoia. 
And so Quint. Or. 5, 9. signa necessaria, i. e. im- 
portant ones. The words are, however, frequently 
confounded. Teic/xifpiov here signifies a clear, evident, 
certain sign. Thus Hesychius explains T€K|tti3gioy by 
(n}ft€7oy aXTjdey. Of this sense Kuinoel cites exam- 
ples J to which I add Thucyd. 1, 22. €K raiy eipTJiJLevwv 
r6Kfti}gicov. Many others also occur in that historian. 
JSschyL Ag. 843. TTKrrA reKiir^pia. 

The several appearances of' Christ during these 
forty days are thus detailed by Bp. Pearce : ** The 
first appearance of Christ was to Mary Magdalene 
and the other Mary. (Matth. 28, 1 — 9-) The second 
to the two disciples on their way to Emmaus. (Luke 
fi4, 15.) The third to Simon Peter. HLuke 24, 34.) 
The fourth to ten of the Apostles (Thomas being 
absent) Luke 24, 36. & Joh. 20, 19- Note, that all 
these four appearances were on the day of his resur* 
•rection. The fifth was to the eleven Apostles, Tho- 
mas being then with them. (Joh. 20, 26.; The sixth 
to seven of the Apostles in Galilee, at the sea of 
Tiberias. (Joh. 21, 4.) The seventh to James (1 
Cor. 15, 7-)> ™^s^ probably in Jerusalem, and when 
Jesus gave an order for all his Apostles to assemble 
themselves together^ as in Acts 1, 4.* 

3. iirrapoiuvo^. This is well explained by Hesy- 
chius €/t^ayi^oft€yo^. The word is almost confined to 
the sacred writers. It answers to the Heb. HMia in 
1 Kings 8, 8. Tob. 12, 19m and is found in two 

* 'fbe eighth, when they were as^mbled t(^ther, and when 
Jesus led them out as far as Bethany (Luke 24, 50), from whence 
he ascended into heaven : at which it seems to have been, that he 
Was B€6n by abo\'e five hundred brethren at once. (1 Cor, 16, 6,) 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. J 

MSS., as also in Eusebius and Num. 14, 14. It 
comes from oTxa/vco, and that from otttoi, to look at^ 
view. Schoef. ap. St. Thes. 6843, refers us to Hero- 
dian Epimer. 101. and Aristoph. Plut. p. 5. Edit. 
Hemsterhus. 

3. Si* iJjttepaJj/ T^ercrapaifoyTa, ** at intervals, during 
that period.'** Wetstein observes that the number 
forty was a holy number; and he refers to Num. 
14, 33 & 34., and Matth. 4, 2. " Christ (says he) 
lay forty hours in the sepulchre, and there were forty 
years to the destruction of Jerusalem.*' Kuinoel 
refers to a similar passage in 1 Sam. 17j.16. 

3. Xiywy TOL jr^pt Ttj^ &0L(n'K€ia9 roS 06oS. The v€p\ is 
almost pleonastic ; as in 28, 15 & 23. See the note 
on Mark 4, 19. By ^atrO^cia too 0eo5 is meant the 
ChrUtlan re/ig-iow, or, as Schoettgen explains it, Eccle- 
sia temporum Novi Testamenti, cujus Rex est ipse 
Christus, the Christian dispensation. '^Our Lord (says 
Schoettgen) conversed with his disciples during these 
forty days, on all matters relating to the Constitution 
of the Church to be planted and established among 
the Gentiles. And first concerning docttiney when he 
inculcated anew the instructions hitherto delivered 
to them, which, that they might not escape their 
memories, were afterwards confirmed at the effusion 
of the Holy Spirit. (See Joh. 14, 26.) He then also 
gave them injunctions concerning the rites and ce- 
remonies to be observed in the Church, as, for in- 
stance, in what manner the Sacraments were to be 
celebrated, the manner and time of assembling 
together, &c. For I must ever maintain that those 
rites which were now instituted in the Apostolic age, 
or altered from the hitherto accustomed ones, were 
so constituted by the injunctions of Christ himself. 
This is especially applicable to the alteration ot 

* It is well remarked by CEcomenius that here we have ^4' 
ilfiepiiy. Hot ir fifiipats : since the Lord did not abide with them 
continuallyf as he had done before the passion, but btcffraXfiirias, 
kfia fiky rol wo$€tvoT^pay aifrois r^y iavrov i^t^ayeiay irapaoKewd* 
^y, A/xa $e Koi to v^i^Xc^repov irai Ocowpeirkt ahrov efii^ciyi^wy. 



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8 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

the Jewish Sabbath to the Christian lA)rd^s day^ a 
change on which the Apostles would never have 
ventured, had it not been in obedience to the order 
of our Lord himself.'* Schoettgen. 

4. avvaXi^ofjievos TOjijyyeiXev auroiy, &c. Some 
MSS. have crwauXiJofA^yo^, which Wetstein supports, 
but upon insufficient grounds. The common read- 
ing, as it is the more difficult, so it seems to be the 
truer one. The words are often confounded in the 
Classical writers. Almost all critics, indeed, unite 
in retaining the common reading, but in the expla- 
nation of the word they are not agreed. Bois and 
others, cited by Wolf, as also Bolten (who compares 
Mark 16, 14. ovoic^iu^voiy avrotsi) render it convescens^ 
taking food with them ; which is supported by the 
Syriac, Vulgate, and Arabic versions ; as also by 
Chrysostom. They cite, too, Ps. 141, 4. where CDn7M 
is rendered by Amonius jxi} o-ut^xXio-dco, by Symmachus 
tf-tijti^aToifii. But this signification is unfrequent^ 
and not suitable to the context. For Jesus spoke 
what we read in ver. 4. on the very day of his ascen- 
sion, and not while they were at supper. Compare 
ver. 9.f and see the note on Mark 16, 14 & 19. 
]^l8ner explains crwaXiJofA^voy by * conveniens cum 
illis;* and compares Herodot. 1, 62. ouroi jttev ^ 
a-uin^y^iSoin-o & 5. 15. On account of the words of 
ver. 0. 01 ft€v ouv oweXfloWes', I assent to those who 
give ortivocXi^opEvo^ the sense of assembling : so that 
crvya^.i^ofi€vo^ (with ^ middle form and an active 
sense) may be rendered * and having gathered them 
together' (supplying aurovs). This sense of (rwa- 
^ifo) is frequent in the best Classical writers. See 
Alberti, Raphel, Kypke, Krebs., Wetstein, and the 
ancient Greek Lexicographers. (Kuin.) 

4. iiri )(€opi§€(r6pu airo *l6goo'oXu|xaiy, not to depart. 
Examples of this signification are adduced from the 
Classical writers by Eisner, Kypke, and Munth. 
** From this it appears (observes Heinrichs) that 
Christ meant the rays of the new light to go to all 
parts of the world from hence^ as from a centre.*' 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. I. 9 

Besides (as Rosenm. remarks) it was proper that these 
miracles should be exhibited at Jerusalem^ in order 
that the same persons who had been spectators of the 
ignominious death of Jesus, might now be convinced, 
by the most certain arguments, of his glorious life 
and majesty, not to mention the great number of 
people who had repaired thither to celebrate the fes- 
tival. n€pij(A€y€iv, wait for. So Thucyd. (cited by 
Wets.) 2, 8. ow 9r€pift(iW^ to a^i KopMou yauriic^ff. 

4. tVayyeX/av to5 irarpos. By this are to be under- 
stood the effects of Divine power, i. e. the faculties 
and strength necessary to perform their office, or the 
Divine power shewing its efficacy in them. See 
Job, 14, 16 & 17. where see the note. (Kuin.) *Hy 
i]icou<rar6 ftou. Here is an idiom common to the best 
writers : a transition of direct into oblique ; which 
is usually expressed by the insertion of tnquity said 
he. Examples are adduced by the Philologists. 
See Raphel, Wetstein, and Krebs. In the use of 
oKoieiv there is, too, another idiom, equally sanctioned 
by Classical authority. 'A*coo€iv not only signifies to 
hear any one, but, by the ellipsis of some preposi- 
tion, as xapA, €|, axo, &c., to hear /rom any one. 

5. 'JUoonnfjs* i^aTrritreif SSan, &c. Our Lord has 
reference to a saying of John the Baptist, not un- 
known to the Apostles, many of whom had been 
John's disciples- (See Job. 1, 33. and Matth. 3, 11.) 
By the TrveiiML must here be understood the efficacy, 
influence, or effects of Divine power, necessary for 
the discharge of their Apostolic functions ; and is 
further explained by the words hrayyO^ia toS trarpos : 
and this very €7rayy€Xia is by Luke 24, 49. explained 
the S'Wfti^ €| iA|/owy. Besides, at ver. 8. we have 
hr€\6ovTo^ ToS ayioti TV^Jftaroy €^* uju^r. Now this 
very formula i^eTieitrera^ cir) tre Trv^ofta ayiov is in 
Luke 1, 35. explained by himfn^ u^itrrotj hnirKiwr€$ 
froi. Bairri^^iy is figuratively used for plentifully 
imbue with, copiously supply. The sense of the pas- 
sage may therefore be thus expressed. * John only 



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10 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

dipped men in water, in order to collect followers 
for the Messiah ; but ye shall be imbued with the 
grace of the Holy Spirit, and thereby fitted for your 
Apostolic office.* (Kuin.) Here we may notice a 
change of construction, frequent in the best Greek 
writers, for ou xoXXa?? i^[jL€pal9 fxcra TatJra, of which 
several examples are produced by Kypke. 

6, 7* €7nipwTwu auTov, XfyovTcy — 'lo-pa^jX. EI (like 
the Heb. DM) has here, as often, the sense of whe- 
tfier. 'Ev TO) xpovv^ touto), at this time. It is well 
observed by Qlcomenius, that by the expression 
* Wilt thou at this time restore,' is indicated the 
anxiety with which they put the question. On 
*ATOKabitrrayai Heinrichs observes that it is a term 
often used of restoring ruined states to their original 
form of government : and he cites Polyb. 9, 30. to 
v&rpiov aTTCKarctrrritre TroX/r^ujtiia : though, as the same 
commentator remarks, something more than this is 
implied, namely, to form a perfect one ; which is 
confirmed by the gloss of Hesvchius, T€X€iWai. 
" The Apostles (observes Kuinoel; thought that the 
Jewish polity would by Christ be restored to its 
original state, nay, raised to a far more splendid 
one. This deeply rooted prejudice of the earthly 
kingdom of the Messiah, though shaken and weak- 
ened by the death of Christ, at his return to life 
received new strength, and greater confirmation, 
flence when Jesus had directed them not to depart 
from Jerusalem, but there expect the promise of 
the Father, they immediately imagined that Jesus 
would forthwith establish that kingdom which they 
so anxiously expected." Kypke observes, that they 
not only thought that the kingdom of Judaea would 
be restored in the utmost extent which it had ever 
reached, but perhaps imagined that a spiritual king- 
dom of Christ would be therewith conjoined, in 
which the Jews would enjoy peculiar privileges, so 
that then, the Theocracy being restored, and th^ 
observance of the Levitical Law retained, the Gen- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. I. 11 

files, who should submit themselves to the govern* 
ance of King Messiah, would be compelled first to 
embrace Judaism* 

The opinion of Lightfoot and others, who recog- 
nize in these words somewhat of indignation (q. d. 
* Wilt thou then restore the kingdom ttf those Jews 
who have crucified thee?*) is too improbable and 
ill founded to deserve any attention. The common 
interpretation is the more natural and agreeable to 
the context, and is supported by the authority of 
the ancient commentators. Of the modern ones it 
is adopted by Bp. Pearce. 

7. oi;^ J/uSy €(m yvcSyai ^povou^ r^ icaipou^, non ves* 
trum est, ** it does not lie under your province, it is 
not for you,*' &c. Between the words XP^^^^ ^^^ 
KOLif^s there is properly this distinction; namely, 
that the former denotes time in general, the latter a 
point of time, a fair occasion, opportunity for any 
purpose. Here, however, they seem to be synony* 
mous*. See Koppe on 1 Thess. 5, 1. Dan. 2, 21. 
7, 12. where W'^aon M'^aiy is rendered by the Sept. 
/taipowy Kcti j(jpoyot}9. And in the present passage i} 
seems to have the force of Kcti. (Kuin.) This wears 
the air of a popular, and perhaps proverbial saying, 
applied properly to private soldiers, who, as they 
know not the seasons and opportunities for battle, 
of which their general alone can judge, ought not to 
pry into, but acquiesce in, his counsels and plans. 
Dulkley here compares Hom. II. L. 1. v. 545 seqq. 
"Hpij, jxij Sij iravras ifjLoh^ hrU'KTrea ftudoo^ Ei8rJo-€iy ya- 
T^erroi toi Jctovt*, aXo;^o> yrep ^otJcryj. Stat. Thebaic! L. 
S. Unde iste per orbem rrimus venturi miseris ani- 
mantibus aeger Crevit amor? divum ne feras hoc 
munus an ipsi gens avida, et parto non unquam stare 

* H. Stephens and Valckn., however, render the words ' oppor- 
tuno6 tetnporum articulos ;* and the latter observes that Luke might. 
have written xp^yov Kaipovs, as Soph. £1. 1306. Yet I remember 
DO proee writer who has so written It seems poetical, and may 
b^ numbered with those pe<;uliar phrases in which Sophocles is so 
abundant. 



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12 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

quieti? Eruimus quas prima dies; ubi terminus 
ssvi ; Quid bonus ille deum genitor ; quid ferrea 

clotho Cogitet Sylvas amor unus humumque 

edorouisse manu : quid crastina volveret aetas scire 
nefas homini. Nos pravum ac debile vulgus. Scru- 
tamur penitus superos. 

7. •'EOcro ^v Tfj Mia i^outrioL. The E. V. has * put 
into his power :* Doddridge renders * reserved in 
his own power,* which sense, however, the Greek 
word will not admit, though it is certainly more 
intelligible than the version * put into his own 
power.' It rather signifies to alter^ plan, destiney 
determine^ appoint : and then eu r^ i^outria will have 
the sense of * according to his own authority.* So 
the words are explained by Kypke, whose interpreta- 
tion has been adopted by most recent commentators. 
Our Lord does not return a direct answer to their 
question, since such an answer was not necessary to 
them: he rather tells them what is really of import- 
ance for them to know. For, as Chrysostom ob- 
serves, SiSowicaXoti TouTo ^crri [itj a jSotJx^Tai lut^r^Sf 
aXX* a truffL^ip^i ftaden/, hloutrK^iv. He knew that their 
minds were not yet thoroughly prepared to under- 
stand the nature of the heavenly kingdom (see Job. 
16, IS. seqq.), and that nothing would remove their 

Prejudices but the illumination of the Holy Spirit, 
[e therefore, on bidding them farewell, was pleased 
not entirely to destroy their vain hopes, and yet not 
give them countenance. His words, however fas 
Bp. Pearce observes), seem to imply that, when the 
Holy Ghost was come upon them, they should then 
know the nature of his kingdom : and till that time 
they appear not to have known it. 

8. aXKk. The particle aXxA has here a very el- 
liptical use. Heinrichs^ renders it genug, enough, 
let this suffice^ referring this to what was promised 
in ver. 5., namely, that the^ should be endued with 
the power of the Holy Spirit. At/va|xiy here relates 
to those high spiritual endowments necessary to the 
discharge of their Apostolic office, including a per- 



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ACTS OP THE APOSTLES» CHAP. U 13 

feet knowledge of Christianity, zeal, and perseve- 
rance in the propagation, and unshaken constancy 
in the profession of it. By the words ^v irourji ry 
*Io(/8aia are meant every region ofJudsea, including 
Galilee. Of Xa/x^aveiv Suva/xiv Wetstein produces 
many examples. 

8. ?a>y €(rj(^oLroo r^9 y^y- Some commentators 
subaud p^pof, which is sometimes supplied. (See 
the examples of Munthe and Wetstein ; as Herodot. 
8, 25. on €9 Tot itryara y>}y ?jX€XX€ (rTpaT€\i€(rdai.) 
They remark, too, on the omission of the article ; in 

" which, however, they seem not to have been aware 
that there is an Hellenistic idiom. It was a Hebrew 
formula, expressing the whole world ; as in Ps. 19, 
5. Is. 49> 6. The expression must not be too much 
pressed ; since it may merely denote a considerable 
part of the civilized world. 

9. 0X€xoWo)i/ atjTwv hnipdr^. 'E^'^ is equivalent 
to the av€XiJ^9i3 €iy tov otJ^avov of Luke 24, 51. BX€. 
vovTov avrm is rendered by Valckn. quum totd facie 
converse spectarent recedentem. 

9. fcai ye<p€7v7) tnr4'Ka&€v airov a. a. r. o. a. Kuinoel 
takes Ka) in the sense ofenim ; and in the same light 
it seems to have been considered by Wetstein, who 
cites Herodot. 1, 24. tov 8^ SeA^im Xeyouo-i uvo'ka^rrci 
€§€y6Mcai €x) Ta/vagov, and Hesych. i^^XajBcv, fix^S^^aro. 
So Plutarch p. 985. (tited by Kypke) ^fX^^iWv uxoXa- 
|3oWa>v Koi avavrj^aii€ifa)9. ApoUodor. Bibl. 2, 7. icaio- 
fxevijy Si T^y Ttvpa^ X^yerai v€^09 wwrrop [j^t^ ^povrilf 
airiv [rh HpoicX^a] ch oigaviv avaTfft\|/ai. Thus Bp. 
Pearce renders, * and a cloud supported him out of 
their sight.' De Dieu, too, takes it for dv^XaScv. 
Yet it seems better to render, with Beza, Piscator, 
Valckn., and Kuinoel, susceptum abstulit, abduait, 
or subduxit. Into the particular mode of the ascen- 
sion it seems not advisable, with the German Theo- 
logians, too curiously to pry. 

Valckn. observes that what is here truly said of 
Jesus, was by the ancients falsely attributed to many 
of their heroes ; examples of which are adduced by 
Eisner. 

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14 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

10. W9 ar€yl^ovT€9 ^crav €iy rov oopavov. Oil the sense 
of Arcvijfiv see the note on Luke 22, 54. Notwith- 
standing what Kuinoel and others urge, arwjovrfp 
must be conjoined with eh rov oupaulv, and not with 
TTopejoijJpou auToG, rendered by Kuinoel postquam 
abierit: which seems harsh. Wetstein cites Anti- 
pater ap. Stob. p. 418. ar€vi§€^v €19 to efi^irpwr^ev rou 
0/ow. 1 add a more apposite passage from Arat. 
Phoenom. 128. where, speaking of justice leaving the 
earth, and ascending to heaven, he says : tous* S' a^a 
cif jolutt^v in Ta/xxav iT^iiKircufe iraTrraivovra^. So also 
Sil. Ital. L. 13. (cited by Bulkley.) His l«ti rediere 
duces loca amoena piorum ; Prosequiturque oculis 
puer adveneratus euntes. 

11. T« itm^Kare iii^T^ex-ovre^ cly oupavov. The wor4 
ItrroLvou not unfrequently, as here, has a conjunct no- 
tion of amazement, &c.; which is, however, some- 
times expressed by words added, kut e^yritrivi as 
in Aristot. Polit. 3. (cited by Wets.) etrroucevai kcH 
epurXriKTov etvai. And Aristoph. cited by Valck. tj 
TcamryeT oivhp€9 ; ecrrar iK T€TXi)y(A€voi. 

12. 'ExoioiMoy. On these forms in tov consult Bp. 
Blomfield on iEschyl. Prom. 667, and Agam. 235. 
The learned Prelate, with great probability, conjec- 
tures that this form was derived from the genitive 
plural of the noun in the nominative. Valcknaer too 
remarks that this form has a coHective force^ and has 
a sense of plenty. The student may with advantage 
consult his note, in which he givesc many examples 
of this. 

12. (rafi^oLTQu €;^ov oSoV, ''E^w is put for aWp^ov, 
being distant. 80 the best Commentators, from 
Chrysostom downwards. This signification occurs 
not only in the best Classical writers, of which ex- 
amples are given by Kypke and Alberti, (see also 
St Thes.) but also in Luke 24, 1*3. This distance 
consisted of two hundred cubits, or paces, or seven 
stadia and a half. (See Luke 24, 13. Joh. 11, 18. and 
the note.) This space had been determined, not by 
any positive injunction of the Mosaic I«aw, but by 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 15 

the decision of the Rabbis. (See Lightfoot in loc.) 
The distance of the Mount of Olives from Jerusa- 
lem is variously calculated ; sometimes at only six, 
or even five stadia; but either of the distances 
might be correct, according to the particular point 
of Jerusalem, and of the mountain reckoned from. 

13. au€0>)erav €iy to uTrcpfSov. The word uTrepwo^, 
which often occurs in the Greek writers, (see Wet- 
stein's examples,) is properly an adjective, signifying 
vpper, elevated* J and requires the subaudition of 
oiKYjfxaj which is supplied in Lucian, As. 45. (cited 
by Wets.) ico|x/^ot;<ny avo) tcS KTSfxaKi eiy a^tic^ux, oxepioaif. 
The question however is, whether we are here to 
understand it of an upper apartment in the Temple, 
or of a private house. The lormer opinion is adopted 
by De Dieu, Hammond, Schoettgen, Vitringa, and 
Krebs, in support of which they appeal to Luke 20, 
.50. Acts 2, 46. Now that there were upper rooms 
in the Temple for various religious uses, there is no 
reason to doubt, (see Jos. Ant. 15, 5. Selden de Syn. 
1279, and Vitringa de Synag. 1, 6.) but that any 
one was /car €^o)(r^¥ called rh uVcpcoov, is more than 
can be proved ; and it is difficult to conceive how 
such comparatively private apartments should have 
been conceded by the Jewish magistracy, and for 
such a use, to a few poor Galilaeans. As to the 
passages of Luke 24, 58. and Acts 2, 46. I agree 
with Kuinoel, that they are not of such a nature as 
to compel us to think of any such apartment of the 
Temple. There seems therefore no reason to aban- 
don the antient and commonly received opinion, 
that this was a large upper apartment of some prU 

* So Dionys. Hal. 659, M. Mpwp fiky ra Kara yeia Xayxavov 
rutvt irepm hk ra virepfa. This word had been considered by all 
Commentators as a compound, until L. Bus discovered that it was a 
simple. Valck. compares Horn. II. /3. 514. IlapBiyos aiSo(rf Wc- 
pkHoy eloayafidffa, and observes that this form is frequent in the 
Odyssey. 'Yirepui'loy, (continues he,) contracted to vn-epfov, is an 
adjective signi^ing nothing more than superlus. We have the 
full form vTrepdiioy, superius conclave, which is found in Pollux, L. 
1. s. 81, where by hvepfa olKfifiara are meant concUtoia superiora. 



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16 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

vate house, at which (as some think) there had been 
held a private synagogue of the Galilaeans. Be that, 
however, as it may, it is certain that upper apart- 
ments were, in the houses both of the Greek and 
Oriental nations, so constructed as to serve for the 
purposes of dining-rooms, parlours, apartments for 
taking exercise, &c. and from their stillness and pri- 
vacy, were often appropriated, as oratories, to the 
purposes of united and family worship, or religious 
retirement and private prayer. Michaelis compares 
the Arabian Alegan. On the names see Matt. 10, 
2, seqq. After laicco^ou subaud aleT^^h^ which is a 
somewhat unfrequent ellipsis. See Luke 6, 16. Jud. 
1. Ale. 2, 2. where see Bogler., and Eurip. Iph. A. 
768. See also Wess. on Diodor. Sic. 1, 312. all re- 
ferred to by Kuinoel. 

14. irpo<rKaoTapo\ipT€9 Jjttodu/xaSiv tyj ir^otrevyri. Here 
are three things to be observed: first, the syntax 
and sense of xpoo-ica^apcTv, which carries a dative, 
and is used both with a persofij in the sense of to be 
bj/y to wait upon any one, (as in Acts 8, 13. 10, 7* 
Demosth. 386, 6.) and with a thing; but chiefly 
with the latter^ and, from the adjunct, signifies to 
apply oneself closely to any thing. This use is com- 
mon both to the Scriptures (as 2, 42. Rom. I7, 12. 
Col. 4, 2. Acts 6, 4.) and to the Classical writers ; 
examples of which may be seen in Schl. Lex. Se- 
condly, we may observe the use of the participle and 
auxiliary verb instead of the imperfect; a periphra- 
sis very frequent, especially in the later Greek wri- 
ters. Kuinoel refers to the numerous examples 
brought together by Fischer on Weller, T. 3. P. 2. 
p. 4. 'OjxoduftaS^ is a word frequently used by St. 
Luke, and once by St. Paul, in Rom. 15, 6. It not 
unfrequently occurs in the Sept. simply in the sense 
of together; as in Num. 24, 24. ical ouro) oftoOufiuxSov 
aTToXouvrai, and Jos. Ant. 15, 8, 2. ojcxodtijxaS^v e^jBo^oy. 
It is explained by the Gloss, vett. simul, and by 
Suidas and Hesychius o/cxoS or oft(A|/u;^a>^. It occurs 
not unfrequently in the Classical writers, of which 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. IJ 

examples are adduced by Wets. T. % 93. from Xen. 
Hist. 7. Herodot. 2, 3, 6. Demosth. Phil. 4. Philo 
2, 92, & 102. and Liban. Or. 446 b. 

The word SeijVei is nearly synonymous with the 
preceding wporr^uyjy but I cannot see on what prin- 
ciple it has been expunged from the text by Gries- 
bach and Heinrichs. It carries every mark of ge- 
nuineness, even in that pleonastic use which is so 
characteristic of the Oriental and Hellenistic style, 
and of which we have examples in Eph. 6, 18. Phil. 
4, 6, By the yuvaTicey are not merely meant (as 
some have supposed) the wives of the Apostles and 
brethren of our Lord, (otherwise, as Wolf observes, 
auTwp would have been added,) but the women gene- 
rally, including those who had followed our Lord 
out of Galilee, "and ministered unto him of their 
substance," (see Matt. 27, 55. Luke 8, 2, & 3. 24, 
XO.) and who (as Kuinoel observes) had joined them- 
selves to the Apostles with so much the more de- 
corous propriety, since the Mother of Jesus did her-» 
self form a part of their body, as having her abode 
with John. By Jesus's brethren being mentioned, 
it is clear that they were now faithful believers, 
however they had formerly been induced to doubt 
of his Messiahship, and were swayed by worldly 
minded views. See the note on Joh. 7, 3. 

15. From this verse to the end of the chapter, we 
have the exhortation of Peter to the Apostles to 
choose another in the room of Judas Iscariot, and 
the result of that choice. By fxadTjrai we are to un* 
derstand, not the Apostles only, but the Disciples in 
general. By ovo/xara are meant persons^ men; as in 
Apoc. 3, 4. €)(€i9 oKiyoL oyojttara. Examples of thia 
idiom are given by Glass, Phil. 896., Raphel in loc.^ 
Suic. Thes. 2, 492., and Wetstein ; as Polyb. 1426. 
fjM^Tupiai^ 8€ x^P^^ wxoXoyoSjxeva Suo ovojxara. Nor is 
it unknown to the Latin writers ; as in Ovid, A. 2,; 
1, 35. Heroum clara valete nomina. Stat. Theb. 6^ 
S73. Quisnam iste duos, fidissima Phoebo. Nomina^ 
commisit Deus in discrimina reges? I add, Hor. 

VOL. IV. c 



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18 ACTS ^F THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

Carm. 3, 1, 16. Omne capax movent urna nomen. See 
Gronov. on Li v. 1, 3. After hii rl odtrl subaud 
Xoopm or oTiojfjLa. It however simply denotes toge- 
ther, and is explained by Hesych. SftoG, with wliicli 
also it is interchanged in the various Greek versions 
of the Old Testament. This expression (which is 
often used by St. Luke) may indicate identity of 
time, or of place, or purposes and views ; as in S, 44. 
(where see the note,) and perhaps on the present 
occasion the latter may be associated with the for- 
mer. By the op^xoi, &c. is merely meant the number 
of disciples then present, out of a far more consider- 
able number, (upwards of six hundred,) most of 
whom had remained in Galilee after the Lord's as- 
scension : and as to the number assembled for pub- 
lic worship, it would vary according to circum- 
stances. 

16. &yi(^€$ a%Os.^f^. See the note on ver. 11. *'E8£i 
TXi}pa)d7]vai — Tov *Ii3ero5y. Some Theologians, as Dr. 
Sykes, Eckerman, and others, ioin xXt^^d^vai with 
ir^pi louSa. But the sense thus elicited is neither per- 
mitted by the context nor by the ustis loquendi ; 
since the phrase TXtjgcod^vai v^oi ri^ls, for €v\ or h 
Tim, is utterly unauthorized. Nor can I assent to 
Wolf and Eckerman, that Peter had reference to 
Ps. 41, 9 & 10. since there is no vestige of any such 
allusion in the context : whereas, from ver. 20 it is 
plain that the Apostle had in mind Ps. 49, 25. and 
109, 8. ; and though there are many parts of both 
those Psalms which are not to be confined to Judas, 
but are more applicable to David, yet it is plain, 
from the Apostle's words, that some passages of 
these Psalms were mes^nt to have reference to Judas 
primarily, though not to the exclusion of David. 
Kuinoel, and other commentators, have recourse to 
what is called accommodation. But, upon the whole, 
it seems safer to conclude, with Dr. Doddridge, 
that while David prophesied of the calamities which 
should befal his persecutors, it was revealed to hinrr 
by the Holy Spirit, that the enemies and murderers 



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ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 19 

of the Messiah should inherit those curses in ail 
their terror, and be yet more miserable than the per-* 
sons on whom they were more immediately to fall. 
This fact (in itself exceeding probable) he takes to be 
asserted in these words, as what was revealed by the 
same Spirit to the Apostle Peter. After having, 
for their consolation, reminded them of this proi- 
phecy, Peter begins to disclose his intentions more 
clearly. 

17» oTi KaTripihiLrifi€vo9 ^v cruv iJaTi/. Wetstein ad- 
duces two examples of icara^idfA^oi, the one without 
the preposition, tlie other with [Kera. *Ev would 
have been more elegant ; and indeed it is so written 
in the Cod. Cant. In all the manuscripts, however, 
in which it is found, it cannot but be considered as a 
gloss* Kuinoel renders Jri quamquam; as in Luke 
11,25., and refers to his note on Joh. 5, 25., and 
Glass, Phil. 5, 31. Markland renders it because; 
but the former signification, though soipewhat rare, 
seems more agreeable to the context. 

icai €Xa;^€ roy icX^pov r. S. t. Xay^wf^w properly 
denotes to receive by lot ; as in Luke 1, 9-9 and then 
to obtain, receive; as in Xen. Anab. S, 1, 9. Thus 
KTsx^po^y which properly signifies lot, or what happens 
by lot, is transferred to whatever in any way happens 
to any one, and is used of possession of weallJi or 
property, especially in land^ since such possessions 
were anciently divided among colonists by lot; as in 
Hesiod Opp. 341. where see Graevius, and Eisner on 
ver. 25. It is also used of labour enjoined on any 
one in Polyb. 837. See Raphel in loc. Here icX^poy 
does not designate lot in the same sense with Siaicoy/ot 
apostolical ministry, and is therefore redundant. 
(Kuin.) It is however, (I conceive,) not so much 
redundant, as it denotes generally appointment. 
Hence the word Clericus. See Walchins in a learned 
dissertation De munere Apostolico. Wetstein illus- 
trates this sense of hajcovia by citing the following 
words of Machines Ctesiph. o<ra n^ aloerhs Tparni 

c2 



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18 ACTS ^F THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

Carm. 3, 1, 16. Omne capax movent urna nomen. See 
Gronov. on Liv. 1, 3. After enr\ rl axnl subaud 
Xpoptov or oIkviiml. It however simply denotes toge- 
iher, and is explained by Hesych. ofto5, with which 
also it is interchanged in the various Greek versions 
of the Old Testament. This expression (which is 
often used by St. Luke) may indicate identity of 
timey or of place, or purposes and views ; as in 2, 44. 
(where see the note,) and perhaps on the present 
occasion the latter may be associated with the for- 
mer. By the op^Xoi, &c. is merely meant the number 
of disciples then present y out of a far more consider- 
able number, (upwards of six hundred,) most of 
whom had remained in Galilee after the Lord's as- 
scension : and as to the number assembled for pub- 
lic worship, it would vary according to circum- 
stances. 

16. &vdp€9 aS€X4>o^. See the note on ver. 11. ^'ESei 
TXi)pa)d7]vai — riv 'IijeroGv. Some Theologians, as Dr. 
Sykes, Eckerman, and others, ioin xXi^^d^jvai with 
Tcpi loJSa. But the sense thus elicited is neither per- 
mitted by the context nor by the u.nis loquendi ; 
since the phrase TXtjgoifl^i^ai v^oi ri^^^ for M or €v 
Tiva, is utterly unauthorized. Nor can I assent to 
Wolf and Eckerman, that Peter had reference to 
Ps. 41, 9 & 10. since there is no vestige of any such 
allusion in the context : whereas, from ver. 20 it is 
plain that the Apostle had in mind Ps. 49^ 25. and 
109, 8. ; and though there are many parts of both 
those Psalms which are not to be confined to Judas, 
but are more applicable to David, yet it is plain, 
from the Apostle's words, that some passages of 
these Psalms were meant to have reference to Judas 
primarily, though not to the exclusion of David. 
Kuinoel, and other comnientators, have recourse to 
what is called accommodation. But, upon the whole, 
it seems safer to conclude, with Dr. Doddridge, 
that while David prophesied of the calamities which 
should befal his persecutors, it was revealed to him 
by the Holy Spirit, that the enemies and murderers 



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ACTS OF TUB APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 19 

of the Messiah should inherit those curses in ail 
their terror, and be yet more miserable than the per-* 
sons on whom they were more immediately to fall. 
This fact (in itself exceeding probable) he takes to be 
asserted in these words, as what was revealed by the 
same Spirit to the Apostle Peter. After having, 
for their consolation, reminded them of this pro^* 
phecy, Peter begins to disclose his intentions more 
clearly. 

17* oTi ican]pidftt]f4€yof ^v trhv r^uAif. Wetstein ad- 
duces two examples of icara^id/x^o), the one without 
the preposition, the other with ftcrot. 'Ev would 
have been more elegant; and indeed it is so written 
in the Cod. Cant. In all the manuscripts, however, 
in which it is found, it cannot but be considered as a 
gloss* Kuinoel renders on quamquam; as in Luke 
11, 25., and refers to his note on Joh. 5, 25., and 
Glass, Phil. 5,31. Markland renders it because: 
but the former signification, though soipewhat rare, 
seems more agreeable to the context. 

Kcti €Xa;f€ Tov icX^pov r. S. t. Aay;^av€iy properly 
denotes to receive by lot ; as in Luke 1, 9-9 and then 
to obtain, receive; as in Xen. Anab. S, 1, 9. Thus 
icX^pos*, which properly signifies lot, or what happens 
by lot, is transferred to whatever in any way happens 
to any one, and is used of possession of weallJi or 
property, especially in land^ since such possessions 
were anciently divided among colonists by lot; as in 
Hesiod Opp. 341. where see GraBvius, and Eisner on 
ver. 25. It is also used of labour enjoined on any 
one in Polyb. 837. See Raphel in loc. Here icX^poy 
does not designate lot in the same sense with Siojcovio, 
apostolical ministry^ and is therefore redundant. 
(Kuin.) It is however, (I conceive,) not so much 
redundant, as it denotes generally appointment. 
Hence the word Clericus. See Walchius in a learned 
dissertation De munere Apostolico. Wetstein illus- 
trates this sense of haKona by citing the following 
words of ^schines Ctesiph. Ztra rt^ cdo^rls Tparrii 

c2 



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60 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. 

Kara ^/^Kr/uta, oi/c eerri radra ap;^, aXX* fTTijxeAcia ^ai 

. 18, 19. I assent to Kuinoel, Rosenm., and Hein- 
richs, that these verses are parenthetical, and come 
from St. Luke, not St. Peter. I cannot, however, 
but censure the rashness of Dr. Owen, who would 
entirely cancel them, as if there were any MS. au- 
thority for the omission, and the sacred writers were 
not accustomed to make such explanatory insertions^ 
The words themselves 7rgi}vi5y yevojExevoy involve some 
difficulty, which has, however, been at large exa- 
mined, and, as far as the case admits, adjusted in 
the note on Matth. 27. 5. Kypke compares a simi- 
lar passage of Joseph. B. 7j 5, Koi Trraia-as ^g oy riva 
irerpap wpviyfjg hr* atrnj^ [Ji>€ra jULeyiVrou \|/o^ou icMreV€<r6i«. 
The word Xa/c^co seems to be an onomatopoeia, like 
crepOf crack, \t/o4>€co, &c., and denotes the sound 
emitted by the bursting of any vessel ; and 2dly, the 
bursting itself (with which our leak and lack appear 
to be cognate). Of the numerous passages heaped 
together by Wetstein, the only apposite ones are the 
foflowing. ^lian H. A. 4, 52. -^Sij Se Koi Imrwp orXfu- 
pou9 ii>'T€(rivT€9 84€<r;jj«<rav, KCii rot enrXayp^va €^€j^€olu. 
Cholin, f. 56y 2» Aramaeus quidam vidit hominem, 
qui de tecto in plateam decidit, et ruptus est ejus 
venter, et viscera ejus effluxerunt. 

As to the difficulty involved in iKn^traro x^P^^t 
which seems at variance with what we learn in the 
Gospels, namely, of Judas's having thrown down 
the thirty pieces of silver to the piiests, many com- 
mentators, as Whitby and Doddridge, remark, that 
an action is sometimes said in Scripture to be done 
by a person who was the occasion of dowg it, and 
they compare Gen. 42, 38. Exod. 23, 8. 1 Kings 14, 
16. Isa. 6, 10. Jer. 38, 23. Rom. 14, 15. 1 Cor. 7, 
16. 1 Tim. 4, 16. But I should rather be inclined 
to prefer treating this as sl Jigurative catachresis, 
by which Judas might be said to have bought the 
field with the wages of iniquity, by receiving such 
wages as would have bought the field. So 2 Kings, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, I. SI 

Sj'96. ** Was this a time to receive money, and gar- 
ments, and olive-yardsy and vineyards^ and sheep, 
and oxen, and men'Servants, and maid-servants ;*' i. e. 
the money and vests wherewith this might be pur* 
chased. So in a passage of Achmet Oneirocrit; 
cited by Lampe on Joh. 2, 6L5. on the interpretation 
of dreams : " Si quis viderit, quod invenerit vel 
em^rit plurimas oves lac praebentes : inveniet opes 
et gaudium et servos pro ipsarum ovium numero.'* 
Heinsius, and many critics, would take it to mean 
possessed the field by being buried in it ; and to 
this tend most of the passages adduced by Wet- 
stein : but it seems too strained an interpretation to 
deserve any attention, not to say that the fact itself 
needs confirmation. On the fJna-Qou ri}? aSix/a^ com- 
pare 2 Pet 2, 15. Gen. 23, 4. 

20. yeygaxrai yap ey ^i^Titp — awT^. The words 
are taken from Ps. 69, 26. but are slightly accommo* 
dated by Peter to the purpose of his discourse. In 
the Sept. it is rendered yevijO^ra) >j e^auTuy awrwp 
Tqfrifiwi*,€vri Ka] ev rtHf (riC9]ya>|ui.a(riv atirciif [Jly^ eerrco o koto*- 
KwJy. The last words of the verse are taken verbatim 
from Ps. 109, 8. where eTrauXis* answers to the Heb. 
rpn2, which properly signifies a shepherd's hut, with 
the ericlosed cattle-yard, and also generally a habi- 
tation of any kind. Thus Hesychius not only ex- 
plains the word by ftavSga fiowv and TroifucnKT} auX^, 
but oiicijfAa, auX^g, and even a-rparoTreha, and the 
Scholiast on Apol. Rhod. 1, 800. oJicia. Hence 
come the Latin aula and caula, which were originally 
the same sense : though, as Valcknaer well observes, 
" omnibus Linguis verba valent usu, ut numi." 
" Therefore from the rustic hut (continues he) the 
:8vord was transferred to other habitations : fox all 
men wete originally rustics and shepherds." 

The former words (says Kuin.) cannot well be 
appUed to Judas, but rather seem to be a figurative 
way of expressing the general sense " may he utterly 
perish 1" since a deserted bouse is a very lively 
image of complete destruction. The passage of 



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fZii ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. t. 

Rom. 11, 9. may be similarly interpreted. The 
latter words, from Ps. 109, 8., are referable to Judas 
fas well as to David — Edit.] in their literal sense. 
Erifl^icawn} in the Sept. answers to the Heb. mpD, 
which denotes any office committed to one's ad- 
ministration. (Kuin.) 

21. At Twv (ruveXdoWoiy dySgov subaud €k. The 
word a-tjvep^ca-dat denotes union and society, and 
answers to the Heb. ^OTT in Symmachus's version of 
Gen. 14, 3. Besides the twelve Apostles, it must be 
remembered, Jesus had chosen the seventy Disciples 
(see Luke 10.), who are especially alluded to in 
these words. 

In €i(r^xflf tea) ^fijxOc we have an Hebrew formula, 
J1M21 M')3, which is used of those who sojourn or 
abide with any one. So Acts 9« 28. " versatus est 
cum nobis et inter nos. But it is also applied to 
the whole life, actions, and pursuits (as in Ps. 121, 
8. Deut. 28, 19.)> especially administration of office ; 
as in Deut. 31, 2. 1 Par. 1, 10. See the note on 
Joh. 10, 9. Now since there follow the words ap^a- 
fievor awl ToS, &c. Which seem to have reference to 
the commencement of Christ's ministry* (see Luke 
3, 23.), both these senses may be united. The 
phrase, too, is obviously elliptical, for ^io^xO^y ^* 
tjfxay Koi e^^^ev i(p* >j*juia)v; as in Eurip. Phoen. 536. 
i9 otKOfJ9 €i<r^x6€ Ko^xfle. (Heinrichs, Kuinoel, and 
Valckn.) On the phrase Wetstein refers to Deut. 
28, 6. 31, 2. 2 Par. 1, 10. 23, 7- 1 Par. 2?, 1. 
Num. «7. 17 & 21. 1 Sam. 18, IS & 16. 1 Kings 3, 
7. 15, 17. Zach. 8, 10. Ps. 121. 1 Joh. 10, 9. 

22. oltI to5 3aTTi<r|ti.aro$' ^Iwikvyw, J'rom the baptism 
of John : for at that time Jesus entered upon his 
office, and from thence began to collect disciples. 
See Matt. 4, 17. Joh. 1, 40. 'H|tx«>ay ^y is for 7). 
Mapruga r^y avourrourew?, witness of his resurrection. 
To the resurrection of Jesus, as testifying himself 

* There is a similar expression in Phil. V. Ap. 1. 24, ol bi 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. I. 23 

of it, the Apostles are accustomed to appeal. See 
1 Cor. 15, 14. Hence the doctrine of the resurrec* 
tion of Jesus is mentioned in the place of all the 
other heads of Christian doctrine; and therefore 
the words jxafrx^pa r^y avourraa-etos 'Iijcrowy signify, in 
general, a fundamental point of Christian doctrine* 
"Eva rouroiy must be referred to the preceding raJy 
tf-uf^cXdoVrcoy, &c. which sorts of hyperhaton are not 
unusual to the Classical writers. See Raphel. (Kuin.) 
It is observed by CBcumenius that they did not 
set up more than two, lest they might increase the 
chagrin consequent on rejection. But this seems 
doubtful. Doddridge has, with more judgment, re- 
marked that "they might reasonably and modestly 
conclude that it was fit the number of Apostles 
which Christ first chose should be kept up, perhaps 
in allusion to the twelve tribes of Israel. But it is 
impossible, as well as quite unnecessary, that w^ 
i&hould, at this distance of time, be able to assign a 
reason why the two that are afterwards mentioned, 
and no more, were proposed as candidates." 

24. Kaf^myytSa-roLy a discerner of the heart. So the 
Heb. 17 "Ipn has answering to it in the Sept. ira^coy 
KCL^lias, Jer. 17, 10. and Joh. 7, 20. See Philo ap. 
Pricaeum. The same name is ascribed to God, 
infra 15, 18. and is especially applicable to Him, 
since any knowledge of the heart of others must to 
men be very imperfect. It is well remarked by 
Chrysostom, that they do not say €/cXe|ai (chuse), 
but amSei|oy rlv ii^eyevra. " For every thing (adds 
he) has been known and determined by God before 
it had entered into the thoughts of men.*' So Jo- 
seph. A. 6, 5, 6. (cited by Wets.) 67(0 aev axeSci^a 
toStov, ov oJroy [0 Ocis-j €^€X^^aro. Plin. Trajan. 
Paneg. 94. In consilio sis eligenti, monstresque 
idiquem, quem adoptari in Capitolio deceat. 

25. rw KXriqw nq^ hutKovioLg, the appointment to 
tliis ministry. Aioicov/a and aTooroX-^ are by Gro- 
tius taken bty an Hendiadis, for SioKowa axoG-roXiiei^- 
.In vap4^ thferels an Hellenistic idiom j for though 



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24 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. 1. 

7ra^aiSdiv6*v means, by a subaudition of 08^, to go out 
of the road, yet, when the substantive is expressed, 
it is always put in the accusative, not, as here, in the 
genitive, with the preposition k. We have a similar 
use in Exod. 82, 8. and Deut. 9, 22. where xapa^al- 
v€iv €K rijf o5o3 answers to the Heb. y)D. Het^ the 
expression ficfuratively denotes desertion of oflRce. 

25. IIogfu9^j/ai eiy rov tottov riv ?5iof. In deter- 
mining the sense of these words, commentators are 
not a little divided in opinion. Some refer them to 
Judas, others to l)is successor in the Apostolic oflSce. 
Those who maintain the latter opinion (as Knatch- 
t>ull, Hammond, Homberg, Heumann, Kypke),urge, 
in the first place, that the words depend on the verb 
XaSeTv, that the formula '§ ^y wape^ 'lotJoa^ is to be 
•included in a parenthesis, and the word rwroy to be 
tak^n of office : and they determine the sense to be 
^s follows : ** Ut occupet locum Judas antea pro- 
prium ;" or, ut occupet locum ipsi (i. e. Judae suc- 
^cessori) a Deo destinatum. But this interpretation 
is liable to many objections. For, in the first place, 
the very term e§ ^s* vape^ 'lotySay clearly shows that 
the words Tro^uflijvai, &c. more naturally refer to 
Judas himself than to his successor. 2. The former 
•words of the verse contain the sense " another is to 
•be invested with the Apostolic office, which Judas 
*bas deserted ;" if, therefore, the latter words be 
referred to the successor of Judas, the same thing 
is repeated, but only in a more obscure manner. 
3. It does not appear that any example can be pro- 
duced of 'TTopeu^rjvai eis* roy riyrov rh ?8iov in the sense 
of succession to place or office. 4. In order that 
i:he last words may cohere with Xa^€7y, propriety of 
-language requires (as is well observed by Clericus, 
Wolf, and Ernesti ^rogeufl^vai. Hence it is clear 
that this interpretation is arbitrary and utterly un- 
Tounded, and that the words in question are, by 
"other interpreters, rightly referred to Judas. Those, 
however, who maintain this lattw opinion, a-re not 
quite agreed on the sense to be assigned. Keuchen, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I, ^ 

Moldenhauer, Moschius, Krebs, and Bolten, by 
Twrov Toy fSioy understand the house of Judas, since 
in the Sept. T0V09 is often so employed ; as in Jud. 
7, 7. 1 Kings 24, 28. Jud. 9, 55. 1 Mace. 4, 38. 
They also compare Acts 21, 6. ny rei Iha^ and give 
the words this sense ; " betook himself to his for- 
mer habitation, after having deserted bur society.** 
" He departed home (say they), to pursue his own 
interest, but, stung with sudden remorse, hanged 
himself.'* But how jejune and frigid is the sense 
thus elicited, every intelligent person will imme- 
diately perceive. 

Others by tov tottov understand the sepulchre^ and 
think there is an allusion to the ignominious burial 
of ^ felo'de se. To establish this signification of 
ToVo? they appeal to Sir. 46, 12. 49, 10. But this 
exposition is somewhat strained ; nor are the pas- 
sages of Sirach similar to the one now under our 
consideration. For there the context plainly points 
to burial; which cannot be said of the present pasr 
sage, and no example has been adduced of ^ro^et/O^voet 
Viy TOV TOTov TOV Uiov bciug used for " to be buried.** 
Others, since roWy is sometimes employed of condi^ 
tioHy as in Sir. 12, 12. interpret it of the condition 
of Judas in the other world : q. d. '^ he has gone 
to the state awarded to him." So Wolf, Klotz, 
Schleusner, and others. This does not materially 
differ from the opinion maintained by most comt- 
mentators, ancient and modern, namely, that by 
TOTTOV is here to be understood the place of the 
damned, helL This interpretation recommends it- 
self by its simplicity, its suitableness to the context, 
and its agreeableness to the usus loquendi of both 
Jewish and Heathen writers ; and is therefore, 
doubtless, to be preferred. So, too, it seems to havfe 
heen understood by the most ancient Ecclesiastic^^ 
writers. ToTroy U109 denotes the place that is suitable 
4o,JUfor^ due io any one; which sense is well ex* 
pi<6ssed by the gloss. S/Kaio^*, read in the Cod. Cant. 
•This term \f> also us«d by Luk^ himself, in his 



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96 ACTS OF THE AP03TL£S» CHAP. 1. 

Gospel^ 16, 28. roVoy r^r &our&^w. The same man- 
ner of speaking is likewise observable in the Jewish 
writers. So Baal Turim on Num. 24, 25. Balaam 
ivit in locum suum, i. e. in Gehennam. Targom, 
Eccles. 69 6. Die mortis suae descendit anima ejus in 
Gehennam, in locum unum, quo omnes peccatorea 
abeunt. See Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. in h. 1. Nor are 
there wanting testimonies for the confirmation of 
this opinion deduced from the Greek writers; as 
Plato, Phaed. c. 57* w aSou wootii^a'^oLi^ scl. totov: 
and c. 58, speaking of the souls of the good and 
bad: ^Kr^tre roif aurji eKatrrrj tqttov irpotniKovra. -/Eschin. 
Socr. Axioch. c. 5. Tijsr 4^;c^y «y t^v oiiceiov iSpuvfieiVry 
TOTOV, rl yiro7i€i^dhf <rco/ta, y€ci^€^ ov icai a^Myov^ oiK 
eo-riv (Syd^oMToy. This is strongly confirmed too by 
some passages of the most antient ecclesiastical 
writers; as Jgnat. in his Ep. to M^gnes. c. 5. eVcJ 
<Zv T^Xoy Tflt vpayaara €)(€iy ixiKeira^ rot 8t5o, ojWroC t€ 
dovarof, Koi ij ^(07\ Koi €K(Krro9 eh rhv iSiov r<wroy /WxXe 
ytopey. Clemens, Rom. Ep. 1. to Corinth, p. 24. 
edit. Wotton. wXeiova^ twreveyicev Trovouy, Kot) o5rd> fxap- 
TvprjtraSf irropefj^ €ly rov o^€iXo|u^voy totov r^y Sq^y. 
Poly carpus in Ep. to Philipp. c. 9. where, exhorting 
his readers to follow the example of Paul, and the 
rest of Christ's Apostles, he uses this argument: on 
oSroi jravrey ouk eiy K€¥ov eS^ajuios/, aXX* €V witrrci Koi 
itKaiQO'fivji Ka) on cif roy o<]^€iXojUr€voy atVroTy roxov eler) 
SFopd^ Ttt> Ko^itOf 40 Ka\ (TuvcVadov. (Kuin.) 

Theabove learned Collectanea form a summary of 
the most valuable matter derived from various quar- 
ters; in conjunction with which, the reader may 
with advantage consult the annotations of Drs. 
Whitby and Hammond. In this latter conclusion I 
entirely acquiesce: but may not the words r^ Tirw 
rov JSiov be understood of death both temporal (i. e. 
the grave) and spiritual (i. e. the punishment of an- 
other world, the worm that never dieth). So they 
seem to have been understood by CEcumenius, who 
explains : n^y iyx^^^ ^^ a^iov ^aurov vapeiTKeiourev 
'louSa^ i$d, r^^ vpoZwrias. Mr. Bulkley cites Max. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTL£S, CHAP. I. 27 

Tyr. Diss. 25. where it is said that, upon the decease 
of the body, the soul is called to its own place^ cV) 
Tov auTijy TOTov. Plotinus, Ennead 4. l. 3. c. 24. 
where he says that the wicked man, upon quitting 
the present state, falls into the place accommodated 
to him, eiy rov Tgocnf^oyra at/raS rtwrov iye7r€<r€v. 

It is plain that at fro/?€«d^wti we are to subaud els^ 
tI, which is often omitted (as in Luke 9, 2.): yet, 
as Grotius well observes, it signifies event rather 
than purpose. So Rom. 1, 20., 2 Cor. 4, 4., and 
elsewhere. 

26. Koi i^coKu^f K7iiipoo9 atiTwy, &c. The mode in 
which they cast the lots cannot be determined, vari- 
ous being the methods by which the antients were 
wont so to do. (See Fabric. Bibliogr. 460., Selden de 
Syned. C. 11, 4., Le Clerc on Lev. 16, 8., and Wolf 
Bib. Heb. P. 2. p. 103.) They were accustomed, 
among other modes, to cast slips of parchment, or 
pieces of the tabulae scriptoriae, with the names in- 
scribed, into an urn. And this sort of sortitio most 
commentators here understand; and they render 
€ir€ir€v icX-^^y, sors exiit; i^wKav icAifpous*. So the 
Hebr. 7^13 jna in Levit. 16, 8. (Kuin.) It should 
ratlier, however, seem that there is an allusion to 
the custom of deciding the lots by casting dice (as 
is suggested by Beza) 

26. kKijpoosaijTooif. This kind of phrase, and that 
which immediately follows, is idiotical and popular.. 
The lots (we may observe) are said to be theirs on 
whom the lots are cast, and to fall upon him who 
comes off successful in the lot. Suy/cara^/ij^i^eiy 
properly denotes to choose by common suffrages^ 
and then to number with or unto, truyKarapi^fji^lv. 
That it must be so taken in the present passage is 
plain, since the persons chosen were chosen not by 
suffrage^ but appointed at the pleasure of Jesus. 
(Kuin.) The sortilegium (it may be remarked) 
was understood to be a mode of showing the will of 
the Almighty, and was therefore, from the earliest 
times^ resorted to in the creation of kings or 



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28 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. I. II. 

uppointment of priests. See Wesselig on Diodor; 
Sic. 4, 42., Perizon ad JEl H. V. 3, 45., and Palai- 
ret Obss. p. 272. So Cicero Verr. 2, 51. Ut quot 
essent renuntiati, tot in hydriam sortes conjicerentur. 
Cujus nomen exisset, ut is haberet hoc sacerdotium. 
Among the numerous passages here cited by Wets, 
tlie most apposite are the following. Tacit. A. 13, 
29. Ambitu suffragiorum suspecto sorte ducebantur 
ex numero praetorum, qui prceessent, Neque id diii 
mansit, quia sors deerrabat ad parum idoneos. Jud. 
20, 9. With the expression eTrecrev 6 icX^^oy Wetstein 
compares Joseph. Ant. 6, 5. o rfj^ BcviaftiViSo^ icXiJgos' 
^^€T€(r€. Plut. Crasso, p. 552 n. e^ecrovri r^K^-^ptB. 
Palairet cites Cinnamus Hist. L. 2. p. 96. to5 icXiJpou 
hr\ riv irp€(F^6raTov t«Jv aSeX^oJv TriTrToyToy: and L. 4. 
p. 156. I^nirre S^ €t1 tov AouKav o xX^goy. 

CHAP. II. 

1. iv t£ <rujx?rXi)po5ff-flai ri}v i^[j,€^(iuf t. II. The verb 
<rufA9rXY)gou(rdai, as also the simple ?rX%otxrdai, not 
only denotes the consummation^ but also the approach 
of any time, and therefore here signifies advenisse, 
adesse. See the note on Mark 1, 15., Luke 1,57. 
9,51. 2, 21., and so ver. 15. For tiJv '^[^poLVy many 
early Versions, and some antient MSS., read rds 
'JjfjJ^aSf which is preferred by Scaliger, Drusius, 
Grrotius, and others. Thus would be denoted the 
whole period of the fifty days from the Passover, of 
which the clausula, or last day^ had then come. (See 
Grot.) No change, however, must be made, since 
the common readings which is supported by all the 
MSS. gives the same sense : nay the antient Inter- 
preters may be thought to have had regard rather to 
the sense than the expression. (See Wolf.) At 
7r€vr€Ko(rrr^9 we must subaud, not ijfi^pay, but ioprr^^^ 
On which it'has been well observed by Schmid, that 
it may seem one should say rv^v r^pApav rrpf ir^yroLKia'^ 
n}y, when the fiftieth day, i.e. from the Passover^ 
was completed : but it should be remembered, 1st, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. 1.1. ^ 

that T6VT€icocrT^5 is here not to be taken adjectively^ 
but substantively, and is, as it were, a proper name j 
5o that there is no subaudition of 7)V^^s>, (for it 
would be absurd to say that the fiftieth day of' the 
day was completed,) but rather of eopriQy. This ob* 
servation is confirmed by Tobet 2, 1. ev t^ Trevre/coo-rjj 
eoprfi. Whence also in 2 Mace. 2, 32. we must, at 
the words p^ra n^v Xcyojxvijv TrevreKocTT^Qv, subaud 
ioprr^y. The same applies to 1 Cor. 16, 8. (Kuin.) 

On this feast see Michaelis, in his Mosaic Lawy/p. 
4. § 167, and the writer on Jewish Antiquities (in* 
eluding Home's Introd. Edit.) By the words r^p 
rifjjpav r7J9 ir€itr€Koa'Trj9 some have thought is to be 
understood the fiftieth day afler Christ's resurrec- 
tion, because on the Lord's day, on which the festi- 
val of the Pentecost is now celebrated, the Holy 
Spirit was poured out on the Apostles ; as we learn 
from the dicta of the antient Church, &c. But if 
the fiftieth day from the resurrection of Christ, and 
not the Jewish festival, were to be understood, pror 
priety of language would require cv t£ cru]w.7rX^5oG<rfloM 
i^imkpay Trei^rcKoerri^y, or €v t£ (ruftTrA^j^udai ijjcxe^v ;rer- 
Tificovra. Thus, however, the phraseology would be 
obscure and ambiguous. Many commentators too 
are of opinion that it cannot with certainty be af- 
firmed that the Pentecost was, that year, celebrated 
by the Jews on the Sabbath day; nay that there are 
not wanting arguments by which it may be proved 
to have been celebrated on the Sunday. The Pen- 
tecost fell on the fiftieth day from the Passover 4 
and this fiftieth day was numbered (as we learn by 
Lev. 23, 15.) /ram the last day of that Sabbath 
rUBJn Jl^nDD, on which they brought the sheaf of the 
wave-offering. So that from that day seven whole 
weeks, forty-nine days might be numbered, and thus 
the fiftieth would be the feast day. But in the ex- 
planation of the word VQXO the Sadducees, i. e. the 
Karasi, or Scriptuarii (see the note on Matt. 26, 
17.) and the Pharisees differed, the former under- 
standing by it a Sabbath properly so called, which 



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so ACTS OF TII£ APOSTLBSy CHAP. II, 

was celebrated on the seventh day ; but the latter, 
the first day of the Passover, which was celebrated 
4is a Sabbath. (See Exod. 12, 16.) Hence the feast 
of the Pentecost, according to the decree of the Ka- 
raei, always fell upon the first day of the week. Sun- 
daj/j but, according to that of the Pharisees, on the 
fiftieth day from the offering of the handful of bar- 
ley in the Temple. See Ikenius^s Dissertation on 
the time of the celebration of the last Supper, and 
Barker*s Obs. Exeg. on Acts 2. in Bibliotheca Ha- 
gana, vol. 2. p. 373. Now if Jesus, as most of the 
Commentators maintain, ate the passover on the 
same day with the rest of the Jews, the Jewish com- 
monalty indeed celebrated the Pentecost on the 
Sabbath day, but Christ's disciples, if they followed 
the maxims of the Karaei, celebrated that feast on 
Sunday. Extremely probable, however, (as has been 
shown at large in the note on Matt. 26, 170 ^^ the 
opinion of those Commentators who maintain that 
Jesus, with the Karaei, 'anticipated by one day the 
ordinary Passover of the Jews. If therefore Jesus 
and the Kar<ei had eaten the Passover on Thursday, 
but the rest of the Jews on Sunday after sun-set^ 
(which first day of the Passover was a Sabbath one, 
since they numbered the day from the preceding 
evening, (as has been observed on Matt.) both of 
these, Sadducees and Pharisees, at that time cele- 
brated the Pentecost on Sunday. (Kuinoel.) 

1. ijcrav Sjrwnes oftodujxaSiv iiri to atiro. It has been 
disputed whether by the word aTavrcy is signified 
the twelve Apostles only, (and indeed oj aTocrroXei is 
added in some MSS. but by a gloss,) or the rest of 
the disciples of both sexes included. (Compare 1, 
14, 11. Those who refer it solely to the Apostles, 
found their opinion on these arguments. I. In the 
preceding, 1, 26. (say they,) we read of the eleven 
Apostles, to whom was added Matthias. The con- 
text therefore clearly shows that ATravr^s is referable 
to the Apostles only. II. Those who spoke in 
foreign tongues (ver. 7) are said to be Galileans^ 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. It. Si 

but it is not probable that all those one hundred and 
twenty, mentioned at 1, 15.,- were Galilaeans. (See, 
however, the note on ver. 7.) 3. Peter, at ver. 14. 
is said to have stood up with the eleven : from which 
we are authorized to collect that only these were 
present.** 

Others, however, with better arguments, and 
sanctioned by the authority of Chrysostom, Au- 
gustin, Jerome, and other ancient Fathers, maintain 
that, beside the Apostles, there were present the rest 
of Christ's followers, mentioned at 1, 15. " For, in 
the first place, it is clear, on an inspection of the 
context of Acts 1, 15. ult. that the subject there 
professedly treated of, is the assembly of the hun- 
dred and twenty believers which Peter addressed, 
and out of which Matthias was chosen and adopted 
into the Apostolic body: but the eleven Apostles 
are only mentioned en passant. Now to the predU 
cate^ which is destitute of a subject, the subject 
immediately antecedent, arid not that of which men* 
tion was made en passant^ but professedly ought to 
be called in and associated. 

2. If St. Luke had meant the twelve Apostles only^ 
it would have sufficed tosay, not airarre^, but oSroi. 
S. It is little probable that on a feast day, at an hour 
appropriated to prayer (see Schoettg. Hor. Heb. on 
Acts S, 1. infra ad v. 15.), the rest of Christ's fol- 
lowers were not with the Apostles. 4. Peter, at 9, 
16. seqq. has quoted the passage of Joel 2, 28. ** I 
will pour out my spirit upon all flesh, and your sons 
and our daughters shall prophecy :" for the purpose 
of shewing that the prophecy was now fulfilled. It 
is clear, therefore, that, besides the Apostles, there 
were many other Christians assembled, that on /Aem, 
also, the Holy Spirit was poured out, and that they 
also spoke with foreign tongues. Peter and the eleven 
rose up (ver. 15.), since they were the leading per- 
sons, and by them the body was to be defended 
against the calumnies of the Jews. 

Upon these grounds the latter opinion certainly 



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82 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP^ II* 

deserves the preference. (Kuin.) I entirely acquiesce 
in this view of the subject, which was also adopted 
by Grotius, Mercer, Lightfoot, Wolf, Rosenmuller, 
and Heinrichs, and, what is of more consequence, 
such seems to have been the tradition of the Church 
from the earliest ages. For (as observes Whitby) 
St. Jerome says, " When Paula came to Sion, they 
shewed her the place where the Holy Ghost fell 
upon the hundred and twenty to complete the pro- 
phecy of Joel: ^* And St. Chrysostom and QLcume- 
nius on the place, say, He fell not only upon the 
Apostles, but also upon the hundred and twenty; 
and that St. Luke would not have said TravTcy, all, 
when the Apostles only were present, el juii} Koi aXXoi 
lK€T€(rxoVj if others, also, had not been made par* 
takers of the Holy Ghost. 

1. oiMQtJiJLailif €iri rodturo. See the note on 1^ I4f &f 
15. Great has been the disagreement of Comtpen'r 
tators respecting the place where the disciples wer^ 
then assembled. Some maintain that by oLcos* is 
{neant a mere chamber of the temple of Jerusalem, 
others, an apartment of some private house, and thai 
^st, ol/coy denotes not only a house^ but an inner 
chamber, and that spacious. That there were in 
the temple of Jerusalem (says Krebs) thirty such 
hallsy in which the Doctors of the Law held their 
theological schools, we learn from Joseph. Ant. 8, 
3, 2. TregioDKoSo/XTjcre he rov vaov ev kuicXco rpio/covra ^pou^ 
yi^iv OLKois K. T. X. & 7» 14, 10. Ti^v 6iaypa^^v icol rr^y 
hiara^iv r^9 oiicoSojx/ay tou vao5, Trayroiv h^aivrmVy ISoiicf 

Now o1ko9 may signify oecus, i. e. the conclave^ coe^. 
naculum of B. private house (as in Lev. 14, 23. Philo 
1042 c. Joseph. Ant. 8, 5, 2. 10, 11, 2. 12, 4, 11. 
Athen. ISO a. & 203 c. JSee Ernesti on Callimach, 
H. on Cer. 55. and Valckn. on Schol. ad h. 1.) and 
that there were in the temple, also, such oedi^ the 

fassages of Joseph, testify. But had this been 
iUke's meaning, he would have unfolded it more 
^learly^ since neither in the^preq^din^ nor foUowinr* 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 3» 

words is there any ment'on made of this. Besides, 
no passages have yet been produced to prove that 
the common people, and especially strangers, were 
permitted to resort, for the purposes of prayer, . to 
those apartments of the temple. 

2. It is urged by Capellus, Spic. Obss. in h. 1., that 
the circumstances narrated happened at the third 
hour of the morning, when the more religious Jews 
used to resort to the temple for prayer, and that 
since the Apostles and the rest of Christ's followers 
were accustomed every day to repair to the temple 
(see ver. 46.), and were not excluded thence by the 
Priests, undoubtedly on the day of Pentecost also, 
on which it was a religious duty to attend temple 
worship, they were met together there. Now we 
do not deny that the Christians might, without 
molestation, resort to the temple and mingle with 
the Jews engaged in religious worship, but it is here 
said that they were ojuLoSu/taSov €^) to aoro (see the 
note on 1, 14 & 15.), and it is not probable that the 
Priests would have permitted these hated disciples 
of Christ the use of a private apartment in the 
temple. (See 4, 1.) There were, it must be re- 
marked, three regular hours of prayer, the third 
(ver. 15.), the sixth (see 10, 9), and the ninth (see 
3, 1.) : but the Jews did not appear at the temple at 
each of these hours. It was lawful to offer up 
prayers in a synagogue also, or indeed in any place 
where ten persons should be gathered together for 
that purpose. See Trigland de Karseis, Vitringa de 
Sy nag. Vet. L. 1. c. 5. p. 45., the commentators on 
1 Tim. 2, 8., and Lightfoot Hor. Heb. on Matt. 6, 3. 
The Apostles had therefore met together at that 
hour for the sake of prayer, in a house, wherein wais 
held an oratory of Christ's followers, or, as it were, a 
private synagogue, (Compare 1, 13.) Besides, the 
Apostles seem to have hoped that on the very day 
on which the memory of the promulgation of the law 
on Mount Sinai was celebrated, the promise of 
Christ respecting the Holy Spirit to be sent from 

VOL. IV. D 



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34 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. CHAP. 11. 

Heaven, would have its completion (see Luke 24, 
49. Joh. 15, 26. Acts 1, 5 & 8.), and that God 
would, by a sign striking to the senses, declare that 
the religion of Christ was now to be more widely 
propagated by them ; and thus they were met tO" 
getber ojULodujutaSov ivi rl aurL See 4, 29 seqq. Virg. 
^n. 3, 385. 

3. It is urged by Krebs, that we read, in 41, of 
there having been, on that day, added to the Chris- 
tians three thousand persons. ** Now surely (con-^ 
tinues he) such a multitude no upper apartment of 
any private house could contain. Besides, it is not 
easy to conceive how such a multitude, of so many 
nations, could have collected together at the hearing 
of the sound, unless they had previously been con- 
gregated in some neighbouring place.* But that 
these apartments of private houses were so large as 
to contain a great number of persons, is plain from 
Mark 2, 3. Acts 20, 7. And, granting that this 
apartment hired by the Christians could not contain 
Inree thousand, yet it does not follow that we are to 
fix on the temple. For, as is well observed by Ro- 
«enmuller at ver. 41., those who think it incredible 
that one house could contain three hundred persons, 
take it for granted that all were admitted at one 
time to hear Peter and the Apostles ; which is 
neither asserted by Luke, nor is in itself probable. 
Besides^ if it be supposed that the house in which 
they were collected was in the vicinity of the tem- 
ple, one may the more easily account for so great a 
multitude having been so quickly collected together, 
especially since it was then the usual hour of prayer. 

4. It is urged by Schoettgen and Heinrichs, that 
God might possibly chuse to make tliis promulgation 
of the Gospel in a place the most illustrious ; and 
that if, by the providence of God, these events took 
place in the temple^ they would be rendered. the 
more august, and be calculated to produce a more 
powerful effect on the minds of men. But that this rea» 
son is not sufficiently certain and cogent, will, easily 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 3,^ 

appear. Besides other obvious answers, it may be 
replied, that God did not chuse to make a pramui- 
gation of the Gospel in the temple^ since the consti^ 
tution of the Mosaic Law, and the mode of Divine 
worship, hitherto confined to the Temple of Jeru- 
salem, was now to be abrogated, and , another and 
for more spiritual and perfect worship to be insti- 
tuted; nay, the very destruction of the temple was 
at hand. (See Job. 4, 22. seqq. Matt. .24, 1 seqq.) 
. All which reasons justify us in assigning the pre- 
ference to the opinion of those interpreters who 
maintain that the threpdiov here mentioned was an 
apartment of a private house, not of the temple, 
(kuin.) In this opinion, which was also adopted by 
Doctors Doddridge and Benson, I must acquiesce. 

2. iy€9€T(k a^yo) €k to5 oti^voS ^pfoy. Wetstein re^ 
marks, that a^vw is often used in commemorandu 
prodigiisy and he adduces several examples, from 
which it appears to be associated with words expres- 
sive of what is unexpected, and anticipates thought 
and reflection. Some, as Sanctius, by ^;^or under-> 
stand thunder^ and thus it is remarked by T. Mag* 
that the word is used ivi fAcXouy Kal 0^ovr^s'. This 
opinion is supported by Heinrichs, in his Excurs. 2, 
p. 319. But I rather assent to the common one, (con^ 
firmed by the ancient Greek commentators,) that it 
denotes the stridor venti. For, as Eisner observes, 
it is not said to have been conjoined with a flatus 
proceliosuSy but to have been citrTrip ^fgofAej/i)^ Tvorjs 
fiiaia^, such as are usually produced by the luctantes 
venti, tempestatesque sonorce, of which we read in 
Virg. -^.n. 1, 57. Exaniples of ti^,* -with the epi- 
thet ^^aioLj are adduced by Wetstein from Philo and 
Artemidorus, to which I add Pausan. 9, 32. aswfioi 
/Sia/oi KaT€7ry€f3<rav. Joseph. 1181, 9. ay€/xoi 3«a/oi» 

' * The word irro^ is synonymous with irpev^a, and, in the Sept.^ 
answers to nn und nott^- It was (as Eisner observes) acoounted a 
symbol of Dirine presence. See P^. 18» It. 104, 3 & 4. Gen. 3, 8. 
Ex. 40, 36. Ez. 43, 2, 4, 5. 1 Kings 19, 1 1 & 12. « Chron. 5, 14. 
Joseph. Ant. 3, 4. makes mention of the Avefiot v<l>obpol, as being 
among the other signs of the presence of God on Mount Sinai. 

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36 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

Pythagoras in his Symbol, has the expression avifiaap 
TVfoWojv riv a;foy. As to the sound being said to 
have come iK rou ougayou, this was agreeable to the 
notions entertained by the Heathen theologians. 
So Philo T. 2, 442, 42. fcited by Wetstein) to5 d^ioo 
irvfuftaroy, owcp avoidfy ifaTa^veuo-dfy €\<rwKr^<rar(k ry} 
J/upf^, w€piTi66VToy T«5 jx€y o-o^jtiaTi icaXXoy €§aiViov, ToTf 
8i Aoyoiy 9r€i9co, roTy 8* aifot/ouo-i <r6y€<nv. Jamblichus de 
Myster. S, 2. ical iroVf jx^v a^aver ical cMraJfiarov TVfSfta 
w€pU^€i icikXio Touff KaroLK^nUvoi^s^ oi^ ogafl"iv |tx€V aurow 
fti^ vapovoLif TT^v S€ dtXXr^v truvaitr^itny K(xi TapaicoXowflr^fl"iv 
tiirap^€iVj poi^o|X6vou T€ tv tcS 6i(r<6Vai, ical irfpwc€;|jujxtyou 
TcayroL-jfjAey aveu rivoy era^i?^. Also, in the san\p 
work, C. 6, 3. (cited by Bulkley) " the philosopher 
observes that a person, favoured with the inhabi- 
tation of deity, sometimes perceives a spirit de- 
scending and insinuating itself into him, and of 
what rank and quality it is; and that by it he is 
secretly taught and governed ; and that such a per- 
son, before the divine susception, perceives, too, a 
certain form or species of fire, which is sometimes 
sensible even to those who are present with him.'* 
Kuinoel, too, observes (partly from Eisner and^ 
others) that the Christians then met together ac- 
counted the windy which filled the room where they 
were sitting, as a sign of the presence and approacn 
of the Holy Spirit promised by Christ, and therefore 
seemed to themselves to hear something greater 
than usually happens on a common tempest. Hence 
it appears (continues Kuin.) that Luke used ^^^s 
w<nr€p ^€poiUvri9, wvo^r ^laiay, for want of a more 
determinate expression. 

4»^p60-Oai, it must be observed, is, like mere (Virg. 
JEn. 1, 86. ac venti — ruunt), frequently used of 
winds and their violent impetus. So iElian H. A. 
7) 24. €7r€ihobf rh TrveSfjia ^laiov eK^^pr^rau Diodor. 
Sic. p. 6l9* ^oXXou Ka) 0ia/ou Trveujuiarop ^f^ou^vou. 
Diog. Laert. L. 10. c. 25. § 104. 8ia toG xvcu/taro^ 
^roXXoS ^fpojuicvou. Kypke well observes, that icad^crdai 
with its cognate ica6/^6iv and icaO/^ecrOai, is ofteji (as 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 37 

here) put for commorari^ esse, versari in aliquo loco ; 
as also in Luke 21, 35. See the examples produced 
by that Commentator. 

3- w(pd7i(rav auroir. There have been not a few 
. difficulties raised on the construction and sense of 
this whole passage. Many early Commentators, as 
Piscator, take auToTy for in them, on them, upon them. 
But it has been, upon good grounds, maintained by 
Schoettgen, Maius, (Obs. P. 4. p. 71-) Heuraann, 
Wolf, Rosenm. Heinsius, and others, that the sense 
of the words is, " were seen by them," appeared unto 
them; which interpretation is supported by the 
Vulgate, and was judiciously followed by the authors 
of our English Version. The construction is fre- 
quent in the New Testament, exainples of which 
may be seen in Schl. Lex. 

The words Sia|X6pi^ojx€yai yXaJo-o-ai oJo-fi ^rupoy are 
variously explained. Some have thought that the 
natural tongues of the Apostles appeared to each 
other divided or cloven, considering auroiy as put 
for auTcSv. But this would have required the article 
ai yXco<r<rai. Besides, as Kuinoel observes, there 
were not spectators immediately at hand. The c3<r6i 
must be construed after yXcSererai, as it were tongues 
qfjire. Nor are the yXtoo-erai Siafx^gi^ofx^vai cloven 
tongues (which, as Markland observes, would have 
required 8ia<r;fi^o/x6vai), but distributed (as in 45). 
So the Vulg. dispertita. Or it may be rendered, 
with Valckn., dividentes semet ipsoe (in the middle 
voice). Rosenm. and others explain discursitantes. 
As to the mode in which this. most remarkable phe- 
nomen took place, commentators are not agreed. 
Michselis attributes it to electricity, Moschius and 
Heinrichs to lightning. Heumann thinks that their 
seeing these fingers of fire dispersed through the 
apartment was cv f/co-Tofl-^i ; and Kuinoel refers to 
his note on Matt. 4, p. 102. But this is a very pre- 
carious shift to remove the difficulty; nor does it at 
all satisfactorily effect that purpose. Eichhorn seems 
to have resolved all into an Oriental and metaphorical 



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38 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

phrase, denoting high mental excitement and enthu- 
siasm, and ascribes it all to Jewish notions, appealing 
to several passages which had been produced by 
Schoettgen, in his Hor. Heb.* But this mode of 
considering the subject is liable to strong objections, 
some of which are well stated by Storn, Op. 3, 174., 
who there proves that the phraseology of those pas- 
sages cannot be entirely resolved into metaphor ; or 
that, supposing those Jewish writers had meant 
nothing more than mental ardour, yet it will not 
follow that what we read in writings so much more 
recent than this work of St. Luke's can properly be 
compared with what is therein found. Besides, 
Luke does not make mention of the promulgation 

* The passages are as follows. Schir haschirim Rabba, fol. 10, 2. 
and Midrasch Ruth Rabba, fol. 4% 1« Ko tempore, quo viii docti 
Atudent in lege, et inde ad Prophetas, et Hagiographos pergunt, 
omnia^D nton^nD VHm, ignis circuni ipsos flammavit, et verba 
ipsos exhilararunt, eo modo, quo idem in promulgatione Sinaitica 
factum est. Annon enim Lex in Sinai per ignem data est ? q. d. 
Deuter. 4, 11. Et mons arsic igne D*Dtt^n l^ nj^ usque ad coelum. 
Filius Asai sedit et legem explicavit, vnn^D VHm> et ignis circa 
illos visebatur. Venerunt ergo discipuli ^us ad R. Akiba, et dixe- 
runt : Rabbi, Filius Asai sedet et legem explicat, ignis vero circa 
illos adparet. Ivit R. Aktba ad ipsum, dicens : Audivi, quum tu 
J^gem explicares, ignem circa te adparuisse. Filius Asai respon- 
dk: Ita est. Akiba pergit : Num forte in opere eurrus (theologi^ 
mystical sublimiore) tu studisti ? lUe respondit : Non feci, scd a 
Lege perrexi ad Prophctas, a Prophetis ad Hagiographos, verba 
vero ilia tam grata mihi fuerunt, quem admcNdum promulgatio 
legis in monte Sinai, et tam dulcia, |nJ*nJ *)p*P3» sicut prsecipuum 
promulgationis ejus. Hsec autem per ignem facta est. Sic quoque 
K. Af hu sedit et legem expiicuit, et flamma circa ipeum visa est. 
Midrasch Coheleth, fol. 87« 1. Historia: Abiya, unus ex primoribus 
gentis nostrs, ciita ad me circumcidendulB veniret, omnes primo- 
res Hierosolymorum, aliosque, qui tunc temporis erant, convocavit, 
interque hos R. Elieserem et R. Jchoschuam. Postquam comede* 
runt et biberunt ; quidam ex ilUs PsalnuM, alii rhythmos alphabeticos 
recitarunt. Dixit R. Elieser ad R. Jehoschuam : Illi rebus suis occu- 
pati sint, nos nostra agemus. Inceperunc itaque a Mose, et inde 
ad Prophetas et Hagiographos perrexerunt, et verba h»c eos exbi^ 
lararuDt, sicut promulgatio Legis, et ignis circum ipsos flammavit, 
&c. Dixit pater meus : Quandoquidem tanta est virtus legis, ego 
pueruui hunc, si vivet, studio illius adplicabo. Quia vero intentio 
ejus non fuit c=3*Dtt^ amh, ad gloriaui Dei, studium quoque legis 
nun fuit stabile. (Schoettgen.) 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. II. 39 

of the Mosaic Law by fire (to which the passages of 
those Jewish writers advert), nor does he use the 
phrase so often employed by him, TX7)<rd^vai TrycJjxaros' 
ayiot/^ or else adds an equivalent description, as it 
were, of flames of fire, but in this one passage re*- 
cords, among the other phenomena falling under 
the senses, this of the tongues of Jive. For my own 
part, I see not how we are concerned to account for 
the actions of those recent Jews. But supposing 
them to have been entertained even by the earlier 
Jews, yet it is not unreasonable to suppose that God 
would vouchsafe to use a symbol accordant with the 
notions of that age, and therefore intelligible to all. 
As to the mode in which the phenomenon was 
eflPected, we are not enabled to come to any certain 
conclusion. The opinion of Michaelis, Rosenmuller, 
Hezel, and Paulus, is approved by Kuinoel ; namely, 
that it was eflected by the power of electric fluid, 
which (say they) is observed in a similar way to 
settle on objects animate and inanimate, as men, 
ships, masts, yards, &c., and yet not burn them." 
The conjecture is not in itself improbable, but I 
know not whether it be not presumptuous to inves- 
tigate too minutely where Scripture affords n6t the 
means for obtaining certainty. Wetstein observes 
that the ancients believed the presence of the Deity 
to be indicated by fire, and that a flame burning 
from the head was accounted a sign or symbol of 
Divine favour; and that a little tongue of fire, or a 
radiated head, indicated the sanctity of those on 
whom it was found.* 



* He refers to £xod. 34, 99. Matt. \7, 9. Apoc. 1, 14. Acts 7, 
30. 9, 3. and cites Horn. Od. r. 36. ^ xdre^, ^ fiiya 0a9pa to 
b* Q^S6kfMi&iv bp&fJitu, ^fiirrf$ fu>i ri>7)(os fsiyapiar, icaXtt/re fjti&oifmkf 
€i\€itlyai re boicol, Kal icUvts i^yj/os i^iyovr* o^oKfiols ^0fX itvpos 
aWo^yoiOy $ juaXo ris dew ivbovj oi ohpayhy evpvy l^ovv'i. Sil. 
Ital. 3, 693. Virg. ^n. %, 680. Cam subitum 4ictuque oritur mira- 
bile monstrum ; namqne manua inter mcBstommque ora parentum, 
ecce levis summo de yertice visas luli Fundere lumen apex> tracts- 
qiSjm innoxia molK lambere flamma connas* et circum tenipora pasci. 
Nos pavidt trepidai^ metu, crinemque flagrantem fixcutere, et 



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40 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

The expression yXoJo-erai irupos* signifies tongues of 
fire, pointed flames. The extremity of a flame is 
(like many other things ending in a sharp apex) 
called a tongue. So Is, 5, 24. tt?M Wvh is inter- 
changed witli rnn?, and by the Latin writers 
flames are said lambere. See Hor. Serm. 1, 5, 
74. Wetstein observes that a flame of fire repre- 
sented linguam bifidam, signum doni linguarum: 
and he proceeds to give numerous examples of the 
words SiyXwa-eros" and bilinguisj in the sense of skilled 
in more than one language. On both these terms I 
shall have much to say in a note on Thucyd. 4, 109. 
The satne view of the subject is taken by Dod- 
dridge, who is of opinion that the division of each 

sanctos reslinguere fontibus igncs: At pater Anchiscs oculos ad 
sidera leetus Kxtulit^ et caelo palnias cuin voce tetendit : Jupiter 
oninipotens, preeibus si flecteris uUis, Adspice nos, hoc tantum -, et 
si pietate meremur. Da deinde auxilium, pater^ atque hsec omnia 
firma. Liv. 1 , 39. £o tempore in regi^ prodigium visum, eveu- 
tuque lairabile fiiit. Puero dormienti, cui Senio Tullio noroen 
fuit, caput arsisse ferunt multorum in conspectu. Plurimo igitur 
clamore inde ad tantse rei niiraculum orto, excitum regem — Turn 
adducto in seci*etuni viro Tana'{uil : Videsne tu puerum hunc, in- 
quitj quem tam humili cultu educanuis ? Scire licet, hunc lumen 
quondam rebus nostris dubiis futurum prssidiumque regiae aflSic- 
tsd, proinde materiam ingentis publicc priititimque decoris omni 
indulgentili nostril nutria mus. Inde puerum liberum loco ceeptuni 
haberi> erudirique artibus, quibus ingentia ad magnse fortunse cul- 
turn excitantur. Evenit facile, quod Diis cordi esset. Ju%'enis eva- 
sit vei'^ indolis regise. Flonis 1. 6. Valerius Max. 1, 6. Ovidius F. 
6, 634. Concept us ab ill^ Servius a coelo Semina gentis habet. 
Signa dedit genitor tunc, ctim caput igne corusco Contigit, inque 
comis flammeus arsit apex. Pliniiis H. N. 2, 37* Homimiro quo- 
que capita vesperlinis horis magno presagio circurofulgent. Omnia 
incert^ ititione, et in natures majestate abdita. Livius 1, 40. Tuum 
est, inquit, Servi, si vires, regnum— erige te, deosque duces sequere, 
qui clarum hoc fore caput divino quondam circumfuso igni por- 
tenderunt. 25, 39. Apud omnes magnum nomen Marcii duels est, 
et vera glorise ejus etiam miracula addunt, flammam ei consonanti 
fusam e capite sine ipsius sensu cum magno pavore circumstantiura 
militum. Sii. Ital. 9, 445. 16, 119. Sueton. Aug. 94. Plln. Paneg. 
Traj. 52. Hom. 11. a, 214. ws iiw* 'Ax'X^or ic€<l>a\ii£ treXas alOep* 
"iKave, And 225. 'iiyi6\oi 6* ^rXf/yev, ivet iboy itKafxaroy wvp 
/ietvov vTrkp K€<l>a\fis fjieyaOvfiOv UrfXei&os Aatdficroy' to b* ibaie 
Oeh yXavKutTTis aOrjvif, £urip. Bacch* 756. iirl bk floarpv^ois irvp 
e^epoi'j ovb' lt:aled\ 



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. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II, 41 

might aptly represent the variety of languages with 
which each person was endowed ; " and some (says 
he) have thought that the form of the mitres worn 
by bishops (according to the Roman ritual) bears 
«ome allusion to the supposed form of these cloven 
tongues." But this proceeds on a false interpreta- 
tion of Sia|tAepi^op.€vai« It has been, with more pro- 
bability, thought by Grotius and others, that this 
wonderful appearance in the form of fire might be 
intended to signify the quickening and purifying 
influences of the Spirit, as well as to illustrate John 
the Baptist's prediction, that Christ should baptize 
with the Holy Ghost and with Jire. (Matt. 3, 11., 
and Luke 3, 16.) So Philo ad Decalogum (cited 
bv Grotius.) *E;r€i8av to5 irvpo^ to jxev (ficoT^^eiv, to 
he KaUiv W^tiic€v, oi [Lef ToTy ^pfjtrfJLOi^ a^iouvre^ cTvai 
KaTaxeiOelp aJy iv air Kim ^mri tov acl p^govoy Sicoo-oyrai, 
Toup vo[xotj^ atJTOu^ ourrepas ex^ovres €v vp^;^^ ^omt^oooGv-* 
ras* 00-01 S' a(piqna<rTa\ icaiojxfvoi kou /caTOMcaio'jxevo* hia^ 
T€Xo5o"iy uVo Twv evhov 69ri9u|xia)v^ al ^Xoyoy TpoTov ^rop- 
fli30"ouo"i TOV o"JjxxavTa rwv €)(ovtwv ^lov• By JLightfoot 
and Grotius it has been thought that as the division 
of tongues at Babel once introduced confusion, and 
was the means of casting off the Gentiles from the 
knowledge of the true God, so now there was a 
remedy provided by the gift of tongues at Zion, to 
bring the Gentiles out of darkness into light, and to 
destroy the veil which had been spread over all 
nations. 

3. 6^* €va €Kourrov atirciif, settled upon each of 
them : as many Commentators suppose, with a tre- 
mulous motion. At eKoBio-e some Interpreters subaud 
weiiM^ which occurs in the following verse, since 
an ellipsis of a word is not unfrequently to be sought 
out of a subsequent member of a sentence. (See 
Glass Phil. 638.) Here however the following words 
are not a member of the same sentence, but com- 
mence a new one. Besides, as Kuinoel observes, the 
phrase Tv^G/xa ofyiov eKuQ^tre is utterly unexampled; 
neither is there any reason to resort to such an irre- 



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42 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. If. 

gularity ; since, as is observed by Beza, Schoettgen, 
and Kuinoel, we may refer the verb to the immedi- 
ately preceding noun irup, or, (as is the opinion of 
Ernesti, Storr, Schnur, and Schroeder,) being put 
by enaliage (as an index distinct ionisj it may be con- 
strued with yXoKreraiy iraci^. So Valckn. who re- 
marks : iKoAitre non pertmet ad y'Kmfrirai^ sed ad 
subaudiendum iKwmi, id vero evolvendum ex eo, 
quod adest ^kolo-tov. Hoc ergo modo loquutio sup- 
plenda est contracta: iKoAitri re (sc. iKwrrri r£v 

4. Koi fip^a¥To XaXfTv irepon^ yXoiVfl-aiy. The inter- 
pretation of these words has not a little exercised 
the learning and diligence of the Commentators, 
who in the explanation of them have pursued two 
different courses. Whole treatises on this one pas* 
sage have been published by Barkey, Vieroot, Mos- 
chius, Ernesti (de dono linguarum^ Opus. TheoL p* 
412), Less, in his Answer to Ernesti, Rabast, Bar- 
dile, on the signification of w-po^ijTijr, Eichhorn, Storr, 
Opusc. 2, 290. Herder, Paulus, Becker, Kursman, 
Hanscinius, Meyer, on the gift of tongues mentioned 
in Acts 2. and 1 Cor. 1, 14. Ammonius dc linguis 
novis 1808. and Klein de formula yWereraif ^xiT^h. 

I. The opinion of most of the earlier^ and not a few of the later 
Theologians, is« that the Apostles^ or generally the hundred and 
twenty disciples then collected together, by divine inspiration, began 
to speak in the words of foreign tongues utterly unknown to them, 
as if in their vernacular and accustomed languages ; and that this 
was a gift granted them from Heaven, and perpetual. The argu* 
ments on which this opinion is supported, are the following : 

1. " According to the command of Christ, his doctrine was to be 
delivered by the Apostles to all nations. In order, therefore, to the 
right, proper, and immediate discharge of their office, without the 
toil of learning foreign tongues, there was to be conferred on the 
Apostles and other Christians the divine power and faculty of preach- 
ing the Christian doctrine to foreign nations, each in their own 
tongue." To this, however, it may be answered, that not the 
Apostles only, but also the rest of the Christiana colk^cted on the day 
of Pentecost, spoke with tongues (see the note on ver. 1.) { as also 
Cornelius and bis family (Acts 10, 44), and the disciples of John 
(Acts 19| 6) } yet there is no reason for supposing that all were 
made teachers; and tlie Corinthians used this faculty of speaking in 
foreign tongues in the church at Corinth, where there was no need 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 43 

of them to the teaching of men who only understood the Greek 
language. It is indeed replied by those who use the foregoing ar- 
guments, that although it be granted that not all those who were 
divinely endowed with this faculty propagated the Christian doctrine 
by teaching, yet there must have existed a competent number of 
persons in all respects fitted to teach the Christian doctrine to foreign 
nations, and, according as the opportunity should aSor itself, they 
might be sent out for the instruction of foreign nations. But to 
this it may be answered, that neither to the Apostles, nor to other 
teachers of the Christian Religion, was there need of any other Ian- 
guage, for such a purpose, than the vernacular tongue of Palestine 
(namely, the Syrochaldee), or the Greek* either of which they knew 
sufficiently well for that purpose. For the Greek language was then 
in universal use, and was prevalent even in the regions of Palestine; 
(See Ernesti Opusc. 4^1. seq., our Proleg. on John, p. 34. seq., Hu- 
gii Introd. p. 30. seq., and Cic. pro Archia, c. 95.) Therefore it 
was not necessary, for the purpose of teaching, that other tongues 
should be infused into them, ikor was St. Paul, who undertook so 
many joumies for the sake of preaching the Christian Religion, ac- 
quainted with all tongues. See Acts 14, 11. 

2. It is urged, that our Lord had predicted to his disciples (the 
future teachers of his religion), that they should speak yXutaffais 
Kmivals (Mark 16, 17), i. e. in tongues which they had never 
learned ; and that of thb prediction we have the fulfilment on the 
day of Pentecost. But to this it may be answered, that the term 
there employed is Kaiya7s, new tongues, by which is meant a new 
mode of speech, an usual eloquence, never before found in the dis- 
ciples : and what Jesus has there said is not to be referred to what 
we here read. (See my note on Mark 1, 1-) 

3. It ia urged by the above Commentators, that on the day of Pen- 
tecost there were (as we learn from v. 41.) about three thousand per^ 
sons who embraced the Christian faith. *'Such an increase (say they) 
must have been occasioned by this gift of tongues, whose power, and 
the cause of it, the auditors had, with admiration, perceived from 
the discourses r&v XaXovyrwv ra /leyaXeia rov Geet), and from the 
very discourse of Peter itself. Compare ver. 33." But that the au- 
ditors knew from the discourses of Christ *s-followers that the tongues 
which they used were previously unknown to them, is rather taken 
for granted than proved ; it does not appear from the narrative of 

Luke ; and on the words of Peter at ver. 33. there is by those inter- 
preters obtruded a sense which is not contained in them. The reli- 
gious Jews had heard, with admiration, the congregated Christians 
celebrating in foreign tongues the wonderful works of God (ver. 
11) : some in derision had said that these men were inekniated with 
new wine. But why did not Peter plainly declare to those who 
wondered and cavilled at the novelty of the thing, and these, that 
the very words of the foreign tongues were themselves inspired 
into the speakers? Now, in answer to those who contend that 
the foreign tongues were not before known to the speakers, we 
may be permittted to make the following observations : — a] If 
the faculty of s|)eaking foreign tongues had, by the pro- 



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44 ACTS OF THE APOSTL£8, CHAP. !!• 

vidence of God, been granted to the Apostles, one does not see honr 
it should happen that they should not, spontaneously and rokintarily, 
ha%'e come to the knowledge, that they were invested by God with 
this faculty, in order that they might deliver the doctrine of the 
Gospel to the Gentiles also. Now Peter had yet to be taught bf 
rifioft that, besides the Jewt, the Gentiles also were to be received 
into the assembly of Christians (see 10, 10 & 15) ; nor does he, 
when reprehended by the Jewish Christians (see 11, I. seq.) for 
having announcei] the divine doctrine to the Gentiles, in hb apo- 
logy, appeal to the gift of foreign tongues, granted to him and the 
rcit of his colleagues on the day of Pentecost. — b] Among the Co- 
rinthians there were vajunyyXitaari {scWyXbtavan) XaXovvres (which 
formulas are equivalent to the yXbta^ais iripais XaXovvres now un- 
der our consideration). John's disciples, when they had come over 
to Christianity, and Cornelius, with his family, are related to have 
used/oreign tongues. See Acts 10, 44 & 46. 19, 6. If w© refer this 
to a miracle, it would indeed deserve to be ranked with the most 
illustrious, but that so remarkable a miracle should have been so 
often rcfieated, and should have been conferred on so many Chris- 
tian converts, is little probable. — c] St. Paul, 1 Cor. 12, 98. in 
reckoning the x^pl^fiaray mentions tlie yeviy yXitaautv, last. He at 
1 Cor. 12, 31. 14, 1. seqq. refers it to x^p^^fta^'af of l^^^er estimation, 
and declares that from it redounds no benefit to the Churchy unless 
the things so brought forward by the speaker be interpreted. — dj By 
many of the Corinthians this gift was ambitiously sought after, and 
applied to the purpose of ostentation, since it excited greater admi- 
ration than the other gifts^ which St. Paul sharply censures. (See 
1 Cor. 14, 12. 28, S3.) But how is it possible that God should grant 
£0 admirable a gift to the Corinthians, that they might abuse it } 
lliis cannot be thought of, whether it be maintained, with some, 
that the faculty granted them, of understanding each language, was 
such that they might use it when they pleased, instead of their ver- 
nacular tongue, or (with others) that the gift was temporary, and 
only now and then granted by God. 

11. There have been those (as Ernesti and Moschius) who have 
thought that the gift of tongues was temporary and sudden, and 
only now and then exerted, during public assemblies, for the end of 
being a testimony to the truth of the Gospel, in order that the 
Apostles, who should believe in Christ, and the rest of his followers, 
who should afterwards believe in the Apostles, might be confirmed 
in the faith, and have this pledge of its truth ; and moreover that 
they also who should not yet have believed, might be excited to at- 
tain a knowledge of the truth. But to this it is replied by Eich- 
horn, that thus the gift granted by miracle would have required a 
miracle to take it away. "Now (continues he) for the preserva- 
tion to them of that gift a new miracle were surely unnecessary. If 
once the faculty of speaking in foreign tongues had been granted 
to the Apostles, why did not God sufier it to be perpetual } Al- 
though not necessary to them, it might yet be useful. Neither does 
one see why it should be necessary for this faculty to have been 
granted to the other Christians, that they might account it a pledge 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 45 

of the truth of Christianity." Storr, Opusc. 3, 177. asserts that 
the knowledge indeed of foreign tonpies was not granted to the 
Apo6tles and other Christians, but only mental faculties made equal 
to and tit for the speaking of those tongues whenever there should 
be need, and that the faculty of pouring forth prayer and praise to 
God was divinely inspired into them at that time, and was there- 
fore conceived in the words of a language unknown to the persons 
praying, in order that the Apostles might be excited to admiration, 
(see ver. 6 — I^.) and the presence and support of the Divine assist- 
ance, which had been promised to them, be confirmed. But, as 
Eichhorn observes^ neither can this conjecture be proved by any 
certain arguments. 

III. Finally, there have not been wanting those (as some Antients^ 
and Wolf) who have transferred the miracle, and, as it were, its 
seat, from the Apostles, and the other Christians, to the hearers; 
and have maintained that the Disciples spoke in their vernacular 
tongue, but that these words were received by the auditors of dif- 
ferent nations each in their vei nacuYar tongue. But this opinion is 
plainly repugnant to the context (compare ver. 4 & 11.): and thus 
things of themselves difficult enough to be understood are unneces- 
sarily rendered more marvellous and strange. 

IV. Others maintain that all is to be explained on natural princi- 
ples. But these interpreters are not quite agreed on the morfe.— 
a] Eichhorn is of opinion that the present formula, yXaxrirats ^r^- 
pats \a\eiy, is to be taken no otherwise than yXuxytrri and y\waaai£ 
XaXeci' in I Cor. 1% 14. and Acts 10, 46. 19, 6. Theses phrases, 
he thinks, mean no more than " speak with the tongue,** move the 
tongue to the expression of rounds inarticulate and indistinct, 
which others cannot understand : and as to the passage of Acts 10, 
46. he remarks that it may be so explained as to signify that some 
tittered inarticulate bounds, but others praised God in plain and 
perspicuous words. The same views have been adopted by Bardili, 
Ziegler, and Boehm. Eichhorn thinks that those who, on other 
occasions, spoke in foreign languages, vfere foreign Jews, of the 
number of those who had come to Jerusalem to celebrate the Pass- 
over and Pentecost, and had been by the Apostles brought over to 
the religion of Christ. Those fordgn Jews (says he), seized furore 
divMO, expressed the thoughts and feelings of their minds in their 
own vernacular tongues. Now the Jews, who entertained some- 
what rigid notions on religious worship and instruction, were averse 
to the use of any other language in sacred worship than the antient 
Hebrew, or the Syro-Chaldee. (See Noesselt, Diss, on the Holy 
Chost communicated by the Apostles to the first Christians by the 
imposition of hands, inserted in his Exercit. p. 67 & 73, where he 
remai'ks that the cause why the Samaritans (Acts 8, 17.) are said 
none of them to have spoken hipais yXunrtrais is this, that the Sa- 
maritans* native language was Aramaean, a certain dialect of the 
sacred language, and therefore could not be spoken in a profane 
tongue.) The Jews therefore, who had collected together, when 
they heard men of their own nation holding sacred discourses in 
profkne languages, were greatly offended at witnessing such an in- 



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46 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. 11. 

BOTation^ and exclaiiDed, "Are not all those which speak GaliUeans? 
Jews of a sect arising from Galilee? How is it then that we hear 
them speak thus in profane languages ? What lust of innovation 
is it that hurries thein so far ?'* Others answered, " It is no inno^ 
Yation> the men are inebriated/* — p] Herder tells us that yXArva 
was sometimes used of words obsolete* foreiffn» unusual, and poeti^ 
cal $ and that in the Rabbinical writings yvan, denotes the language 
of a certain nation. But the former signification of yXiivaa rarely 
occurs in the Classical writers, and never in the New Testament ; 
and that poetical words are so denominated can scarcely be proved 
by any examples. See Storr, Opusc. 3. 977- FXw^^ XaXeii^ Her- 
der interprets animo concUalo loqui, yXuatrais XaXeiy, inrofOiyyt^r^ 
dui, and iripais icaiyais yXwcrcracs XciXeii' to bring forward new in- 
terpretations of divine oi'acles. (But this and the rest of his hypo- 
thesis is too absurd and improbable to need refutation, and is coov- 
pletely overturned by Storr, Opusc. S« 277. and Kuin. in h. 1. Edit ) 
— y] Paulus is of opinion that the Christians praying and singing in 
foreign languages, (i. e. the Greek, Latin, Arabic, and l^rsic,^ 
were ForeM;n Jews, but that the auditors falsely and hastily tooK 
them for Galilsans, and he maintains that even the Corinthians 
spoke in foreign tongues^ with which they were acquainted.— 
6] Meyer renders the words, " ibey began to speak in tongues dif- 
ferent from those used for this purpose. He thinks that the formu* 
las yXwffo^, yX<^^^a(t XaXciv, iu Acts 10, 46. in Acts 10, 46. 19, 6. 
and i£p. to Corinth, are to be understood of an enthusiastic dis- 
course and phraseology filled with foreign names, so that, accordiog 
to his opinion, those, Ibr instance, who spoke Greek, mingled in 
their discourse certain Hebrew and Latin phrases and formulas; 
which conjecture, destitute of proof and improbable in itself, has 
been refutad by Klein and others. — e] According to the opink>n oC 
Heinrichs, the Jews in their festivals did not use the vernacular 
language of Palestine, but an older and sacred Hebrew, and that 
this the Apostles and Disciples hnd used before the phenomenon 
had appeared to them, but afterwards, when they perceived them- 
selves seized with the sacred furor, they cared no longer for the 
Imgua sacra, but pronounced the words in the language accustomed 
and natural to each ; and that therefore the Palestines used that 
dialect, the Cretes the Cretan. He therefore ascribes to the phrase 
yXttKrcats Mpam Hp^apTo XaXely this sense : '* The benefits of God 
and the Divine Majesty, which they had hitherto oelebrated in the holy 
language, they now extolled in a poetical and figurative phraseology 
(but see supra /3), and in sublimer language, and n>oreover each in 
their native tongue, and vernacular dialect.** But that the antient He- 
brew was then unknown has been proved by Vitringa de Syn. Vet. p. 
|0I5. — rf] Klein maintains that, on the feast day, very many had met 
together in the Temple, in order to pour forth their prayers in the 
accustomed and in the holy language prescribed by the rites of the 
Law, and being after a time moved by a certain extraordinary eventi 
gave vent to their highly-excited feelings in the vernacular, and 
therefore to them easier tongue, and seized with enthusiasm verba 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, II. 4/ 

graoiwa fecme, ^p^arro XaXeiy h-ipais y\w<r<raip. The formula 
yX^wms XaXtiy at Acts 10 & 19. he takes, not id a proper but in 
a prorerbial tense: and thus in Acts % 4. he thinks that h-dpais 
yXwaffcus XaXctv was a proverbial expression. [For tlie remainder 
of these most absurd and fer-fctched hypotheses I must refer the 
reader to Kuin. Edit.] 

. After bringing forward the principal interpretations of this pas- 
sage, I must suQoin what appears to me the most probable one ; 
lor nothing beyond probidiiliiy ought to be required, since we live 
loo far removed from the times in which the things here mentioned 
took plaee ; and nothing beyond the ftict itself has been narrated 
by the sacmi writer. The simplest interpretation, and the most 
suitable to each of the passages, and therefore probably the truest, 
is that which assigns to the formulas yXmatrfj, yX^affais XaXely, at 
Acts 10 & 1^ and I Cor. 14. the same sense with that of yX^o^cracs 
Mpais XaXeiv, at Acts 9, 4. and renders thus : to speak a foreign 
tongue, or foreign tongues. That they are synonymous and equi-> 
Talent appears from Acts 11, 15. where Peter professes that in the 
Pagans (i. e. Cornelius and other Romans, compare 10, 30, & 44.) 
the divine power had worked in the same manner as formerly, on 
the day of Pentecost, it had done in the Apostles. But at C. 10, 14. 
we read that, seized with ardour and enthusiasm, they had spoken 
also in foreign tongues. Hither also must be referred the passage 
of 1 Cor. 14, 21. where there preceded the phrases yX^traau, 
yXkfefff XaX^y, and where there are adduced by St. Paul, and 
transftvred to his purpose, the words of Is. 28, 1 1. The prophet 
there threatens to his countrymen that God would employ enemies 
barbarian in language, and thus chastise them. In the Sept. wa 
have hih yX^trfroi Mpas, but the Apostle has employed the terms 
XccXea iripa and Mpas yXutavas, in foreigm languages. (Compare 
Storr, Opusc. 2, 295. and see what was before remarked in /3). 
Idow as to our present passage, the following considerations are to 
be borne in mind. To the Jews of Palestine, and especially the 
more rigid ones, the study of foreign languages was held in hatred, 
and they felt averse to the use of any other language, for religious 
offices and instructions, than the old Hebrew, or the Syro-Chaklee. 
Those indeed who entertained milder opinions conceded the use of 
the Greek language. In the Palestinian synagogties the Law and 
the Prophets were publicly read in the Hebrew language. Since* 
however, it had, at that time, ceased to be known to the common 
people^ some selections were read in the vernacular, i. e. the Syro- 
Chaldee tongue, and in this, as well as in the older Hebrew, the 
forms of prayer were recited : ex. gr. Menachoth, fol. 64, 2. male- 
diotas sit qui alit porcos, et qni doeet filium suum sapientiam Gree- 
corum. Hieros, Sota, fbl. 21, 2.. R. Levi ben Chaiathah adiit Css- 
saream, atque audivit eos recitantes precationem jtdb^ Grsec^ ; voluit 
eos prohibere. R. Jose id animadvertens, iratus dicebat : qui non 
potest Hebraic^, num omnino non recitabit ? I mo recitet ek lin« 
gokf quam intelligit, et sic officio suo satislaciat. Berachoth. fol. 3, 
i. Sunt, qui dicant precatiunculam istam, cujus initium w»ip reci- 
iare post concionem ; adfuit autem ibi vutgus, qui linguam He- 



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48 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, I^ 

bream non intcjiigebat, ideo in lingii^ Targumisticik earn inatitac* 
riint> ut intelligeretur ab omnibus, nam hsc eorum lingiiR> &c. See 
also the note on Job. 7> 36. Abo in the synagogues of the Hel- 
lenists (see Acts 6, 1, 9.) the sacred books were publicly read in 
the Hebrew language (for that the Alexandrian version was so read 
cannot be proved), but the portions recited were explained in the 
Greek language : moreover the |)raycrs in the Syro-Chaldec tongue, 
and what had been composed from places of the Old Testament, 
were named in the Old Hebrew. The common people indeed did 
not understand those forms of prayer, but, according to the deci- 
sions of the Jewish Doctors, it was suflicient for them to pronounce 
Amen. So Schabkath, fol. 119, 2. Dixit R. Josua Ben Levi: Qui- 
cunqtie respondet Amen, illius nomen magnum erit et benedictum, 
et decretum damnationis ejus omnibus viribus annihilatur. Imo si 
ipsi aliquid idolatrise adhsereat, id deletur. R. Chija fil. Abba dixit, 
docuisse R. Jochanem : Ouicunque respondet Amen, illi omnibus 
viribus aperiunt portas Paradisi, &c. Berachoih, fol. 53, ^ & Sohar 
Chadasch, fol. 74, 1. R. Jose dixit : major est, qui resjiondet Amen, 
quam qui preces recitat. Compare also 1 Cor. 14, 16. where see 
Beza. There have indeed been those who have contended that not 
only in the Synagogues of the Palestinean Jews, but also in those 
of the foreign Jews, the Syro-Chaldec was in use, and that all the 
more religious Jews abstained from the use of any other language, 
while engaged in religious teaching or divine worship. But this 
cannot be proved by any certain and cogent arguments, nor, if the 
opinion were admitted, can one see how the Gentile proselytes, 
ignorant as they were of the Syro-Chaldee, could frequent the 
Synagogues. Admitting, however, the opinion which ice have just 
proposed, not only is this difficulty removed, but it plainly appears 
what is the force of the words ^p^ai ro XaXeTv yXiavais eripau, 
and why the more rigid Jews were filled with astonishment when 
every one heard the Christians speaking in their vernacular tongue. 
Fm' amongst the Christians collected on the day of Pentecost were 
also certain /ordgn Jews. (See Job. 12, 20 ) On hearing the sound 
(ver. 2), and viewing (he flames (ver. 3), all with a sacred enthu- 
siasm and holy fervor, prayed with a loud voice, and made known 
rh /leyaXeTa rov Oeov (ver. 11), every one using his own vernacu- 
lar tongue. Now the Jews, and, among them, &ybp€s ehXafieis, 
repairing for religious worship to the Temple (situated perhaps in 
the vicinity), on hearing the sound and the voices of those who 
were praying with minds highly excited, entered the Synagogue of 
the Galilseans, heard the Galilseans praying in foreign languages, 
and praising God for the event which had just taken place. Those 
who heard the Christians praying were Jews both of foreign coun- 
tries and distant parts of Palestine. Now they, as being religions 
Jews, were offended at hearing prayer uttered, not only in the Syro- 
Chaldee, or the Greek, but also in other languages, by the Jewish 
Christians on this feast-day, and that at the customary hour of 
prayer in the Holy City, publicly and in the synagogues. See the 
note on ver. 7 & 12. But that the Apostles, and especially their 
companions, offered up prayers, and repeated hymns derived from 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 49 

the sacred books, and accommodated to those limes» and not sacred 
orations, may also be confirmed by a passage of 1 Cor. 14, 13 — 17. 
Inhere were, indeed, among the Corinthians those who imitated the 
event mentioned at Acts % using in their sacred meetings foreign 
tongues, (often many at once: see I Cor. 14,27) not enflamed 
and excited with piom ardour of mind, as uere the Chrbtians as« 
sembled on the day of Pentecost, but drawn by vanity, and for the 
sake of boasting of their skill in foreign languages. What they ut- 
tered were prayers, and not hymns. For in the passage in question 
of 1 Cor. TO XaXelv yXkfatrti, or yXkuraau, is more accurately defined 
by the words wpoatvxeaSai, t/zaXXeiv, ei'XoyccK, for which in this 
place (ver. 11) wc have ^XoXow ra /leyaXcca roi) Geoi;. Compare 
also 10,46. (Kuin.) 

The last-mentioned opinion is far more probable than the pre- 
ceding ones, and seems to remove some difficulties by which the 
common hy| othesis is embarrassed; but it is liable, though in a less 
degree, to the same objection as that which destroys the first de- 
tailed hypothesis, namely, that it is contort, far-fetched, and seems 
to do violence to the sense of the whole passage, being such as no 
person of sober understanding and competent learning, who had no 
knowledge bul of the passage before him, would ever have thought 
of. Surely so magnificent and august a preparation as the preter- 
natural appearance of the tongues of fire and the Afdritrav ahroU 
hiafjL€pi£6fji€yoi yXdtf'^ai dttrtl irvposf suggests the idea of somethinij^ 
miraculovs, and not that they only prayed and preached with unusual 
flow of language and fervour. Such a magnificent portal, I say, re- 
quires a correspondent edifice. Besides, the conversion of the three 
thousand seems to suppose something miraculous had taken place. 
So that, after all, the common hypothesis, as it is the most natural, 
and is confirmed by the earliest authorities, so upon the whole, it 
perhaps involves the least difficulty. 1 certainly have met with no- 
thing even in the Greek Lyric Poets that at all comes up to the 
highly figurative sense assigned to the plain prose expression, eripais 
ykLvffais, by the above learned Commentators. 

4. KcAms TO TTveviia €3i8ou otTro^^eyyea-QoLi. Most re- 
ceDt Commentators unite in giving icodcor the sense 
of postquatHy quoniam^ or nam ; as in Joh, 17> 2. 
Rom. 1, 6. and elsewhere. But that signification is 
of doubtful authority, and the passages cited are of a 
different complexion. Besides, the interpretation is 
evidently adopted for the purpose of supporting the 
hypotheses propounded on the former passage. It 
seems safer, therefore, to retain the common interpre- 
tation prouty which, indeed, is required by the words 
preceding, (if any sense be assigned to them which 
at all involves a notion of Divine assistance^) and by 
the cS/Son, unless it^ force be entirely explained atvay. 

VOL. IV. E 



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50 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

Besides, something extraordinary seems indicated 
by the term a7ro(P^€yy€(r^ai. For, as Valckn. ob- 
serves, it signifies graviter et magnified loqui, scil. 
eloqui dicta profunda, sensus plena. So Hor. L. 4. 
Ode 2. ver. 5. Monte decurrens velut amnis, imbres 
quern super notas aluere ripas fervet, immensusque 
ruit protundo Pindarus ore. So the sayings of 
the seven wise men were called aTo^fleyjutaTa, and 
such were those of our Lord in Matt. 5, 6 & 7- 
Grotius, too, and Beza, as also Camerarius and 
Vatablus, agree that the word is commonly used of 
prophetic, divinely inspired, and profoundly senten- 
tious language, and answers to the Heb. M33 DDp 
and ^^n, all of which signify " to utter prophetic 
and divinely inspired words." And this interpre- 
tation is confirmed by the authority of Chrysostom 
and CEcumenius, and seems to have been adopted 
by Wetstein, since his Classical examples all tend to 
the illustration of it.* To these may be added the 
following, cited by Kypke. Plutarch de Pythiae 
orac. p. 405. speaking of the Delphic priests, he 
says: t^wtov jx^v aio'irep elfftirony rot wT^wra Ktjjcfipa^ 
ifaTaXoyoSiji' atrf^&fyywro. & p. 268. oaro^ieyyetrQai 
>,iyia Ka) p^erjuwoSeTv ToTy ipcorwa-iy. Strabo L. 14. 
p. 945. relates that the king of the Egyptians, /xav- 
TiKm Tcoy aTo^dfy^oMrdai. See also Joseph. Ant. 
L. 17. C. 8. p. 597. Philo de Josepho, p. 543. 
relates that, on his having interpreted dreams to 
Pharaoh, the king said to him : oi yoip aveu d^oG tout* 
axo^fleyyeo-flai juioi SokcTs*. To his examples Wetstein 
subjoins the following observation, namely, that as 
th^ gift of tongues, so also that of prophecy was not 
so far in their power that they could use it as often 
as they pleased, to whom, and on what business, 
they chose, but in conformity to the will of the 
Almighty. 

* These are chiefly derived from Eisner, though he has unwarily 
oitiitted the most important of those illustrations, namely, Jam- 
blich. de Myster. sect. 3. c. 17. p. 82. More rHy chrjdiKwy riva Av- 
Bp^w> voiei {6 9eoO fiCTO. eoi^ias \oyov hwoifidiyyevOai. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II, 51 

5. ^(rav Skiy ^lepoua-aX^jx KaroiKourre^. These wofds 
are, by Paulus and Heinrichs, referred to the pre- 
ceding ones, bnt by other commentators to the fol' 
lowing : and this Kuinoel acknowledges to be the 
truer mode of taking them. For the reasons which 
he assigns to this preference I must refer the reader 
to his note ; the thing being too obvious to need 
any explication. KaroiKouvre^ is, by Wolf, Michae- 
lis, Rosenm. and others, explained dwellings and 
not, as it is usually rendered, sojourning^ " since 
that (say they) would require irapoiKouvre^ and wapc- 
'2n^lMuvT€9. They remark, too, that many religious 
persons of the foreign Jews had fixed their residence 
at Jerusalem for the purpose of having greater 
facilities for the performance of religious duties, and 
because the advent of the Messiah was then ex* 
pected. 

They explain oi KaroiKotivTcs at ver. 9. by gui olim 
kabitavimus. But this seems harsh, and there is 
no reason to suppose the sacred writers so very 
exact in the use of terms nearly synonymous. I 
agree with Kuinoel in maintaining the common 
interpretation. For fas he observes) KaroiKeh is not 
only used of those wno dwell permanently, but of 
these who sojourn any where, like OTiSijjuierv ; as in 
the Sept. Gen. 27, 44. where it answers to 2tt)% and 
in 1 Kings 17? 23. to 113 peregrinare. 

These foreign Jews had come to Jerusalem in 
order to celebrate tiie Passover, and many of them, 
we may suppose, had remained there from the last 
Passover. 

The sense of the whole passage is thus laid down 
by Markland : *' It happened that there were at 
that time at Jerusalem Jews from almost all parts of 
the known world, on account of the feast of Pente- 
cost. These men were greatly surprised and asto- 
nished when they heard the Apostles speaking in 
the languages of their several countries. But others 
(viz. the natives of Judea and Jerusalem), not un- 
derstanding the languages which were spoken, said 

e2 

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52 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. II. 

that they were poor inconsiderable fellows, who 
had got drunk that morning, and spake, like drunken 
men, what came uppermost. But Peter, at the 
head of the other Apostles, applied himself in a 
speech to both the parties, and proved to the natives^ 
first, that they were mistaken in thinking them 
drunk t and then he told them hoth^ that that was 
the thing which had been foretold by the prophet 
Joel," &c. 

5. oi)fhp€9 iu\oL^79. By these are not meant pro^ 
selytes (as some have supposed) ; in which signifi- 
cation the word does not occur in the New lesta- 
ment ; neither does the particle KcCi distinguish them 
from the Jews before-mentioned. For at Acts 8, 2. 
by the €uXa0€7y are denoted persons of integrity and 
piety ; as Simeon in Luke 2, 25. 

5. airo navrh^ ^dvou^, roiy 6t^ r^y ou^ayoV. Here we 
have an hyperbole, for *' in a manner all, from many 
or various nations of the globe.*' * Wolf subauds 

* Of this hyperbolical way of speaking we have several instances 
in Scripture. Thus in Dcut. \, 9,S. 9, 1. we read of cities walled up 
to heaven. And in Deut. 2, 35. of the dread of the Jews falling 
upon every nation under the whole heaven. See also Gen. 11,4. Judg. 
90y 16^ and Pto. 107^ 26. (Doddridge). So Joseph. Ant. 4, 7> 2. 
says that Lucullus came to Cyrene to quell an insuirection of the 
Jews thek^, Stv if olKovpeyji ircTrX^pwrat, of which (Jews) the world is 
full: and in Bell. Jud. % 16, 4. he makes King Agrippa the younger 
say to the Jews, oh yap itrrly M His olKovpiviis oiipos, 6 pr^ poTpav 
ifperipay ix^^y there is no nation in the world where a phrt of you is 
not to be found. But Philo, in his account of the Jewbh embassy 
to Caligiila, makes King Agrippa the elder speak more larfi;ely on 
this subject in the following words (vol. 2. p. 587. ed. Mang.) : 
Airri kpii pkv lore irarpU' pfjrp6irokis hi ov plas xifpas 'loviaias^ 
hXKa Koi riiy vXelari^y, &c. Haec quidem (scil. Hierosolyma) est 
patria mea j est verb metropolis non unius regionis Judeffi» sed et 
multanim, propter colonias inde varits temporibus emissas in re- 
giones Onitimas : in .£gyptam, Phcenicen-Syriam, turn reliquam» 
tum eam> quam Coelo*Syriam vocant; turn in longius dissitas, Pam- 
phyliam, Ciliciam, plerasque Asis partes usque ad Bithyniam et Ponti 
sinus intemos. Pari modo in Europ^ Thessaliam, Boetiam, Mace- 
doniam, ^toliam, Atticam, Argos, Corinthum, Peleponnesi partes 
plurimas et prsecipuas. Nee tantum continentis provincise plense 
sunt coloniis Judaicis, sed et insularum celeberrime, EuboeayCyprus, 
et Creta. Taceo de provinciis Trans-Euphratensibus : omnes enim 
istffi, excepts parvfil parte (Baby lone reliquisque prsfecturus quae 
agroferaci gaudent) k Judoeis incoluiitur. Sec also what Philo s^ays 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. 11. 63 

X^P^^f Erasmus, Beza, and Heumann, edpm. But 
we may simply supply ovrwv. 'T^i top oiqavhfy on the 
earth. In tne same sense have we elsewhere inro tov 
^Xiov. So the Heb. ttJDWn mn in Eccl. 1, 9. In 
Diodor. Sic. .599 c. Persepolis is said to be TXoti^ioi- 
Tcenj iroXis* toSp utto riv ^Xiov. And in Plat. Tim. 23 c. 
Athens is pronounced to be the most beautiful city 
ToJy tnro ou^avov. See also Plut. Lyc. 45 c. (Kuin.) 
Tit iJx/o) or ifTTo TOP ^Xioy are of frequent occurrence ; 
as Phil.*972 a. 979 d. 982 k. (Loesner.) 

6. ycvopivij^ §€ T^y ^covrif. ^<ov^ has been by most 
Commentators, as Wolf, RosenmuUer, and Hein- 
richs considered as synonymous with rj^o? at ver. 2., 
i.e. a sound produced by a commotion of the air. 
(See the note on that passage.) But ^X99 is too 
remote, nor does one see how a very violent wind, 
diffused through all parts of the city, could cause 
Jerusalemites to meet together at that house. Eras- 
rousy Beea, Grotius, Wolf, and Heumann, take ^eovri 
to have the sense of ^ij/tij. So Gen. 45, 16, *cai Sie- 
Qcf^dr} 1) ^a)sn}. Jer. 4, 15. (pwvrj avayy^Xovro^ t[$^«> and 
59, 46. 4>o>pri aXoHrecD^. See Gatak. de Styl. Nov. 
Test. C. 14, p. 144.) ; and (^i^s* ratJiij^ they explain 
by ^eopfi^ ir€p) Tourou. But there is not sufficient 
reason for receding from the common signification 
of (ptoir^y and taking it for $i}|X7g, since it is often used 
in that sense, and conjoined with the verbs epyeo-Oai 
and i^€py€(r6ai (Matt. 9, 26.), not with ;^ev€(rdai. 
Besides, the rounjy plainly shews that ^oiinj is to be 
referred to what immediately preceded, namely, the 
noise produced by those who, full of vehement com- 
motion, in a loud voice uttered prayers in foreign 
languages. Thus^ just after, in ver. 14.^ ^(opr\ is used 
of a human voice. 

Suyepfudi] *^ was confounded, struck with astonish- 
ment at the novelty of the thing. Xtryx^Jtrdaiy like 
the Latin confundo, denotes great perturbation of 

to the same purpose in vol. 2, p. 5^4, and p. 577> edit. Mangey ) and 
what Cunseiu says in lib. 1, c. 8. and lib. 2, c. 23. of his Resp. 
Judaica. (Bp. Pearee.) I add Xenoph. £ph. p. 36. irdvrds iiir^Kr 
T€ty€, 6\iyov$ ik Koi SwvTas l\a/3e. 



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54 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

mind; as in 1 Mace. 4, 27- 2 Mace. 10, »0. Thus 
Hesychius explains o-uyicepfurai by (ruPTfrapaKrai. Of 
this sense many examples are produced by Wetstein 
and Loesner. AiaXcicro^ is for yXeSo-o-a in 1, 19- 2, 4. 
(Kuin.) 

7i 8. f^iVrayro* — cyewr^fiijft^y. Most Commen- 
tators suppose that the auditors wondered that men, 
by nation Galileans, without the advantages of lite- 
rature, or intercourse with foreign nations, should 
speak foreign languages. (See Storr. Op. 3, I?*) 
But the Galileans, it must be observed, were of a 
mixed race, composed of many nations ; and the 
country was inhabited by Egyptians, Arabs, Phoe- 
nicians, and Syrians. The province flourished in 
commerce, and was not unpolished in mannersi. 
(See the note on Matt. 4, 12. and the Proleg. to 
Joh. p. 34.) Wherefore a knowledge of foreign lan^ 
guages might be acquired by the Galilaeans. And 
thus there might also be present at the Christian 
assembly, on the day of Pentecost, Galila&ans ac- 

* On the words ^{tori/vat and OavfjidSeiy Valcknaer has the fol- 
lowing learned remarks : 

I. 'E^itTTfifii is used both as an active and a neuter verb. Thus 
iKarnjiral Tiya rfis iroXius signifies to drive any one out of toum ; and 
iictrnivai noXius, to depart from town, as rii$ dbov eKrrfiyai. (See 
Herodot. 1. 3. c. 77) In the same sense e^iffraerBai is used by Nym- 
phodor. in Schol. ad Sophocl. CEd. in Col. 124. 

II. Tlic opposite to iv iavrf elvai, or evrbs lavrov ylvetrSai, to 
be composed and udate, is i^itrratrBai, or ^Ktrr^yai tov vov, and fre- 
quently, by elKpsis, i^ltrratrOai, to be beside oneself. Moreover* 
cf/^acrOoi, cKtrrriKiyai, and eKtryyai, were used of prophets Deo 
plenis, under a divine inspiration, and transported by a sacred /uror. 
Hence may be illustrated a passage of 2 Cor. 5, 13. where eKtrriiyai 
and euHppoyeiy are opposed ; as ot»>^poy€'iy and ftaiyttrBai in Ludan. 
See Alberti on Mark, c.3. p. 177* 

III. It is most frequently used of wonder, by which any one is 
struck, and, as it were, put beside himself. In this sense it is em- 
ployed in the present passage, as also in Acts 8, 13. 19, 91. Matt. 
12, 23» We have the active kKtrrfjirai, to astonish, in Luke 24, 22. 
Acts 8, 9* The state of a mind transported is in Scripture ex- 
pressed by iKtrratFis. 

Qavfjiaieiy properly signifies spectare cum admiratione, from Bavpa 
prattigup, a show, 9ai)/Lia comes from the perfect, OeSavfiai, of the 
old form Oavdf, which was derived from B^bt. (Valcknaer.) 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. 11.^ 55 

quainted with foreign languages, and Jews living, 
out of Palestine. How then, it may be asked^ 
could it seem wonderful to the Jews, assembling to- 
gether, that the Galilasans were speaking in foreign 
languages? Why did it not occur to them that 
among the number of speakers there might be Jews 
living out of Palestine, who might have learned, 
foreign languages ? Now the cause of this wonder 
Luke has himself plainly declared, since he intro^ 
duces the re/Zg'/ozi^ Jews as thus speaking: oucoCofi^eu 

Td5 06e5. These wondered, therefore, that the Ga- 
lilseans were celebrating the praises of God in fo- 
reign languages. (Kuin.) But see the note supra 
ver. 4. Kuinoel agrees with Eichhorn and some 
commentators mentioned by Wolf in regarding Fa- 
XiXoIbi here as the name of a sect rather than of a 
country. ** The followers of Christ (says he), be-» 
fore they were called Christians, bore the name of 
Galilaeans, because the author of the sect and his 
first followers derived their origin from that district. 
See Reland's Palest. 184. Matt. 26, 69 & 71. Joh. 7> 
50. Acts 11, 26. But it may be doubted whether 
the oame had, at so early a period, ever been given 
them : at least of this we may justly require some 
proof. 

9 — 1 1 . na§9oi— "Apa/Ses'. To shew that the foreign 
Jews heard the Christians speaking in the languajge 
of their countries, Luke reckons up these countries 
from the East, (i.e. Parthia and Media,) to the fVesty 
(i.e. Lybia and Cyrene); from the North, (i. e* 
Cappadocia and Pontus, &c.), to the South, (i. e^ 
Egypt,) in which the Jews then dwelt, and from 
whence sojourners might, at the time of the feast, 
be expected to arrive. This catalogue, however, 
or list, is rather ad ornatUm, by way of ornament,' 
and is not to be too much pressed ; nor need we 
maintain that there were auditors present from each 
and every of the above-named countries, and that 
the Christians spoke in so many different languages. 



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56 ACTS OF THE APOSTLtS, CHAP. II. 

since in many of the above named provinces the 
same language was in use j as in Phrygia, the Pam- 
phyliauj i. e. the Greek tongue ; in JudsE^a and 
Mesopotamia, the Syrochaldee; in Parthia, Media, 
and Elynais, the Persian. (Kuin.) 

To this interpretation, however, I cannot accede, 
since it supposes such a perfect knowledge of those 
countries as we do not, in reality, possess ; and seems, 
therefore, an unwarrantable liberty. Besides, this 
paring down of the, sense is evidently done to serve 
a purpose ; namely, to countenance and support the 
hypothesis brought forward at ver. 4. Ancl admit- 
ting that the same language was in use in many of 
those provinces, we may be allowed to suppose that 
it would vary considerably according to the different 
dialects, of which there would, probably, be several.* 

Wetstein observes that as the Passover was cele- 
brated early in the Spring, there was not sufficient 
time for any one to come from a great distance ; 
and that the feast of Pentecost, to which both Jews 
and religious persons of all nations resorted, was far 
more convenient. He then cites Philo de Monarch. 
2, p. 223, 14. Koi ToGSt tra^erTarTj iritrrhs €tf"T4 r^ 
y€VOfi€va. Mupioi yobp oltto [wpitop o<rw¥ ^Xceov, o! /x^y 
Slot y^^, ol Se SiA OoXamjy i§ avaTo^^^, Ka) ivtrem^, Koi 
apKTotjf Ka) iJi^trrifJi^pia^y icafl' eopn}v €7y to Ic^ov icara/- 
pwtriUf ota rivc^ icoivov liriro^pofjLOv, Ka) KaraycoyriP ao'^cOiri 
To\wrpaYiiovo9 kou rapajfato^iTTarao ^loG. 

9. n«pdoi, i. e. Jews born and resident in Parthia. 
Of these Justin says, L. 41. Proaem. Parthi, Scytha- 
rum exules fuerunt. Hoc etiam ipsorum vocabulo 
manifestatur; nam Scythico sermone Parthi (exules) 
dicuntur. See Cellar. Geog. 3, 18. 'Exaprai, inha- 

* Of this variation, according to the different dialects, the Italian 
language afibrds a notable instance. Of the most remarkable varying 
of its dialects may be reckoned those of Venice, Friuli, Mantua, Ge- 
noa^ Naples, Padua, Istria, and Bergamo, a specimen of which is 
given in a translated fragment of a celebrated Italian author, pub- 
lished by the Chevalier Sal viati, and inserted in the introduction to 
Montucci*s very useful '' Italian Extracts." 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 5^ 

bitants of Elvmais, a province on the Persian gulph, 
and which formed part of Persia. Hence it is put 
^r that country; as in Is. 21, 2. where the Sept. 
Version has hr i^Mi oi 'Exaprai, KcCi ol Trp^tr^^ls t£v 
Tlepa-dS^ €x ifie eo^ovrai. So also 1 Mace. 6, 1. Jos. 
Ant. 1, 6, 4. On M^a-o^roTajuwa see Cellar and Schl. 
Lex. ^ 

9. *IouSaiav. This word has, by some aiicient and 
modern interpreters, been thought spurious, because 
they did not see how Luke copld reckon the Jews 
among foreign nations. Hence TertuUian and. 
Augustin read Armenia, and Theophylact omits 
*Iou8aiav. Schmid. conjectures 'lyS/av, Barth loSou- 
pxiav, Markland and Bryant AuSiav, and Hemster- 
husius (with the approbation of Valcknaer) Bidw/ov. 
Most Commentators have, however, (more rightly,) 
judged that the common reading, as being sup- 
ported by the authority of all the MSS. and Ver- 
sions is to be retained, and have remarked that 
Judaea might properly be mentioned, since the Ga- 
lilaean dialect was somewhat diflTerent from that of 
Jerusalem and the rest of Judaea ; and that the word 
SioX^icroy not only signifies language, but also dialect, 
i. e. a different species of the same language. For 
Luke, who^ at ver. 5., had made mention only of the 
foreign Jews, meant also to signify that the Jerusa- 
lemites too, and Jews who (as we have before ob- 
served) were very averse to communicating religious 
instruction, or offering religious worship in any other 
language than the old Hebrew or Syro-Chaldee, 
had heard the Christians praying in foreign Ian* 
guages. (Kuin.) On the other names see T^tstein, 
Cellarius, aud Schleusner, as also Home's Intro- 
duction. 

10, 11. 01 €TiSi]|uioGvr€^ Pa>|xaibi, i.e. "Jews who 
had settled and had their dwellings at Rome.** So 
AvTio^€i9 occurs in Joseph. C. Ap. 2, 11. After 
eriSijjxoGinre^ subaud cSSe, i. e. at Jerusalem. (Com- 
pare 17, 21.) Those are said ein^iUiv, who sojourn 
and fix their temporary residence at some place 



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J 



58 ACTS OF THE APOSFLES, CHAP. IK 

different from their proper country and home. So 
Diodor. Sic. 53 a. (cited by Munth) oi TOftiriSi^fAoGvTcy 
rw diro T^y *IraXiay. (Kuin.) Among the many 
examples produced by Wetstein, the following are 
the most apposite. Plotin. Enn. 6, S, 1. wtrwep dp 
iins 0ouXoft€yoy rouy iroTJras trxnta^ai iriT^eto^ riV69, otop 
Kark r^lLr^a-os 'J? Wpfvas*, rohs enSi^ixoGvray ^€vov9 irapa^ 
XiVoi X!^ph* Athenaeus 8, p. 361 f. ol Pco/utr^v icaroi- 
ico5yT€y, ical oi eTiS^jftoOvref t^ xoXei, & 4 p. 138 F. rowy 
€TiS>}f4i}<ravray ToJy ^evoiv. Simplic. in Epictet. p. 210. 

Xenoph. Hell. 2. oI €7nSi)fi.o3kTfy ev AaiceSa/jxovi fcluoi. 
Lucian V. H. 2, 46. tou9 fViStjjmoGyray ^evouy. 

10. Ai0t5i)$' T^$» icara Kup^'vi}^. So Dio. Cass. 574, 33. 
704, 82. TT^v Ai0tn}v t^v ^epj Kupr^pi^p. Joseph. 722, 
20, 20. ^* xpis* KopvjvT^v Aifitn^. Malchus ap. Corp. H. 
Byz. 80 B. €p rf KaT*Hx€ip<p. 

10. 'louSaTo* Koi xpexnjXyroi, i. e. both Jews born 
and proselytes, those who had been made so ; oi ۤ 
edvcov xpo^€Xi3XuSoT€$' ToJ 06<o, as Suidas explains. 
Some refer these words to tlie Romans before men- 
tioned ; others, more properly, to all the nations of 
which mention was made in the preceding; nay^ 
even the Cretes and Arabs just afterwards named. 
(Kuin.) 

11. tA fxeyaXcTa toxi 06oG. We must here subaud 
irpdyiMLTa or epyo, which signify, 1st, deeds worthy 
of admiration; 2dly, mighty benefits. (See the 
note on Luke 1 , 49-) They celebrated the praises 
of God either in the Psalm usually recited on those 
days, or in their own words, and in prayers; de- 
claring the benefits bestowed by God through Jesus 
Christ. 

12. 13. i^itrravTO Se ko) hrjiropouv. The word Sia* 
irop€Tv (which occurs in no other sacred writer but 
St. Luke) is a somewhat stronger term than oaropeivy 
and denotes " knowing not what to do, what course 
to take,'* and is generally expressive of hesitation^ 
doubt, and uncertainty ; as in Luke 9» 7- ^^ Snjiro- 
pei, and Acts 10, 17- Siij^ropouv T€g) aircoy, and 10, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHHP. II. 59 

17. oi^ S^ ip dauTip Siijiro^i n obf €lrj opafxa. So also in 
the middle voice, Luke 24, 4. And so Dan. 2, 8. 
(Symen.) icai Sii]Top€i r^ 9rveu|xa. It is sometimes 
used by the later Greek writers, both in the active 
and middle voice : Ti ay fleXei roGro elmi ; " what * 
this should mean?** what this portended, to what 
event it would lead. 0eXeiy and 0ou^€(rdai, it must 
be observed, are not unfrequently used, like fUJiXew^ 
to denote no more than our shall^ willy should^ and 
would. Of this some examples are adduced from 
Philo by Loesner, and from other authors by Palairet. 
Loesner refers to Reisk Animad. 4, 694. Wetstein, 
too, produces some examples ; as Anacr. 44, 6. n 
B^T^ei ovap ToS* elvai; Herodot. 1, 78. rl OeXoi (rrjfuaiveiu 
rl T€pa9. On ver. 13. Wetstein refers to 2 ParaL 
SO, 10. 36, 26. Judg. 10. 

13. €T€goi 86 pfXeua^ovrey. Kuinoel remarks that 
;fX€uaj€ii/ has the sense of ycXov, and Munth and 
Loesner have given examples of this idiom, which 
is recognized by Hesychius. But it signifies, in a 
general way, to mock, jeer, turn into derision. Its 
proper signification is, to turn up the Up ; (as Ps. 22, 
7. " they shoot out the lip, they shake the head ;") 
from x^^^^ synonymous with x^*^^^ ^^e lip ; as was 
long ago seen by the author of the Etym. Mag. 
See a learned annotation of Vanderlinden on the 
different sorts of derision and mockery, whether by 
words or by gestures inserted in the Critici Sacri, 
in loc. 

. For pfXeua^ovrey Griesbach has received into the 
text 8ia;fX€tia^ovr6y (from some MSS. and Fathers, as 
also the Syriac Version) ; and Kuinoel approves of 
this, observing that compounds are, by the Scribes, 
often changed into simples. True ; but sometimes 
simples are, by Scribes of superficial learning, who 
have taken upon themselves to correct, changed intp 
compounds. Atax^^^ua^ovre^ is, I grant, a somewhat 
more forcible and elegant expression ; yet the sim- 
ple occurs not only further on, in 17, 2., but very 
frequently in the Septuagint; whereas haxy<€va^€iy 



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60 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

occurs neither in the New Testament nor the Sep- 
tuagint. Besides, the hot may have arisen from S^, 
preceding, and the testimony of the Fathers has, in 
such a case, but a slight weight ; and that of any 
Version very indefinite. On these accounts I would 
restore the old reading. 

FXfuifou^ ]Et€jx€a-ra)fi€yoi. By yXeJico^ we are to un- 
derstand, not new wine, i. e. new made wine (for 
such there could not have been at the Pentecost), 
but, as CEcumenius and others explain, sweet wine^ 
which is (as the above commentator observes) very 
intoxicating. So the Sept. in Job. 32, 19. Stnr^p 
aa-iAs yX^uicou^ (p) ^ecov. It appears from Plut. 2, 
928. and Columella 12, 29* that some sorts of wine, if 
kept in a cool situation, retained their primitive sweet- 
ness a long time, Such, we find from Pliny, was 
called a€^y'K€tJKos. The word is also cited by Eisner 
and Wetstein from Dioscor. 1, 105. 2, 30., Lucian 
Philoph. 39., and Polycen. 358. So Athenaeus I76 d. 
(cited by Vanderlinder) 7)6yi€i yXcwcooy ft€|u,€d(;fteya 
vaiyvut Mwxrhor See Harmer*s Obs. in loc, and 
especially Walch's Dissertation on this very sub- 
ject, in his Dissertations on Acts, Vol. 1. Barth, 
Adv. 211. and the very learned Dissertation before 
mentioned by Vanderlinden. 

Markland observes that he sees no j(K€\n\ or drol- 
lery in saying, " These men are drunk,'* and would 
read yXeJ^ous', the wine personified^ formed like 
0aXXa>, Au^o) in Pollux 8, 9. ^ 10., and A€i6<rra> and 
Eu^<rTa>.* But I am surprised that this celebrated 
critic should not have seen how inconsistent this 
would be with the plain style of the New Testament. 
It would be more suitable to that of Lucian. Good 
taste of itself might surely have suggested that this 
was inadmissible. Besides, the expression ii^^vrw 
p^yoi (a term, as Valcknaer observes, always used in 
a bad sense, and ir'Kripris in a middle one,) is suited 

* This reminds one of the absurd conjecture hazarded by some 
antient and modern critics on Acts 17, 18., namely *Aya<rTaffiy, i.e. 
the goddess of resurrection. See the note in loc. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 6l 

only to the natural^ not to the metaphorical accep- 
tation. And as to Markland's observation, that 
there was no drollery or wit in this, I answer that 
none was intended^ but only a derision of their pre- 
tensions to religion. There is somewhat more of 
solidity in the following remark of the same com* 
mentator, namely, that the word yXeuicoy was also 
intended to convey a sneer on the meanness of their 
condition, since no person of respectability tapped 
the last year's yX^Sicos* so early as June, unless com- 
pelled by necessity. 

14. Now follows Peter's address, which produced 
such an effect on the minds both of the wonderers 
and the deriders, that they embraced the Christian 
faith, and others, admonished and taught by them, 
followed their example ; so that three thousand 
persons were, on that day, added to the assembly of 
Christians. It is plain, however, from ver. 40., that 
only the sum of Peter's discourse is recorded, and 
that many things are omitted which were said by 
the Apostle. The purport of the words from ver. 
14. is this : " We, who are here collected together, 
are not drunken, but excited by a Divine emotion. 
The times of the Messiah are come, in which, as 
sang the prophet Joel, the Divine power will shew 
its eflScacy on men of every kind, and all will be 
fired with zeal for religion and piety, when the 
enemies of the Messiah will be consigned to punish- 
ment, but his faithful worshippers attain unto hap- 
piness. Now the promised Messiah is Jesus, who 
was crucified, and was recalled to life by God.'' 
The plan of this discourse of Peter is thus laid down 
by Schoettgen. 

DISCOURSE OF PETER. 

Consisting of three parts. Exordium, Proposition, 
and Confirmation. 

Exordium, containing an address and an attempt 
to secure their will. (ver. 14.) 

Proposition two-fold, 1st, negative, i. e. remotive : 
The men are not drunk, (ver. 15.) 2dly, positive or 



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62 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

affirmative: This is done, that the Scripture should 
be fulfilled, (ver. 16—21.) 

Coif FIRM ATiON of the former proposition : because 
it is the third Jtour of the day. (ver. 15.) The Jews, 
it must be observed, were not accustomed to eat 
and drink early in the morning. Now if these had 
been intoxicated, they could not have received the 
gift of tongues, of which they were not before pos- 
sessed. 

Confirmation of the latter proposition : ** be- 
cause Christ, by his merits and ascension, obtained 
this gift for us.'* (ver. 23, 33.) For this cause was 
to be demonstrated, Ist, the divinity of Jesus; 
which was done by signs and prodigies. 2dly, his 
resurrection after death (which death is described 
in ver. 23.), ver 24 & 32., according to the prophecy 
of David, which was not fulfilled in David's own 
case. (ver. 25 — 31.) 3dly, his ascension (ver. 33.), 
which was also according to the prophecy of David, 
(ver. 34 & 35.) The conclusion which follows from 
the argument is : " Christ is the true God, who had 
power to obtain for, and send to, us what you see. 

14. o-rafleW §€ o n€Tpo^ eruv to7^ hZ^Ka. These cou- 
rageously rose up with Peter, that the multitude 
collected might behold in them the chiefs of Christ's 
followers. (Kuin.) The ToTy (by a force often found 
in the article) denotes the other eleven. It is well 
observed by CEcumenius, that the circumstance of 
the other eleven also standing up is related in order 
to show on Kdivr^ y^o^l^Ji 'fa* ^fovyj iravrmv auriy ^v, juidep- 
Tup€S a 7rap€(rTi^K€i(rav oi €vh€K(t to7s Xeyojuievoiy. By 
trra^eh is meant set up to speak; as in Apoc. 11,11.; 
a term, as Heinrichs observes, used de concionabun- 
dis : and he adds that it especially behoved Peter, 
as being their head, to be their spokesman, and 
refute this accusation of drunkenness. 

14. yvaxrrw earo), Ka\ evioria-atr^e r. p. jui. 'Evar/- 
^€iv signifies to receive into the ears, or (to use an 
expression of Lactantius) inawrtre. 'Eva>T/j€<rflai in 
the middle voice is an Hellenistic word, used in the 



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ACrS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 63 

Sept. and the later Greek authors, and answers to 
the Hebrew pt«n in Gen. 4, 23. Job, 33, 1. 7Pn?1 
in Job, 32, 11. TWp'n in Jer. 3, 6., and y?De) in Is. 44, 
8. See Vorstius and Fischer de Prolus. 694. who 
has copiously treated on this, and thinks it was in- 
troduced by the Greek interpreters of the Old 
Testament from the idiotical style and common use. 
15. oi yoLp, aiV ifiJLeis 6^oXa]x3av6T6, &C. By the 
oSroi are meant the speakers.* Peter, we may ob- 
serve, spoke in the third person, and thought he 
suflSciently refuted that calumny by saying that it 
was now only the third hour of the day (nine o'clock 
in the morning), the time of morning praj/ers,hefore 
which none who had any regard for religion ever 
took any food or drink. So Berachoth, fol. 28, 2. 
(ap» Lightfoot and Wetstein.) " Non licet homini 
gnstare quidquam, antequam oraverit orationem 
suam. And Josephus, in Vit., relates that the 
assembly which, on the Sabbath day, met in the 
synagogues or proseuchae, were not usually dismissed 
for breakfast till the sixth hour, i. e. after the 

* The great question, whether ihe gift of tongues on the day of 
Pentecost was conferred upon the Kposiles only, or upon all the hun- 
dred and twenty mentioned chap. I, 15. seems determined to the 
Apostles only, because the promise of our Saviour was made to them 
particularly, chap. 1, 8 and Luke 24, 49. ju-t before his ascension. 
It seems equally clear from the language of this place ; for, ver. 14^ 
Peter and the other eleven appear on this account before the Jews, to 
whom Peter in his harangue says here. These men (pointing to 
the eleven) are not drunken, as ye suppose. Now, if the gift were 
conferred upon the other hundred and eight, they likewise would and 
ought to have been there, as wt*ll as the twelve, that Peter might 
say the same of them too; otherwise his argument will be very defec- 
tive : for the objection of being drunk was made to all the specta' 
tors. This seems decisive. See too ver. 33. 37. Many afterwards, 
without doubt, had this gift -, but on the day of Pentecost, I think it 
does not appear to have been conferred on any but the twelve Apos-' 
ties. There is another way of solving this question. Among the 
hundred and twenty-three were some women. Acts 1, 14. Now I 
think it does not appear that the gift of tongues was ever conferred 
upon a woman ; and St. Paul docs not suffer a woman to speak in 
the assemblies, 1 Cor. 14, 34, 35. 1 Tim. 2, 11, 12. But if this gift 
wasbestowed upon women, they could not have been hindered from 
speaking in the assemblies. See 1 Cor. 14, 39. (Markland.) 



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64 ACTS or THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

prayers appropriate to the sixth hour. Even among 
the Gentiles it was accounted disgraceful for any to 
be seen drunken at any time of the day ; [See 1 
Thess. 5, 7' ^nd the note on that passage. Edit.] as 
appears from Plaut. Pseud. 5, 26. Senec. Ep. 122. 
So iElian, V. H. 12, 30. Taperrt^o^^ h ?d€4 ifv iriWiy 

Philipp. 2, 41. At (|u^m multos dies in ea villa 
turpissim^ est perbacchatus! ab hovk tertia bibebatur, 
ludebatur, vomebatur. 

16 — 18. Joel 3, 1 — />. is here cited, but (as it 
seems) from memory ; for the words can have re- 
spect neither to the Hebre\V nor the Septua^int. 
In the Hebrew we have p 'nnM rpm, which is 
rendered by the Septuagint icoi itrrai ftrra raGra, 
but Peter uses ical itrrai iv reus ^a-^^arai^ ijftt^iy. 
In the Sept. we have ku) o! ir^<rj3wT€poi u/uSv 
iwmfta kyxyK^icur^fTovrai Kcti ol vcayiVfcoi u|xa>y opa- 
(r€i9 o>{/ovrai, and the same order is pursued in the 
Hebrew : but Peter uses an inversion. The He- 
brew D*nayn some Greek interpreters render SouXou^ 
ftou, which version Peter follows : but the Hebrew and 
Septuagint have simply SoJxous*. The words ical irpo^- 
reweroiwri are added by Luke. Finally, ver. 19. the 
Septuagint render more closely by ko^ Sa><ra> ripara 
€V oupavcD KOLi 6T4 T^f y^ff, alfta, &c. (See Tychsen's 
Illustration of Joel, C. S. and Rosenmuller's Scholia 
in loc.) The passage contains a poetical description 
of the Messiah's kingdom. (See the Commentators 
just mentioned.) Peter, who applied this passage 
to the present purpose. Quoted it in order to show 
the Jews that all they had seen and heard (compare 
ver. 33.) arose from the most pious feelings, nay, 
were the happy auguries of future events, and all to 
be ascribed to the efficacy of the Holy Spirit. 

17. Ka) itrroLi €V roSs itrj^arai^ ))juk€^f^, ** in the last 
ages, in the times of the Messiah." "Etrrai is, by a 
Hebraism, redundant. See Glass Phil. 356. and 
Vorstius de Hebr. 60.5. seqq. The phrase ev raTs* 
eeryaraiy 73*/x€pa»y in the Sept. answers to D'^*»n H'Tfi^a, 
and by these words are properly signified times 

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ACTS or THE APOSTI.ES, CHAP. II. 6$ 

future. See Gen. 49j 1. Is. 2, 2. But hete^ as the 
subject is of the times of the Messiah, irryoLTOLi riiUpa^ 
are the last times. For the Jews, who hoped that 
the Messiah would introduce a totally different face 
of affairs in the world, and would put an end to all the 
calamities and afflictionsof the Jewish people, named 
the times of the Messiah the last times. See the 
i^otes on Matt. 24. This manner of speaking is also 
found in other passages of the books of the New 
Testament) and in the writings of the Rabbins. See 
Heb. 1, 1. 1 Pet. 1, 20. [and the notes on those 
passages. Edit] So R. Nachman on Gen. 49, 1. 
Extremum tempus omnium doctorum consensu sunt 
dies Messias. (Kuin.) 

17. iK)^€ai oLTTo ToG frveufiMTO^ jxou. ^Airh roG TrveijjLa* 
Toy is, by a Hebraism, for to TveGjxa. Compare ver. 
33. [There is an ellipsis of t^ fie^o^. Edit.] See Nold, 
Cone. p. 470. seq. By this phrase is meant, **I will 
work spiritual effects on all men CLqke 4, 18.); the 
Divine force will shew its efficacy in them.*' What 
kind of efficacy is to be understood the following 
words indicate. Others however assign to ficp^eco, 
&Q. another, and (I think) too confined sense, by in- 
terpreting thein either of a full and accurate know- 
ledge of God, and a mode of thinking correspondent 
to that knowledge, or of a most ardent zeal for piety. 
'EicWeiv, it may be observed, is, like the Heb. *lDtt>, 
in Joel 1, 1., Hos. 5, 10., Zeph. 3, 8., used figura- 
tively, (by a metaphor derived from liquids,) of all 
things which are largely and abundantly afforded^ 
S^e Tit. 3, 16., Sir. 15, 11. e^ixe^v iir ayroh^ ti 
?XeoffaJToG. As also 16, 11., 18, 11., and Virg. Georg. 
S, 46. fundet humo facilem victum justissima tellus. 
By TavTey are meant all the citizens of the Messiah*^ 
kingdom, without exception. ("Kuin.) 

17. KicCi 7rpo^T€u(rotj(nv oi uioi J/uuov, &c. To jrpo- 
<^T€u<rou<riy some assign the sense ** celebrate in verse 
the Divine praises" (on which see the note on Luke 
1,67.) Otners, "predict future events." Others 
again (more properly) take it in an extended sense, 

VOL. IV. F 



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66 ACTi OF THB APOSTLES^ CHAP. If. 

and render, '^ speak by Divine inspiration, and after, 
the manner of the Prophets. See Schl. Lex. in v. 
^ 5. and Koppe, in his £xc. 3. on the Epist. to the 
Ephes. p. 151, and 2, 11. p. 100. 

17^ opwo^ oy^fwroUf Koi — ennrvio^^iirwrai. By 
these words are meant the visions and dreams by 
which God revealed his will to the Prophets, namely 
by teaching, admonition, &c. The Hebrew Pro- 
phets were remarkable for their zeal for piety and 
virtue, and were supposed to be the familiar mi- 
nisters of Jehovah. In this sense Abraham is said 
iraa in Gen. 20, ?• And in various parts of the 
Old Testament it is mentioned as a singular mark 
of Divine favour, that, at various times, God has 
raised up prophets as interpreters of his will. Hence 
the sense of the present passage appears to be as 
follows: *^In that golden age there will exist, not 
merely some prophets, and persons endued with a 
knowledge or God, but a//, as the Prophets^ will be 
intimately acquainted with Divine truths, and, in a 
zeal for piety and holiness, will be most closely con- 
joined with God.'* By opoo-ei^ are meant wakmg, or 
day visions, by cvwvia night dreams *. The rro- 
phet proceeds to say : " Nay even upon my servants 
and handmaids I will pour out my spirits." He de- 
scends to each : the old, the young, servants, and 
handmaids form a positive distribution, not denot- 
ing worshippers of both sexes, but the race of bond 
servants : q. d. " But my servants, &c. are these 
who are true worshippers, and are dear to me.*' 
Ra} ye is to be rendered quinetiam. So in ^1. V. 
H. 1, 14. and elsewhere. (Kuin.) 

The force of the word ii^ov is to be observed 
here! it signifies that these favours shall be con- 
ferred jf?r*/ upon the Jews. Afterwards the Prophet 

* Id confirmation of Schwartz's observation, (hat this word it 
properly not a substantive, but an adjective taken substantively, we 
may cite Eurip. Hec. 702. ifiaBop Mwvioy hfifidrwy ifiHy oyj/ir, 
where, though the Editors treat lyvxviop as a substantive, yet the 
Scholiast directs it to be taken with o»//iv. 



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ACTS OF THE AP08TLK2«» CHAP. II. 67 

goes on, and says» icot) 7c iwl rotiy Sot>Xour (xou, &c. by 
which are signified other nations in general, who, 
(says God,) shall have the same gifts bestowed upon 
iMem: and that it was so, we learn from this history.. 
Kai yc is im6, yea further. See Viger. Idiotism. 
cap. 8. § 4, p. 287. This shews that the most in- 
considerable things in the Scriptures are not to be 
neglected. 'Etti waa-av (rapKa, upon persons of all 
conditionsy sonSy daughters, young men^ old mem 
(Markland.) 

Wetstein compares the following Rabbinical pas- 
sages. Maimomdes More Nevoch. 2, 36. Tempore 
Messiae — prophetia iterura ad nos est reversura, 
sicut Deus promisit. Debarim R. 6. Dixit Deus S. 
B. hoc seculo, quando inter vos sunt domini linguae 
malse, sustuli majestatem meam a vobis — sed tem- 
pore futuro — ego iliam restituam S. D. Joel 3. et 
omnes erunt idonei legi. Schoettgen cites Tan-, 
chuma, fol. 65, 3. and Bammidbar Rabba, sect. 15. 
Quum Moses manum Josuae imponeret, dixit Deus 
S. B. Ttfn th^VX Temporibus Veteris Testament! 
sin^uli tantum prophetae vaticinantur, sed Min 
D7W7, temporibus Messiae omnes Israelites erunt 
Prophetae, q. d. Joel 2, 48. 

19> 20. In these words it is indicated that periods 
of sorrow shall, however, precede that golden age. 
The prodigies of which we here read (and which 
serve for ornament) are mentioned, because by the 
day of the Lord is signified a time the most cala- 
mitous. For it was an opinion common both to the 
Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, that by prodigies of 
the kind here mentioned were portended public 
calamities and the ruin of states. Hence also earth- 
quakes and solar and lunar eclipses were, with the 
poets of the Hebrews and other nations, usual images 
of times the most calamitous. (See Amos 8, 9- Is. 
13, 10, seq. 34, 4.) So Lucian, Phars. 1, 524. enu- 
merating the portents which presaged the civil war^ 
sings : Superique minores Prodigiis terras implerunt, 
aethera^ pontum. Ignota obscurae viderunt sidera 



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68 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

noctes, Ardentemque polum flammis, coeloque vo- 
lantes Obliquas per inane faces, crinemque timendi 
sideris, et terris niutantem regna comet en. Fulgura 
fallaci micuerunt crebra serene, et varias ignis dono 
dedit afire formas. So also Liv. 221. Virg. Georg. 
1,463. See the note on Matt. 24, «9. and Luke 
21, 25. 

19. arfiwSa Kawvwi^ i. e. a smoke the densest,* [by 
a sort of hendiadis. Edit.] The words aTjxa, ^Gg, 
and ctTfitiV icairvoG, are by Limborch, Bengel, Morus, 
Rosenm. Heinrichs, Stolz, and others, referred to 
wars, murders, and burnings. But in Joel and the 
present passage the subject is, the prodigies which 
should presage a calamitous period, a time of Divine 
vengeance. By fire^ therefore, may more correctly 
be understood ignited meteors, sulphureous and in- 
flammable bodies which burn and shine; and by 
smoke, thick and black vapours which ascend from 
the earth, and ofiuscate the light of the sun and 
moon, so that those luminaries receive that rubicund 
colour (oSiml) which is usually observed to precede 
earthquakes. See the note on Matt. 24. and Har- 
mer's Observations. Moreover, from what has been 
said it is manifest that the words of Joel, brought 
forward at ver. 19 & 20, are not (as some iAterpre- 
ters tell us) to be referred to what is narrated at 2 
and S. (Kuin.) 

20. xplv ^ eXOcii* n^ iffte^i* — €Ti4)ay^, "before that 
great and awful day of the Lord come." By njir i^- 
pa9 roZ Kopiwj is commonly understood the period at 
which God should pour out his spirit. But this in- 
terpretation is liable to many objections. 'E^ri^amQ^, 
in the Sept., answers to the Heb. M'^')3, terrible, Jior* 
rible, which Aquila, on Deut. 10, 21., 2 Sam. 7, 28., 

* The Jews, as may he seen in Tanchuma (which passage is pm- 
duced in the note on Rev. 16, \), reckoned that thb would be ful- 
filled in the time of the New Testament. These things (as eveiy 
one knows) were fulfilled partly at the time of Cbrist*s passion and 
the destrucUon of Jerusalem, and partly afterwards, since in the 
Ilevelations we b^ive a dfscription of the punishments to be inflicted 
on the enemies of the Church. (Schoettgen. ) 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. C)9 

arid Ps. 88, 8., expresses by €7ri(pQ^9^ But the Sept. 
render this word M'llS, in very many passages (as 
Judg. 13, 6., 1 Par. 17, 21., Joel 2, 11., Hebr. 1, 7., 
Mai. 1, 14.) by eVi^otvi^y, illustrious^ remarkable; 
since they thought the participle M'^'U to be derived 
from riM'l. Now in Joel the subject relates to the 
time when God would take vengeance on his ene- 
mies. (Compai-e 4, 2 seqq.) Therefore in the Sept. 
'JifUpa €Ti^aW]9 means a day remarkable for Diving 
punishment, in which God should display to the 
enemies of the Jews both his majesty and his wrath. 
So that exi^amQS' comes to much the same meaning 

with (p0&€fl09> 

Now since ijjw^pa ict>§iot;, in the Old and New Tes- 
tament, often denotes time of vengeance and judg- 
ment (see the note on Hebr. 10,25.); since cVi^ai^y 
answer^ to the Heb. M'1')3; since, in the passage of 
Joel in question, the subject is a period 01 calamity; 
since, at ver. 19, were mentioned the prodigies which 
should pi-ecede a period of calamity ; and since at 
ver. 21. there follows wa^ 09 av e^riKaXea-ifjTai rh oyojxa 
iropiow £ra>fliJtf-eTai, we must undoubtedly understand 
a calamitous time^ in which God would exercise 
condign punishment on the perverse Jews who 
opposed the Christian Religion, and would punish 
their impiety and contumacy by the destruction rtf 
their city and Temple. (Kuin.) 

Wetstein compares Tacit. Agric. 34. imponite I^. 
aonis magnum diem. Jerem. 30,* 7- Judg. 6. Tai> 
gum Hieros. Gen. diem judicii magnum. On the 
prodigies here mentioned see Doddridge. 

21. Koi itrrmj irSs — (ro^dijo-erai. Ovo/ta, when 
joined to persotis, is (by a Hebraism) redundant ; 
as in Acts 3, 16. 9, 14. 1 Tim. 6, 1. 1 Cor. I, 2. 
Compare Rom. 10, 12. 2 Tim, 2, 22. •EmcaXwAaf 
tis9 kt^iov denotes to worship God. (See Ps. 79, 6. 
Zach. 13, 9. I6. 65, 1.) Here, however, (according 
to tbfe intent . of Peter,) it signifies to acknowledge 
Jesus as the Messidb, and to embrace his doctrine ;' 
as in 1 Cor. 1, 2. By o-cod^Vcrai is meant ** ^11 Jfe 



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70 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

preserved from the persecutions and calamities 
which will befall the Jews.'* (See the note on Luke 
21, 28.) and Matt. 24, 13. (Kuin.) 

22. The passage may be thus paraphrased : 
** What God may work in us, and thus the prophecy 
of Joel be effectually fulfilled, we owe to Jesus the 
Messiah, whom ye crucified, but whom God hath 
recalled to life, and by whose aid the Holy Spirit 
hath been thus poured forth.** See Luke 24, 49* 
Joh. 14, 16. 26, 15 & 26. Compare infra ver. 33. 
This is the subject of the remainder of Peter's ora- 
tion, and it is thus treated : " Jesus, whom ye cru- 
cified, God has recalled to life ; for it was not 
possible that he should be held obnoxious to death 
^see 22 — 24.), since in God he reposed his hope and 
trust, and was the Messiah.** This sentiment Peter 
has dressed up by citingthe words of David, Ps. 16, 
8. seqq. and has referred them to Jesus. (See 25 
seqq.) Then at 33. he goes on to say : ** That 
Jesus, then, whom God hath recalled to life, and 
invested with supreme dignity, hath imparted to us 
the Holy Spirit. Of him the words of Ps. 110. are 
. meant, which you yourselves are accustomed to refer 
to the Messiah. (See ver. 34 & 35.) You must 
therefore be persuaded that Jesus, who wai cruci- 
fied, is the Messiah." (ver. 36.) (Kuin.) 

22. la-^aijXiTai. An appellation of which the Jews 
were proud (See 2 Cor. 11,22.) since the name Israel 
was bestowed by God himself upon Jacob, (Gen. 
32, 28.) to be a symbol of Divine grace. (See Koppe 
on Rom. 9- 4.) Beza, Heumann, Wetstein, Hein- 
richs, and others, contend that Peter called Jesus 
NaJaf/>aioy, because the Jews had been accustomed, 
out of contempt, to so call him. See Matt. 27, 71. 
compared with Joh. 1, 46. Acts 24, 5. I, however^ 
accede to the opinion of those who think that Jesus 
was so called by Peter, because this had become his 
usual appellative, as in Mark 16, 6. Joh. 15, 5. 
Acts 3, 6. 10, 38. See the note on Joh 1 '45 
19, 19> ' ' 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. II. 71 

After 0€o5, Kypke, Heinrichs, and others, place a 
stop, and supply ovra ; with which subaudition we 
may, however, dispense. Nay, the following words, 
Jr ivoir^ir€¥ Si* aurou o 06oy clearly show that the 
words, flbro roG 06o5 axoSeS€iy|xevor are to be united. 
Now airh rod ©eoiJ is for utto toG 06oS, since the two 
prepositions are oflen interchanged; as in Jam. 1. 
13. Joseph. Ant. 7» 14, 5. See the note on Matt. 
11, 19., Dorvill on Chariton, 548. Reiz. on Lucian 
Gym. 20. and Loesner in loc. [This idiom is often 
found in Thucydides. Edit.] Tiie verb a7ro8€/icvu|xi, 
(on whose various senses see Krebs and Loesner in 
loc,) denotes '* to prove, demonstrate, evince j'* as 
in 27^ 7* Xenoph. de Rep. Atli. 1,1. So Susanna, 
§ 15. (cited by Valckn.) a^eSfip^^o-ay S»jo ^getr^uTCgoi 
4k rati XooG icgirai. This signification is very suitable 
to the present passage ; and therefore by the words 
avvip axo rou 0eoG aTroScSeiyjiiyor €iy CfJLoiSy &c. is sig- 
nified a man approved of God by many and great 
miracles, a Divme teacher, the Messiah. So Heb. 
2, 4. eTTipuxpTtipoCvroy toG 0€oG. Now Jesus himself 
appealed to his worksy i. e. remarkable deeds, from 
which it might be inferred that he was a Divine 
Legate, the Messiah. (See Joh. 10, 37* Joh. 5, 36. 
where consult the note.) Auva/xeir, Wpara, and 
0^jx€ia are words nearly synonymous, and are here 
conjoined by way of indicating the number and 
variety of these remarkable deeds ; as in Joh. 4, 48. 
and elsewhere. Oh €Voii3<re is for & cVonjerf. See 
the note on Mark 7, 13. and Joh. 4, 35. By iu [jJtrtp 
uiuo^ is meant simply among you. See the note on 
Luke 2, 46. (Kuin.) Wetstein has illustrated the 
sense of axtj^^iicvfjiLi by numerous examples, for 
which I must refer the reader to his note. 

23. TouToif T^ copio-ft^tni) — XajSoWer. *Opi^€iy signi- 
fies to define, limit, appoint, decree. See Eisner in 
loc. Therefore t^ wpitriUm fiotiX^ means, ** by the 
definite, certain, immutable decree of God.*' See 
Luke 2S, 22. BouXi) and irfiyvtoct^ are synonymous. 

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66 ACTS OF THB APOSTLES^ CHAP. If. 

and render, ^^ speak by Divine inspiration^ and after 
the manner of the Prophets. See Schl. Lex. in v. 
^ 5. and Koppe, in his £xc. 3. on the Epist. to the 
Ephes. p. 151, and 2, 11. p. 100. 

17. opoo'fiy o^/ovrai, Koi — hnnrvicur^irwrm. By 
these words are meant the visions and dreams by 
which God revealed his will to the Prophets, namely 
by teaching, admonition, &c. The Hebrew Pro- 
phets were remarkable for their zeal for piety and 
virtue, and were supposed to be the famih'ar mi- 
nisters of Jehovah. In this sense Abraham is said 
H'Oa in Gen. 20, ?• And in various parts of the 
Old Testament it is mentioned as a singular mark 
of Divine favour, that, at various times, God has 
raised up prophets as interpreters of his will. Hence 
the sense of the present passage appears to be as 
follows : *^ In that golden age there will exist, not 
merely some prophets, and persons endued with a 
knowledge or God, but a//, as the Prophets y will be 
intimately acquainted with Divine truths, and, in a 
zeal for piety and holiness, will be most closely con- 
joined with God." By dpoo-ei^ are meant waking, or 
day visions, by cvtwrvia night dreams*. The Pro- 
phet proceeds to sa^ : " Nay even upon my servants 
and handmaids I will pour out my spirits.** He de« 
scends to each : the old^ the young, servants, and 
handmaids form a positive distribution, not denot- 
ing worshippers of both sexes, but the race of bond 
servants : q. d. " But my servants, &c. are these 
who are true worshippers, and are dear to me." 
Ka) ye is to be rendered quinetiam. So in M\. V. 
H. 1, 14. and elsewhere. (Kuin.) 

The force of the word tJfiuov is to be observed 
here! it signifies that these favours shall be con- 
feneAJirst upon the Jews. Aflerwards the Prophet 

* Id confirmation of Schwartz's observation, (hat this word is 
properly not a substantive, but an arijective talcen substantively, we 
may cite Eurip. Uec. 703. ifiaBoy kvvirviov ofiftarwy IfiHv oxptv, 
where, though the Editors treat lyvwviov as a substantive^ yet the 
Scholiast directs it to be taken with oi//(v. 



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ACTS OF THE AP08TLK2«» CHAP. lU 67 

goes on, and says, icot) 7c egri roJ^ Sot>Xot;r (mo, icd hy 
which are signified other nations in general, who, 
(says God,) shall have the same gifts bestowed upon 
Mem: and tliat it was so, we learn from this history*. 
Kal ye is im6, yea /urther. See Viger. Idiotism. 
cap. 8. § 4, p. 287. This shews that the most in- 
considerable things in the Scriptures are not to be 
neglected. 'Etti waarav (rapKUy upon persons of all 
conditions, sons, daughters, young men, old men. 
(Markland.) 

Wetstein compares the following Rabbinical pas- 
sages. Maimonides More Nevoch. 2, 3&. Tempore 
Messiae — prophetia iterura ad nos est reversura, 
sicut Deus promisit. Debarim R. 6. Dixit Deus S. 
B. hoc seculo, quando inter vos sunt domini linguae 
malae, sustuli majestatem meam a vobis — sed tem- 
pore futuro — ego illam restituam S. D. Joel 3. et 
omnes erunt idonei legi. Schoettgen cites Tan-: 
chuma, foK 65, 3. and Bammidbar Rabba, sect. 15. 
Quum Moses manum Josuse imponeret, dixit Deus 
S. B. Jl^H QbMfX Temporibus Veteris Testamenti 
singuli tantum prophetae vaticinantur, sed Man 
Cy7)yh, temporibus Messiae omnes Israelitae erunt 
Prophetae, q. d. Joel 2, 48. 

19, 20. In these words it is indicated that periods 
of sorrow shall, however, precede that golden age- 
The prodigies of which we here read (and which 
serve for ornament) are mentioned, biecause by the 
day of the Lord is signified a time the most cala- 
mitous. For it was an opinion common both to the 
Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, that by prodigies of 
the kind here mentioned were portended public 
calamities and the ruin of states. Hence also earth- 
quakes and solar and lunar eclipses were, with the 
poets of the Hebrews and other nations, usual images 
of times the most calamitous. (See Amos 8, 9- Is. 
13, 10, seq. 34, 4.) So Lucian, Phars. 1, 524. enu- 
merating the portents which presaged the civil war^ 
sings : Superique minores Prodigiis terras implerunt, 
aethera^ pontum. Ignota obscurae viderunt sidera 

f2 



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68 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

noctes, Ardentemque polum flammis, coeloque vo- 
lantes Obliquas per inane faces, crinemque timendi 
sideris, et terris rautantem regna cometen. Fulgura 
fallaci micuerunt crebra serene, et varias ignis dono 
dedit a^re formas. So also Liv. 221. Virg. Georg. 
1,463. See the note on Matt. 24, «9. and Luke 
21, 25. ^ 

19. arp'Sa icairvou, i. e. a smoke the densest,* [by 
a sort of hendiadis. Edit.] The words aT/xa, ^rug, 
and axfitiV KaTvoS, are by Limborch, Bengel, Morus, 
Rosenm. Heinrichs, Stolz, and others, referred to 
wars, murders, and burnings. But in Joel and the 
present passage the subject is, the prodigies which 
should presage a calamitous period, a time of Divine 
vengeance. By fire^ therefore, may more correctly 
be understood ignited meteors^ sulphureous and in- 
flammable bodies which burn and shine; and by 
smoke, thick and black vapours which ascend from 
the earth, and offuscate the light of the sun and 
moon, so that those luminaries receive that rubicund 
colour (eJp«) which is usually observed to precede 
earthquakes. See the note on Matt. 24. and Har- 
mer's Observations. Moreover, from what has been 
said it is manifest that the words of Joel, brought 
forward at ver. 19 & 20, are not (as some interpre- 
ters tell us) to be referred to what is narrated at 2 
and S. (Kuin.) 

20. Trpiv ^ cxOcTv n^ ^lUpw — €Vi4)at^, ** before that 
great and awful day of the Lord come." By n^ir ijjuie- 
pa9 rou icopUo is commonly understood the period at 
which God should pour out his spirit. But this in- 
terpretation is liable to many objections. 'E^ri^ay^y, 
in the Sept., answers to the Heb. M-^-^a, terrible, Mr- 
rihle^ which Aquila, on Deut. 10, 21., 2 Sam. 7, 23., 

* The Jews, as may he seen in Tanchuma (which passage is pm- 
duced in the note on Rev. 16, 1), reckoned that this would be ful- 
filled in the tinie of the New Testament. These things (as every 
one knows) were fulfilled partly at the time of Christ's passion and 
the destrucUon of Jerusalem, and partly afterwards, since in the 
llevelations we h^ive a dfscription of the punishments to be inflicted 
on the enemies of the Church. (Schoettgen. ) 

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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. C)9 

and Ps. 88, 8., expresses by €7ri<po^9. But the Sept. 
render this word M'TIS, in very many passages (as 
Judg. 13, 6., 1 Par. 17, 21., Joel 2, 11., Hebr. 1, 7-, 
Mai. 1, 14.) by em^avri^f illustrious^ remarkable; 
since they thought the participle M'lia to be derived 
from nwi. Now in Joel the subject relates to the 
time when God would take vengeance on his ene- 
mies. (Compare 4, 2 seqq.) Therefore in the Sept. 
'JifUpa €Ti^ai^9 irieans a day remarkable for Diving 
punishment, in which God should display to the 
enemies of the Jews both his majesty and his wrath. 
So that eVi^ai^f comes to much the same meaning 

with (p0&€p09. 

Now since riiUpa Ko^iotj, in the Old and New Tes* 
tament, often denotes time of vengeance and judg- 
ment (see the note on Hebr. 10,25.); since cVi^ai^r 
ariswer^ to the Heb. M'lia; since, in the passage of 
Joel in question, the subject is a period oi calamity; 
since, at ver. 19, were mentioned the prodigies which 
should precede a period of calamity ; and since at 
ver. 21. there follows Tray 09 av e^riicaXe^Tai rl oyofia 
KtipitM £ra>fliJtf-6Tai, we must undoubtedly understand 
a calamitous time^ in which God would exercise 
condign punishment on the perverse Jews who 
opposed the Christian Religion, and would punish 
their impiety and contumacy by the destruction of 
their city and Temple. (Kuin.) 

Wetstein compares Tacit. Agric. 34. imponite L^ 
annis magnum diem. Jerem. 30,' 7* Judg. 6. Tar- 
gum Hieros. Gen. diem judicii magnum. On the 
prodigies here mentioned see Doddridge. 

21. Ka\ itrrauj was — tra^drjcrera^. OyofAa, when 
joined to persoris, is (by a Hebraism) redundant ; 
as in Acts 3, 16. 9, 14. 1 Tim. 6, 1. 1 Cor. 1, 2. 
Compare Rom. 10, 12. 2 Tim, 2, 22. •EriicaXeiirflaf 
t}» kufkif denotes to worship God. (See Ps. 79, 6. 
Zach. 13, 9. I6. 65, 1.) Here, however, (according 
to the intent of Peter,) it signifies to acknowledge 
Jesus as the Messiah, and to embrace his doctrine ;' 
as in 1 Cor. 1,2. By (rcodijVerai is meant ** ahall \ie 



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70 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

preserved from the persecutions and calamities 
which will befall the Jews.'* (See the note on Luke 
21, 28.) and Matt. 24, 13. (Kuin.) 

22. The passage may be thus paraphrased : 
** What God may work in us, and thus the prophecy 
of Joel be effectually fulfilled, we owe to Jesus the 
Messiah, whom ye crucified, but whom God hath 
recalled to life, and by whose aid the Holy Spirit 
hath been thus poured forth/* See Luke 24, 49. 
Joh. 14, IC. 26, 15 & 26. Compare infra ver. S3. 
This is the subject of the remainder of Peter's ora- 
tion, and it is thus treated : " Jesus, whom ye cru- 
cified, God has recalled to life ; for it was not 
possible that he should be held obnoxious to death 
^see 22 — 24.)5 since in God he reposed his hope and 
trust, and was the Messiah.^* This sentiment Peter 
has dressed up by citing* the words of David, Ps. 16, 
8. seqq. and has referred them to Jesus. (See 25 
seqq.) Then at S3, he goes on to say : " That 
Jesus, then, whom God hath recalled to life, and 
invested with supreme dignity, hath imparted to us 
the Holy Spirit. Of him the words of Ps. 110. are 
meant, which you yourselves are accustomed to refer 
to the Messiah. (See ver. 34 & 35.) You must 
therefore be persuaded that Jesus, who wai cruci- 
fied, is the Messiah." (ver. S6.) (Kuin.) 

22. l(rpar{Knai. An appellation of which the Jews 
were proud (See 2 Cor. 11,22.) since the name Israel 
was bestowed by God himself upon Jacob, (Gen. 
32, 28.) to be a symbol of Divine grace. (See Koppe 
on Rom. 9- 4.) Beza, Heumann, Wetstein, Hein- 
richs, and others, contend that Peter called Jesus 
Na^cJpaios', because the Jews had been accustomed, 
out of contempt, to so call him. See Matt. 27, 71. 
compared with Joh. 1, 46. Acts 24, 5. I, however, 
accede to the opinion of those who think that Jesus 
was so called by Peter, because this had become his 
usual appellative, as in Mark 16, 6. Joh. 15, 5. 
Acts 3, 6. 10, 38. See the note on Joh. 1, 45. 
19,19> 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. II. 71 

After ^oS, Kypke, Heinrichs, and others, place a 
stop, and supply ovra ; with which subaudition we 
may, however, dispense. Nay, the following words, 
^h iirt^iyflr^v ZC auroS o 0€oy clearly show that the 
words, flbro toG 06oS airoZ^leiyitAya^ are to be united. 
Now oLxl Tou 0eo3 is for 6to toG 06o5, since the two 
prepositions are oflen interchanged ; as in Jam. 1. 
13. Joseph. Ant. 7, 14, 5. See the note on Matt. 
11« 19., Dorvill on Chariton, 548. Reiz. on Lucian 
Gym. 20. and Loesner in loc. [This idiom is often 
found in Thucydides. Edit.] The verb aTo$6/icyu|xi, 
(on whose various senses see Krebs and Loesner in 
loc.) denotes '* to prove, demonstrate, evince;" as 
in S7, 7- Xenoph. de Rep, Atli. 1,1. So Susanna, 
§ 15. (cited by Valckn.) ouTr^^ely^a-av h(^ rgeo^^urfgoi 
iK ToG Xoou icgira/. This signification is very suitable 
to the present passage ; and therefore by the words 
avr^p airo roG 0eoG oLTFo^ei^iy^Levo^ e!^ ufta^, &c. is sig- 
nified a man approved of God by many and great 
miracles, a Divine teacher, the Messiah. So Heb. 
2, 4. €7n[M/iipT\)poSvT09 ToG 0eoG. Now Jesus himself 
appealed to his works, i. e. remarkable deeds, from 
which it might be inferred that he was a Divine 
Legate, the Messiah. (See Joh. 10, 37. Job. 5, 36. 
where consult the note.) Auvajutcis*, rcpara, and 
<n]jx€ia are words nearly synonymous, and are here 
conjoined by way of indicating the number and 
variety of these remarkable deeds ; as in Joh. 4, 48. 
and elsewhere. Oh €iroir^a'€ is for A ^Vonjere. See 
the note on Mark 7> 13. and Joh. 4, 35. By h lUtrto 
ufioiy is meant simply among you. See the note on 
Luke 2, 46. (Kuin.) Wetstein has illustrated the 
sense of a9roS€iicw|xi by numerous examples, for 
which I must refer the reader to his note. 

23. toGtov t^ cipuriUrji — XotjSoWf^ . *Op/^€iy signi- 
fies to define, limit, appoint, decree. See Eisner in 
loc. Therefore t^ wpur^Um SwX^ means, ** by the 
definite, certain, immutable decree of God.*' See 
Luke 22, 22. BouXij and Trpiyyoici^ are synonymous. 



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7? ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

npiyifw^i9 is, indeed, by some explained prescience; 
but (as Krebs well remarks) the context requires it 
to be rendered decree, counsel; as in 1 Pet. 1, 2. 
For that the Jews and Romans should have exercised, 
with impunity, violence and cruelty against Christ, 
did not depend so much on any prescience, as on 
the Divine decrees. This signification of wpiyvaHr^s 
is not only confirmed by the usage of the Hebrew^ 
but the Greek. For the Hebrews use yv (as the 
Greeks do y^cSvai) in the sense ot (by a metonoray 
of cause for effect) decree^ appoint. So HerodoU 
7, 5, 4. firwvaJy jxoXXov yvovrep, scil. roSro., Philo. 
966 B. iyvcoKoo^ Mpwtw} Karr^yopeiVf & 63() E. jxerol r^y 
IM'xyiv radrr^v eyvco oeh ngv Xl^poLV KOLTaCKe^atrQah See 
Eisner and Loesner. By the words roOrov 17) cipur* 
(Uvji 06uX7), &c. Peter tacitly replies to the objection 
of the j'ews, who stumbled at the crucifixion of 
Jesus, q. d. " The Jews could not have so treated 
him, unless God had permitted it so to be ; and 
therefore he underwent death by the will of God." 
Now it must be observed that any one is said to be 
eicSoro^, who is delivered up to an enemy seeking him 
for punishment. Thus, in the history of Bel, ver. 
26., the King is said to have given up Bel to Daniel, 
i. e. to do as he would with him : where ck^otw SoSvai 
is equivalent to eicSiSoWi in Herodot. 9, 86. Philo 
97 A. In Palaeph. fab. 41. Ad.metus is unwilling to 
deliver up Alcestes €icSoroy i^airouisjum. So also 
Joseph. Ant. 6, 15, 9. Xa/Saiv airov e^Soroy, & Bell. 3^ 
7, 31. 0€op Tov T^y 7ro7i€W9 Xaov — wpls airoiXeiav 
IkSotov ^ov€3a"iv ij^pois TOLp^a-Tr^trev. Many other ex- 
amples, too, are adduced by Raphel, Eisner, Kypke. 
Krebs, Munth, Loesner, and Valcknaer. 

In the construction and interpretation of eicWoy 
7ia^6vT€9 S*A j(€ipwv the Commentators are much 
divided in opinion. Limborch and Wolf refer okSo* 
TOV 7^&6rr€s to Gody by whose counsel (they observe) 
it ins^ be said to have been done, and who, as it 
w^n^, delivered Christ to the Jews. But this seems 
htursh and far-fetched. The words rather refer to 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. H. 73 

the traitor Judas, from whom the Jews received 
Jesus, as it were delivered up and betrayed, €kSotov. 
Others, and indeed most interpreters, as Grotius, 
Limborch, Wolf, Heumann, and Rosenmuller, refer 
8ia j(€iptov avojDuov to Pilate and the Roman soldiers^ 
and, I think, rightly, since the Gentiles are icar 
i^oj(7\v said to be avojuioi, not being under the Mosaic 
Law. So Rom. 2, 12 & 14. 1 Cor. 9, 21. 1 Mace. 
2, 44. But x^«f>iy, which is found in many MSS., 
seems the truer reading, and is correspondent to the 
Heb. T3. At Trpoo'Tni^oLyres' must be supplied trraup£ ; 
and the passage may be thus translated : " whom 
having received delivered up to you, by the sure 
counsel and decrees of God, ye have destroyed 
through the medium of the Gentiles, who crucified 
him." Peter's auditors, indeed, had not laid hands 
on Jesus, and delivered him up to the Gentiles, 
since most of them were foreign Jews ; but, as the 
Commentators rightly remark, the stain of that trans- 
action adhered to the whole of the Jewish nation ; 
and thus Peter's expression may very well be justir 
fied. (Kuin.) 

Markland enquires whether the word Trgocrrr^yvujxi 
is elsewhere to be found in the sense of fasten to the 
cross. I answer, perhaps not ; but that will not 
prove that it is not so used here, the usage of the 
Hellenistic differing much from that of the Classical 
writers. At all events, there can be no occasion for 
the conjecture of Markland, xpoa-Trailavrey or TrpoTraf- 

24. ov 0€oy avecrrjo-e^ Xutray ray aiSiva^ rou davarot/. 
For davarou many MSS. have aSou; which reading is 
preferred by Mill, Deyling, S/^alcknaer, and Gries- 
bach, who treat the former as an interpretation. 
The sense, however, remains the same, since by a^^ 
the Greeks often designated death itself. But since 
the common reading is supported by the authority 
of the best, and, indeed, the greater part of the MS& 
it is undoubtedly to be retained. [It seems, too, 
more agreeable to the simple style of the sacred 



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74 ACTS OV THE APOSTLES, CHAP. If. 

writers. The other proceeded from some such 
learned corrector as the person who emended the 
style of the New Testament in the Cod. Cantab. 
Edit.] The other reading seems to have been in- 
troduced from ver. 27. and Ps. 18, 6. where coKWr 
ToG aSou are mentioned. The word oiSlv, which in 
the Sept. answers to the Heb. D^73n is properly 
used 01 the pains of parturition (1 Thess. 5, 3.), and 
then of any violent agonies or dire calamities. See 
the note on Matt. 24, 8. The terms here employed, 
yiO^iv and #cpar67<r9ai, like all verbs expressive of 
constraint^ are, by the Greeks and Hebrews, fre- 
quently used of grief. So Job 39, 2. coSTvc^ 8^ ayrcov 
€Xu(r€. Lycophron, 1198. tr^e cSiha^i^eXtjae. iElian, 
H. A. 12, 5. Touy Toiv milvwv Xutrai Setrftoti^. Mich. 
4, 9« ifar€#cgaTi)<rav <roG aJ^vfff oiy rwcrotJa^ff See also 
Luke 13, 16. Hence not a few Commentators 
render w^w^s Oavarou mortis dolores. But since 
death put an end to the sufferings of Christ, it has 
been inquired, how he could be said to have risen 
again, the pains of death being loosed ? To remove 
this difficulty, the Commentators have devised va- 
rious methods. Beza thinks the mSiv€9 to5 flavaroti 
are to be explained from the Hebrew idiom, so that 
by it may be signified a tormenting and painful 
death, dayaroy oJSovijpoff ; as in Matt. 24, 15. to /3S^- 
Xuyfta €^ifi[uv<r€a}9 is equivalent to iai^iiwa-i^ 0SfXuicT7}, 
and in Rom. 7> 24. o-o?/xa to5 Oavarou is for Oi^qtov. 
But Deyling and others rightly remark, that there 
was no longer any pain in death, from which Christ 
was resuscitated, since, after having undergone the 
sufferings of the cross, death was the end of all his 
misery. Kypke would understand the agonies which 
preceded death, those most exquisite tortures, both 
mental and corporeal, which he had endured. But 
the subject of the present passage is the state and 
time intermediate between the death of Christ cru- 
cified, and his resuscitation. To omit other far<^ 
fetched and contort explications, which may be seen 
in Wolf and Deyling, the preference is undoubtedly 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. JS 

due to the opinion of Hackspan, in his Not. PhiL 
on Matt. 13, 32. Deyling, Heumann, Fischer,^ Storr, 
Schleusner, Bolt en and others, who by oi^ves roG 
davarou understand the vincula mortlsy since Xu€i^ 
and ifgareiVflai are properly used of bonds, and this 
interpretation is quite agreeable to the context. In 
this sense, indeed, the word aJSiv does not occur in 
the Classical writers, but must be referred to the 
number of those Greek words to which new and 
unusual significations, formed on the Hebrew usage, 
were attributed by the Alexandrian interpreters. 
For the Hebrew D^72n denotes pains ; as in Is. 13, 
8. Jer. 49, 24. where the Sept. has w^v€9. But this 
very Hebrew noun also signifies ropes^ bonds; and 
this is the original and proper use of the word. 
Those interpreters, in the places where it has this 
signification, have expressed it sometimes by <r;^- 
via, often by oiSTyes'. See Ps. 119, 61. compared with 
Ps. 18, 5. also 116, 3. and 2 Sam. 22, 6. Now the 
Hebrews were accustomed to compare death with a 
hunter stretching out his net, and catching men. 
(See Ps. 91, 3.) This is the very image which 
S3ems to have place in the passages just cited, and 
in the present one. Peter, therefore, having refer- 
ence to those passages of the Old Testament, had 
used the words mo "^7211 : but Luke, following the 
Sept. wrote aJSTycy Oavaroti, at the same time, how- 
ever, himself understanding vincula mortis. So also 
the Syriac translators took the word. Therefore, 
the terms XuVay, &c. ought to be rendered, " the 
bonds by which death held him bound being loosed,*' 
and are to be understood of the state of death, in 
which Christ remained for three days, as it were, 
held by bonds. (Kuin.) 

In this interpretation, which is nearly that of the 
ancient Greek Commentators, I must acquiesce: 
and such seems to have been the one held by Wet- 
stein, who illustrates the phrase b^ many examples 
from the Classical writers, of which the most im- 
portant are the following : Liban. Or. 106 a. ^wo- 



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76 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

fAci^ apitrrri^ coSiyo^t & 408. xSo'ai davarov. i£Iiai]» 
H. A, 12, 5. T0U9 TcSv coSivcoy xGo-ai S^o-ftouy, & 7> 12. 
njv oiSira aToxJerai. See Anthol. 3, 113. Oppian 
Pise, 699- where the Scholiast explains : xJei njy 
oiSiya. With the former part of the sentence I would 
compare ^Eschyl. Agam. 1330. €T€J, WfA^jp^avcS x^ 

24. icadoTi oiK ^v Swariy, &c. The words may be 
thus paraphrased : " Such a worshipper of God {rhv 
oo-iov couy ver. 27.) as was Jesus and the Messiah, 
too (ver. 31.), his hope reposed in God (who should 
recall him to life) could not deceive (ver. 27); so 
that the words of David, Ps. 16, 8. are applicable,*' 
irpowpciiMiv, &c. (vej. 25.) Others explain the words 
thus: " for the prophecies of the Old Testament 
concerning the recall of Christ to life must have 
their fulfilment.** See Ps. 16, 8 seqq. It must be 
observed that those who gain the victory in a con- 
quest, are said, by the Greeks, icgareTy. See Perizon. 
on ^lian. V. A. 2, 4, 3. (Kuin.) Either, or indeed 
both these interpretations may be admitted. 

25. The sentiments of Commentators on the sub- 
ject of Ps. 16. are very various. Most are of opinion 
that the Messiah is there introduced as speaking, 
and as declaring his faith in God amidst tne afflic- 
tions with which he is oppressed ; then at 4 & 5 
professing himself to be a Priest of Jehovah, and 
finally trusting that he shall be by God recalled to 
life, and his body be preserved from corruption. 
Others, however, contend that the fortunes of David 
are described in that Psalm ; as Rosenmuller, in his 
Scholid in loc, and Ruperti. Those who adopt the 
former mode of interpretation, maintain that reter, 
here, and Paul, at 13, 16., quote the words as a 
prophecy properly so called. But that the Psalm 
does not treat of the Messiah has been pretty plainly 
shown by the Commentators just mentioned. For 
this interpretation does not correspond to the notion 
of ^ the Messiah entertained by the more ancient 
Jews, who thought he was to be a poweiful King, 



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ACTS OF THB APOSTLBS, CHAP, J I. 77 

who should subdue all the enemies of the Jewish 
nation : and this very notion of Messiah was, un- 
doubtedly, entertained after the time of David. In 
a much later age the Jews finally took up the notion 
that the Messiah was to be also a Prophet and a 
High Priest (See the note on Joh. 1, 29.) And 
there were then among the wiser Jews some who 
thought that the Messiah, in order to expiate the 
sins of men, would rfie, yet would return to life* 
(See the note on Matt. 20, 28. Luke 23, 42.) Be: 
sides^ many tilings occur in the Psalms which can- 
not, without resorting to strained interpretations, be 
understood of the Messiah. It should seem, then, 
that Peter and Paul accommodated the passage of 
Psalms, and applied it, in a sublimer sense, to Christ. 
It has been, moreover, enquired whether the Jews, 
in the time of Peter, referred the words of the Psalm 
to the Messiah 9 Those who espouse the afiirma* 
tive, -maintain that Peter wished to shew that what 
the Jews tnemselves supposed to be said of the 
Messiah had now attained its fulfilment. But to 
this it may be replied, that " if the Jews themselves 
had explained the Psalm of the Messiah, there would 
have been no occasion for Peter to show at large 
that these words were to be taken, in a sublimer 
sense, of the Messiah. Nor did the common people 
of that age believe that the Messiah would die. 
(See the note on Matt. 20, 28. Peter, therefore, 
who transferred the words of the Psalm to the Mes- 
siah (whom he declared to be Jesus, ver. 32.), did 
not follow the common mode of interpretation. 
Such, too, was the opinion of Schoettgen, Hor. 
Hebraicae. " No one of the Jews (says he), as 
far as I know, has eVer explained the l6th Psalm 
of the Messiah.*' (Kuin.) True ; but the learned 
Commentator ought not to have dissembled what 
Schoettgen adds : '^ But certainly of greater au* 
thority than all the Rabbins put together, is the 
inspired Apostle who, in ver. 29 secjq. plainly shows 
that David died, and saw corruption. And from 



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7S ACTS or THS APOSTLES, CHAP. It. 

thence he draws the conclusion that these words 
are to be understood of another, namely, of Christ, 
since his auditors knew that he bad risen agma 
A*om the report of the guards, which had been 
qiread throughout the city, and was still fresh in 
every one's memory, and now was added the testi- 
mony of the Holy Spirit, which hitherto they, who 
had the eyes of their understanding blinded by the 
veil of Moses, had not distinguished.'* It is plain, 
therefore, that Schoettgen adopted the opinion held 
by some great Theologians of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, as Grotius, and of the eighteenth, as Le Clerc, 
Lowth, Dath, Horsely, and others (and which is 
undoubtedly the true one) ; namely, that the Psalm 
has a double sense^ one historical (of David), and 
the other mystical and allegorical (of Christ). 

25. Aa0io yAp Xeyei w awriv, i. e. *' for David saj's 
respecting him.*' The ^h here, as often, is used for 
w€pi; of which signification many examples are 
adduced by Eisner and Kypke; as Diodor. Sic. 
11, 50. €iff ouSev er€poif ij rh irap^v y\.€y€iv. Pausan. 5, 
22. ToiauTt) it €T€pax(r€ Tliviapoy ciy 0ijl3>)V t€ Koi is 
A(a. So the Heb. 7M ; as in Job. 42, 8. and £z. 
21, S3. That the formula yidye^v w nva is, in the 
New Testament, also employed to denote using 
words which may not properly refer to any thing, 
but admit of being accommodated to it is clear from 
Eph. 5, 32. where we have ?yo> Se Xcyoi els xp^trrw ku) 
els rriv €icicXi}(riav, and where it is manifest from the 
context that such is the sense. Peter, therefore, 
means to say that what, in the Psalm, was said of 
David, held good, in a sublimer sense, of Christ. 
(Kuin.) Dr. Doddridge supposes the Psalm to 
partly treat of David, and partly of Christ; and that 
the transition is at ver. 8. But this seems too hypo- 
thetical and artificial a mode of exposition. 

25. 9rgoa>pcofti}y rov Ki/piov evoiriw jcaou Slot tolptos* 
Most of the recent interpreters, as RosenmuUer and 
Kuinoel, render the wqow^diJLr^p by a present tense : 
but this seems too arbitrary an interpretation. I prtfer 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. !!• 79 

the rendering of our common version, in the Psalm, 
" I have set.*' It may, however, be best considered 
as an Aorist expressive of habit : *^ I have set, and 
do habitually set," &c. And in this light it has 
been considered by Heinrlchs. The words may be 
thus paraphrased : " I do habitually keep in my 
memory, and bear in my mind, the benignant kind- 
ness of the Lord, who hath been my help.** Com* 
pare the verse preceding. 

25. on €K ^€^iwVf for he is on my right hand (as my 
helper). It must be observed that this phrase is a 

forensic one, and alludes to the friends, wapoutx^rot 
(see the note on Joh. 14, 16.) who stood at the right 
hand of any one when he was called to judgment. 
(See Ps. 109, 31.) For ha /xij <raX€uflc», the Hebrew 
is, " I shall not trip:' Now tOIlD is, in the Old Tes- 
tament, often used of those who are brought into any 
mril; and it is not unfrequently synonymous with 
7D3, to Jail; SO that the antecedent is put for the 
consequent, and it tropically denotes " to come to an 
end, succumb under calami ft/, be conquered by ewe- 
mies; as in Ps. 13,5. 88, I7. compared with IS. Ps. 
46, 6. & 16, 8. In nearly the same manner is eraXet/Oeo 
used, which is, indeed, properly employed of ships 
tossed about by winds or waves (from eraXoy, which 
signifies the sea in motion) ; as in Moschopulus and 
Pollux, 1, 114 : but it is from thence transferred to 
any motion or agitation, and is often used of earth- 
quakes; (see Ps. 17, 9. Sept.), and Acts 4, 81. as 
Bos and Kypke in loc, Carpzov. on Heb. 12, 27., 
and Eisner on Acts I7, 13.) It is likewise applied 
to minds perturbed by fear, solicitude, &c. ; as in 
2 Thess. 2, 2. (where see Eisner)^ Judith 12, 15. 
eeraXeudij 1} ^X7i «^®5» ^"^ 1 Macc. 6, 8. And in 
this sense, also, some Commentators think the pre- 
sent passage is to be taken. But the former inter- 
pretation seems more suitable both to the Psalm and 
to the context of the present passage. (Kuin.) 

26. 81a TouTo eu^govdij 1} Kaptia p>¥, &c. For 13 #ca^ 
Zia the Hebrew has 'HIM, my glory, -^ li^ft p>w, m 



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80 ACTS OF THE APOSTLBi, CHAP. H. 

the Septuagint. The Vulgate and Arabic Versions 
have 13 yTuixro-a ftou, and the authors of those Ver- 
sions seem to have read ''aW?; for I cannot assent 
to Bucer and Michaelis, that the tongue is called 
TQ3, as being the noblest part of the body, and that 
in which man is especially superior to the brutes. 
In the passage they adduce in support of that 
signification (namely Ps. 30, 13. 118, 2.) the word 
TIM may very well be rendered animus*, as in many 
places. So Gen. 49, 6. Ps. 4, 3. 7, 6. 57, 9. This 
signification may therefore be assigned to TiaS in 
the present passage. See Michaelis, Suppl. ad Lex. 
H^b. 1199 & 1200. But in Ps. 16, 9. the words 
"?a7, wiy hearty 'mZD my mind, and *nU)3 mj/ body, (so 
Phil. I, 20. (roJjttot,) have, as often, the force of a pro- 
noun, and are to be expressed by, I rejoice, I exult, 
I shall dwell ov rest secure. Now pU) properly de- 
notes rest, especially nocturnal, namely sleep ; also 
resting, staying, ana sojourning : wherefore the last 
words of the Psalm may be rendered either, ** I 
shall dwell safe from all evil,'* or, ** I shall sleep se- 
curely, safe from all peril," like the Heb. D"»7ttQ 
rQ3tt?M in Ps. 4, 9« The last words, however, ^*my 
body shall rest securely,'* must here be otherwise 
interpreted. For since Peter has accommodated 
them to Jesus the Messiah, the recalled to life, we 



* Schoettgen illustrates this sense of lua from the following 
parallelisni of Gen. 49, 6 : 

>mi)j I Minn ^H I 011D3 
:niaD I inn ^« | D^npa 
In consilium eorum I ne veniat I anima mea. 
In convent u eorum | ne sola sit | gloria mea. 
Here Schoetgenn observes that the two members of this sentence 
are synonymous, and therefore that gloria and anima mean the 
same thing. He then cites an eminent Jewish Commentator, who, 
remarking on the synonymy of nilD and ^mtl, observes that one 
thing is, after the manner of the Prophets, made two of (which ex- 
actly correspond! to our term parallelism^ so that it plainly appears 
the learned Commentator was well aware of that principle, which 
has been, though on insufficient grounds, claimed as a discovery of 
modern times) ; and then proceeds to illustrate this by several other 
passages of Scripture. 



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ACTS OF THE 'APOSTLES, CHAP. 11. 81 

must, in his discourse, lay a stress on o-obp^, hody^ as 
opposed to mind. Compare ver. 27 & ^1- 

Karaa-iaiywivy like the Heb. pU) [from which it is 
derived. Edit.] signifies to dwells abide; also rest 7 
whence the Sept. at Ez. I7, 23., render it by ava- 
Taueerdai, and dymmachus, on Ex. 24, 6., by iirava" 
iraUi¥. Therefore the words #cal i^trkp^^ &c. are to 
be rendered, ^' My body shall rest safe and uninjured, 
free from putrefaction.'* (Compare 27 & SI.) The 
phrase hr i\icih answers to the Heb. PltDa?, and de- 
notes securely; as in Prov. 1, 33. 6 $€ €/xou a#coua>y 
KaTounaivaitr^i kir eT^TriBi, and Ps. 4, 10., Judg. 18, 7«» 
Is. 32, 9. (Kuin.) Schoettgen explains hr* ixn-^^y 
by securky or suh conditione spei^ quam haheo de resur- 
rectione; and refers to Rom. 8, 21. One may here 
compare a beautiful passage of Pindar, Frag, mcert. 
3. 7Xt/K€ia 01 KapiioLU ariraXTioio'a yriporpo^o^ ^voLopel 

27- OT* ouK cyicaraX^iJ/eiy njv x^wvijy jttou ely aoou. 
"Airi^ answers to the Hebr. b^kfO, Urcus^ the subter- 
raneous seat of the impious spirits. See the note on 
Matt- 16, 18., Luke 16, 23. Eis* is here, as often, 
for €v. See the note on Matt. I, 9. & 35, 21., Job, 
1, 18. 9, 7- 20, 7. Moreover m aSou is put for €W 
a$ou oZfcov, or roTrov. The same ellipsis is found in 
)Cenoph. OBcon. s. fin. and Diodor. Sic. 162 a. Ka- 
roL^vai €ip aSou. Many more examples may be seen 
in RapheFs Obs. Xen. and Munthe on this passage. 

27. OiSc SoJerfiy, permit. AiSoWi, like the Hebr. jTtt, 
denotes not only a physical^ but moral giving. See 
Krebs, and the note on Mark 10, 26. Thv lo'it^v rou, 
thy worshipper^ the body of thy worshipper. (See 
ver. 31.) IS^Tv, like the lieb. T)\k\ signifies to feel^ 
experience. (See Ps. 34, 13. 19. 49. I06, 5. and the 
Sept. there.) And iS^Ty Siaipdopcty signifies to be cor- 
ruptedy putrefied; as itov rh flovarov is equivalent to 
experience death. (On this manner of speaking see 
the note on Luke 2, 26.) The Hebr. nntt), in Ps. 
16, 10. is rendered by the Sept. Sia^Jflopei, and that 
Peter also (who was speaking in Syro-Chaldee) ap- 

you IV* G 



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8S ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

plied this notion to the word, is clear from the argih- 
ment pursued by him ; which notion, however, was 
only assigned to the word in a later age; for it no 
where occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures. The sense 
therefore of the words is : ** Thou shalt recall me to 
life.*' Thexe is, however, in the words of Ps. 16, 10. 
which Peter referred to Christ, another sense. For 
the Heb. Sty, wliich corresponds to ^yicaraXiVeiv, has 
united with it a v, and denotes to commit, deliver ; 
as in Ps. 49, H '• and thus the words Ityn »7 
biMtt)*? '^tt»3 Mgnify, *' Thou shalt not deliver me to 
the grave." (Compare 118, 18.) For ©03 and a*? 
are very frequently put in the place of a pronoun. 

Instead of "iTDfl, thy 'worshipper^ Fischer (Prol. 
184 seqq.), Ruperti, Rosenmuller, and others, would 
read the plural ']'n^n, by which the words would 
obtain a plural force, and signify, •* Thy worship. 

Eers, such as myself." But the singular is supported 
y the Masorites^ and all the antient Versions and 
best MSS. For this and other reasons it is better to 
retain, with most Critics, the common reading. 
The word IVTO, (from mttJ or H^tt), to descend^ to 
be ioimerged,) which occurs in the other member, 
and is by the Sept. expressed by Sia^Sop^, properly 
denotes a hw place, hence a ditch; then, like the 
Heb. 113, a grave; and finally orcus, or the shades 
below i as in Ps. 30, 4 & 49, 10. Hence it also sig- 
nifies death and destruction ; as in Ps. 55, 34. lOS, 
4., Job as, 18. Now, it must be observed, at Ps. 
16, 10. there is (after the Hebrew manner) the same 
sentiment expressed twice. In the former member 
menjiion it made of Tl«». The parallelism of mem- 
bers therefore requires that in the other tnember 
nritt) be explained of the sepulchre, orcus, shades be- 
low. The sense therefore is this : *« Thou shalt grant 
me a longer use of life ; I shall not succumb to my 
enemies. (Kuin.) See the long and excellent anno- 
tation of Whitby on these two verses. 

28. eyyfl>pi<raf fxoi oSoiy ^oi^y — erou. The Hebr. is 
0*>'^n mM •yV^'iri, " thou teachest the way of life *' 



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ACTS OJF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 9S 

i. e. *' thou shpwest me the way by which I may 
escape the perils of life ;'* '* thou bripgest me bacK 
from the gate of the grave." See Ps. SS, 4. 71, gO. 
Thus in Prov. 7i 27. the vice inferni are those which 
lead to the shades below. But "^n or D^^^Tf often de- 
notes felicity (see Ps. 36, 10. 42, 9., Hos. 6, 2., Prov. 
1.5, 24.) in imitation of which the writers of the New 
Testament so use §Qni (see Luke 12, 15., 1 Pet. 8^ 
18.): and this interpretation, on account of the pa- 
rallelism of members, is to be preferred to tlie lor- 
mer. The sense of the passage seems to be this : 
I shall carry off the victory from my enemies, 
freed from the calamities with which I am no^ op- 
pressed. I shall reign in happiness.'' Now, in con- 
formity to the purpose of Pi^hr, the words must be 
thus explained : " Thou restorest life to me ; thou 
raisest me from th$ dead*" 

The Hebrew is, ^*'3D-nH mPIGWJ, a saturation qfjoyi 
i. e. joy the most exalted before thy face. The» 
follows, " in thy right-hand is joy perpetual/' The 
words 'l''3D-nfci are explained: **In thy worship, thy re- 
ligion (since pious men are said to ^alk before God,) 
or in tby temple. But since the^ follows ^pD'^S^ 
joy j> on thjf right-hand, the former y^A^ is simply 
to be rendered ajpticl te; so that this formula ana 
that which follows, ^"^"^l, signify the same thing, 
and the seuse is : "Thou art the author and giver 
of joy, and of felicity supreme and perpetqal.'* Pe- 
ter, however, mindful of the words of Jesus (Joh. 
17, 5. compare isf. ver. 3}.) meant the wordi to be 
understood thus: "Recalled to life, I shall with 
thee enjoy happiness supreme.'* (Kuio.) 

29. Peter now proceeds to comment upon the 
Psalm, aod shows that a sublimer sense is inherent 
hi the.words ; which being admitted, thev arp by no 
means to be referred to David, but to Christ. The 
passage may be thus paraphrased: ^'Pennit me freely 
to address you on the Patriarch David. Although 
David was a man of eminent piety (Sy«o^), and whom 

g2 



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84^ ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IK 

you highly admire, yet I can freely maintain, what 
you will not deny, that he is dead and buried, and his 
body has experienced putrefaction.** Compare 27, 
31. 18, 87. These words, therefore, of the Psalm, 
which may also very well be understood of the hope 
of a resurrection afler a short abode in the sepul- 
chre, are to be referred, if this be admitted, not to 
David, but to Jesus, who by his resurrection has 
evinced himself to be the Messiah. (See 18, 35.) 
"E^ov is for UtTTw. So Virg. ^En. 2, 15?. Fas mihi 
Grajorum sacrata resolvere jura. Joseph. Ant. 11, 
5 J 5. de Esdrd, m (rw4^ jxcrc^ ttjv iropot t£ XaiS So^a? 

^iXoripW cV 'lepoo-oXujtAoi^. Hieros. Chaggiga, fol. 7S, 
1, R. Jose, f. R. Ben. dixit : David mortuus est Pen- 
tecoste ; et omnis Israel ilium planxerunt, et sacrifi- 
cia sua obtulerunt postero die* 1 Reg. S, 10. Cum 
alia sepulcra extra urbem essent, monumentum Da- 
vidis et familis ejus in ips& urbe est, et hodiernum 
monstratur, teste Maundrello, p. 7^» 76* Ruth R. 1, 
17. David mortuus est die Pentecostes, quae incide- 
bat in Sabbatum. 

S9. McTol wappriiria^yjreelf/. So Diodor. Sic. 345 b. 
n^y (ruft|3oux/ay cicrideTdai fterol rrjs vap^trioLs" and Job. 
7. 13, David, it must be observed, is called patri- 
arch, as being founder of the royal family of the 
Jews. Thus Tertullian calls Saturn the Patriarch of 
the Gods. ^Era^ij, died and was buried, and his 
flesh is corrupted, all which is included in the word. 
[This is a sort of popular synecdoche. Edit.] Ti 
l^jyr^lML iy iJjuiTv, with us; i. e. in the city. It was a pri- 
vilege granted solely to the royal family to be buried, 
not like other people, without^ but within the city. 
(Kuin.) 

80—82. That Peter only applied, or accommo- 
dated the Psalm, in a sublimer sense, to Christ, and 
thus argued according to the mode then pursued 
among the Jewish doctors, is apparent from this, 
namely, that the promise which he tiere represents 
David as having received (i. e. that the Messiah 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. If. 85 

should be his successor) David had not received. 
(See the note on ver. 25.) But the Jews referred to 
the Messiah those passages of the Old Testamenti to 
which Peter alludes ; as 2 Sam. 7> 12. Ps. 89, 5. 
132,11. 

30. n^^ff oZv vvaqxi^Vy &c. npo^i)Ti}ff here evi- 
dently signifies, in its proper sense, one who predicts 
future events ; and it is applied to David, since in that 
age the Jews were wont to explain many of the Psalms 
<tf David as having reference to what should befall 
the Messiah. This interpretation is confirmed by 
the words following, Ka\ €iS<os*, &c. which plainly 
show why he is called a prophet. JJpdiBwv is to be 
Joined with €XaXi}(r6, and simply signifies pi-edicted^ 
pr^(Pi^€wr€. But it must be observed that this is a 
popular mode of expression for, *^ he might be sup- 
posed to have predicted of the resurrection of the 
Messiah '* (namely, in Ps. 16). For words which 
signify to be, or to do, are sometimes used for an 
opinion of the act, and are to be understood ^aivt^yA- 
yw9. See Glass Phil. 229. and the note on Joh. 11, 50. 
Matth, 26, 12. So Matth. 15, 7. m'Kws yrpo€<P'^T€v<r€ 
X6g) t^cSv Hcraiay where see the note. The words 
oTi ou icaTeXc/^jQij are to be joined with the preceding : 
q. d. *' He prophecied of the resurrection of the Mes- 
siah, that his soul was not lefl in the shades below, 
nor did his body suffer putrefaction.*' The sense, 
therefore, of the words may be thus expressed: 
"You will readily grant that the words of Ps. I6. are 
rightly referred to the Messiah, are to be explained, 
in a sublimer sense, of him. For David did not re- 
turn to life, and you yourselves maintain that he, 
having received the promise that from his posterity 
the Idessiah should arise (see 2 Sam. 7, 12.), did, in 
the Psalms also, prophecy of the Messiah and his 
fortunes.** But to proceed to an examination of the 
rest of the words; Koi elhm signifies, *^and had 
known,'* namely, taught of God by Nathan. See 2 
Sam. 7, 12—16. compared with Ps. 132—11. 

30. "On opKto wiJLo<r€v atJT^ ©e^. When God is said, 



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86 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

in Scripture, to have sivorny it is thereby declared 
that God is fixed in purpose and unchangeable. 
(See Hebr. 2, 11. 6, 13 & 17) Therefore the sense 
of the word is, " sanctissim^ promisit.** *Eic Kapn-wi 
-njy ocr^uoy aJroS. In Ps. 132, 11., to which Peter has 
especial reference, we have ■pttO 'HDD, which is ren- 
dered by the Sept. €k Kct^woS r^y koiXiW (tov. But 
^r^Juy in the Sept. answers to the Hebr. Onhn at 
Job. 38, 3. and,CD^3nD in Exod. 12, 11., so that <cap- 
^2^ •njf oT^uos' may probably signify the fruit of the 
loins. These words, however, when used of the pro* 
creation of children, are interchanged, and the pre- 
sent phrase, according to the Hebrew idiom, signi- 
fies "from his posterity/* 

KarcL trapKOL avatrTijo-fiv, &c. is usually rendered, 
'* that the Messiah, according to his human nature, 
should be born, and should possess his kingdom.'' 
It is urged that avourrrimif like eyeigfiv, is^ frequently 
used of nativity. See Matt. 22, 24. 2 Sam. 7, 12. 
But these very words are omitted in A. C. D. ♦*Barb. 
1. Ed. Syr. Erp. Copt. Mth. Arm. Vulg. ^th. Cyr. 
Iren. Victorin. Fulg. and in other books, we have, 
after dgoyou aurou, avournia-^if r^v Xgio-roy Karii tr&pKa. 
The common reading is defended by De Dieu, Wolf, . 
Heuman, and others : but has been, with reason, re- 
jected by Bengel, Mill, Schott, Griesbach, and 
others ; since the very variety of reading betrays a 
gloss. The words are not to be found in Ps. 132. 
nor in the parallel passage of 2 Sam. 7, 12. and Ps. 
89, 5. and by omitting the words the reading is ren- 
dered more difficult ; which points' to the red origin 
of the common reading. On omitting the words we 
must subaud rtva at icadiVai, i. e. a successor to the 
kingdom, namely, Christ Compare ver. 31. The 
words if ^^XT^ aJroS are also omitted in many good 
MSS., with the approbation of Bengel, Mill, and 
Griesbach, and seem to have been brought in from 
ver. 27. by the scribes, who also for icaT^6#<^dtj wrote 
eyjotTcXe/^} sihce that very verb is found in ver. «7. 
(Kuia.) 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 87 

Of irpot^m Wetstein adduces several exampks ; as 
Aristid. in Rom. 227. Plut. 2, 586 b. Anthol. 4, 18 
seq. & 23, 5. and lie adds, ** David indeed spoke of 
himself, but he spoke Just as if he had foreseen what 
had now happened.*' (See the note on Matth. 1, 21.) 

32. toGtov Toy 'Itjctowv. Heinrichs, who has rightly 
seen that after toStov must be supplied X^kft^v optck, 
remarks, that toGtov may be taken for the predicate, 
and /Jt)(ro5v theiSubject, and be einphatically. 

33. rr\ 8^$«^ wv Tou 0€oS u^^wdeU^ therefore raised to 
the right hand of God, i. e. to the height of dignity 
and majesty, declared and constituted Lord and 
Messiah (namely, by his resurrection and return to 
Heaven). See ver. 36. Phil. 2, 9- seq. On tnf/o5v 
see the note on Joh.8, 28. Matt. 11,23. It must 
be observed^ that the expression right hand of' God 
was by the Hebrews used to denote the divine power. 
See Glass. Phil. 937. 

Tijy T€ €irayyex/ay XajScoy^ toSto. At touto sub- 

aud irv€uiML. Compare Joh. 14, I6& 26. 15, 26. It 
was moreover a persuasion of the Jews, that by the 
will and providence of the Messiah, watching over 
the welfare of his people, great things had already 
been worked, and that by his inspirations the prophets 
had. uttered their oracles. See Knapp's Opusc. p. 26. 

34*. Xey€* ojircs. Those interpreters who refer Ps. 
110 to Davidt and suppose that Peter only accommo- 
dated the words, acknowledge that David was not 
the author of the Psalm, but maintain that Christ 
and Peter followed the common opinion of their 
countrymen. Of the same sentiment are also many 
of those who interpret the Psalm of the Messiah^ 
since this notion of Messiah was introduced after the 
death of David. To this latter opinion I do not 
hesitate to accede. (Kuiu.) For my own part, I can 
approve of neither, since both are equally founded 
on a dangerous principle, namely, of our Lord and 
the Apostle knowingly tolerating error, and availing 
themselves of it, to strengthen their cause, a princi- 
ple so highly objectionable as to be calculated. tp 



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88 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

destroy all reliance on the truth of any hypothesis 
which involves it. 

Kuinoel remarks that utotoSiov is a word used by 
the Alexandrian Interpreters, and some later GreeK 
writer ; as A then. 192 e. and he refers to Sturz de 
Dialecto Macedonic^, 199. and his note on Matth. 
5,35.* 

36, 37. The construction is this: on roSrov rw *Iij- 
cowf ov UJXCI9 €<rratjpaia'aT€ &€os ^oir^treif fttirhv icugioi^ 
koi Xpta-Tw. The pronoun ouroy is redundant, by a 
Hebraism [or rather an idiom extending to the idi- 
otical or popular use in most languages. Edit.] 
'Eroi^ey, appointed him, declared him appointed^ 
by his resurrection and return to Heaven. On this 
sense ofVoieTv see the note on Mark 8, 14. Joh. 6, 15. 
(Kuin.) On Kfipiw eirot^a-i Wetstein cites Justin. 10, 
1. D^rium pater regem vivus fecit. Plin. Traj. 5. 
Herodot. 4, 4, 1. cfre rjy^ftoW^ ^ apyomas 2S€i Toieif. 
And on the phrase 00*^X00^ 71 wioo-K€ra> he cites £u- 
nap. Proaer. ciSoVe Sur^aCKm. 

37. oucovtrarres, scil. towto (on which ellipsis see 
Bos. 490. Sch.), namely, that not only an innocent 
person, but even the Messiah himself, had been put 
to death. Karcyuyijo-av rw Ko^^iqL, ** were stung with 
sorrow and remorse.'* Now Kara^va-trea^ai, which 
properly signifies to be pricked down^ or through^ 
figuratively denotes extreme grief (as in Gen. 34, 7. 
where the Hebrew is S^ifrsll), and is especially used 
of speeches which violently affect the mind^ or strike 

* Here we have an expression derived from the custom of put- 
ting the foot on the necks of the vanquished. Thus the hraeliteSy 
in Josh. 10, «4. put their feet on the necks of the Cananitish Kings. 

So Ps. 60, 1 1. Ovid. Fast. 4, 858. Urhs oritur victorem terris im- 

pcistura pedem. So Turnus, in Virg. ^n. 10, 490. puts his foot on 

Pallas : quem Turnus super adsistens. & 495. £t Isevo pressit 

p^e talia fatus exanimem. 736. Turn super abjectum posito pede 
nixus et h«8ta. Prudent. 1, 1. v. 464. Seu debellata duorum Colla 
tyrannoruno media calcemus in urbe. Thus Jonathan, in Joseph. 
B^U. J, 5, p, 95. insults Pudens the Roman, whom he had just slain : 
ivfira itrilBat rf v€Kp^ rdre ii<pos fffjinyfi^yoy liyitrete Kai rjf Xa<^ 
rpV Ovptoy, {xi^XaXafe re rj arpart^ iroXXa, Koi vp6s Toy 'iretrdyra 
K^lJ^itAe^iy, Ka\ rovs opmyraf Vuffiaicvs kiriv KincTidv, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 89 

it with sorrow. So Sir. 14, 1. Koi ow K0Lr€v6yy\ tVXwy) 
ofAapriwy. It also denotes the stupor and dejection 
which attends grief, and accompanies, or succeeds, 
other violent emotions. So Sir. 12, 12. 20,21. icai 
€1* rff ayacrxflwrci auroS oJ KarewyT^trercu iv rji avourrairet 
atiroS oti icarcvuyijVerar & 47> 21. Kareyiiyr^v M rj] a^go* 
a-ivr^ troti. Susanna. 11. icai ^cray afj^irepoi Karavemry' 
fUvoi yrep) our^f * in all which passages it denotes stu- 
pefaction ; but, by another and yet more vehement 
effect of grief, it signifies to be dumb or silent; as 
in Ps. 4, 5. €7ri rou9 Koirai9 wjxoJy icorayJyijTr and 
Levit. 10, 3. Karevixjivi *Aapwv^ where the Hebr. is 
Oai [whence our dumb, which comes immediately 
from the Ang.-Sax. dseman, to obstruct, to dam. 
Edit] and in Dan. 10, 15. it answers to the Hebr. 
C37h5, ohmutescere. So Suidas and Hesychius. 
(Kuin.) See more examples in Kypke. Wetstein, 
among other passages, produces rlaut. Cor pungit 
meum. Themist. 2. p. 33 b. Ivt/^e r^y Siavoiov. Simplic* 
Praef. ad Epitect. w rouy |xij Travrm^ V€V€KpwiJi€VotJ9 vuTre-^ 
6ai €K r£v Xoyeoy. I add Liban. ap. Wolf. Bell. Gr* 
7> 202. TotiToiy'ic6VToSjttai r^" '^^'X^^* 
' The following words, t/ 7roiij^o|X€v, are a popular 
formula expressive of great concern at something 
which cannot be undone, but of which the sin needs 
to be expiated. 

38. ft€TayoK}VaT€ icai ^a^Tia-flifTO), &c. The verb 
fterayoeiy includes both repentance and reformation, 
especially by an abandonment of the prejudices which 
had hitherto hindered them from acknowledging 
Jesus as the Messiah. BaTrri^c^dai €7ri r£ ovoftari I. X* 
is equivalent to 0airTi^€a'flai ci^ to ovofta row Kup/ou *I>j- 
o-oG in Acts 19, 5. which may be explained, •* to so- 
lemnly profess to be a follower of Jesus, and to bind 
oneself to embrace his doctrine." See the note on 
Matth. 28, 190 ^7 ^^^ SoJga toG ay/ou ^ryeuftaro^ 
(since Peter manifestly has reference to the before- 
mentioned passage of Joel, ver. 17) are signified the 
effects of divine grace, a full and accurate knowledge 
of divine things, a fervent and constant striving 



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90 ACTS OF THE AP08TLE8, CHAP. II. 

after holiness, a most ardent desire to profess and 
propagate the doctrine of Christ See tne note on 
1,8. 2, 4& 14. (Kuin.) 

39* tJftiv yap kimv ij iirayy€KKia^ to you belongs 
the promise. T/xiv is for JfuSy; an idiom illustrated 
from Classical i uthors by Kypke. See the note on 
Mark 2, 18# By ») iirayyeXhia some Commentators 
understand the promise of sending the Messiah. 
But since there just before preceded x>i>|/€0"fl€ nji^ 
^p€^ ro5 ay/otf Tvctiftdro^, and since there is here a 
reference to Joel 3, 1. we must undoubtedly under- 
stand, "the promise of sending the spirit.'' 

S9* Ka) ff-ao-i ro7;p €1^ luiKpkvj and to all, even the 
moftt remote. The majority of Commentators, fol- 
lowing the authority of Theophylact, maintain that 
by these words are metint the Gentiles^ and they 
subaud x^pw own^ (see Bos £11. Schaef. 663.) taking 
€1^ {MucpoLif X"^P^^ ^^^ fMucpa ^cipqL. They observe that 
the Gentiles were by the Hebrews termed remote^ 
Q'^pm, as removed from the Jewish religion, and 
therefore withdrawn from the Divine benefits (com- 

?are (Acts 6, 15. 10, 9); and they maintain that 
^eter here, and Paul in Eph. 2, T3. and Rom. 9, 24. 
followed this mode of speaking. To this however it 
has been objected by others, that Peter was then ig- 
norant that the benefits of the Messiah belonged to 
the Gentiles also (see Acts 10.) 5 and that when Pe- 
ter afterwards, being better instructed, had preached 
to the Gentiles the doctrines of Christ, the Jeru^ 
salemite Christians were greatly ofiended thereat. 
(Compare 11,2.) They therefore think the words 
ToTy w [MKpoLV are to be interpreted of late posteiity^ 
since [MKpw is also used of time ; as in Xen. Cyr. 5, 
4, 21. and in numerous passages cited by Wetstein* 
[But these are all only examples of ouV eis* jmaicpav, 
which is quite another idiom. Edit.] Others refer 
the words to the dispersed Jews ; and in support of 
this opinion quote Eph. 9, 20. For my own part, I 
must accede to the opinion that the Gentiles arc 
meant [this mode of interpretation, which seems 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 91 

the true one, is supported by the authority of CEcu- 
menius. Edit.] : though, at the same time, I think by 
thehi must b^ understood Gentiles who should pass 
over to the Jewish religion. ^ For the Jews held the 
opinion that those of the Gentiles who should em^- 
brace the Jewish religion would be citizens of the 
Messiah's kingdom. See the note on Matt. S, S. 8, 
11. 20, 18. To these proselytes then, who should 
pass over to the Jewish religion, Peter, at that time, 
thought would extend the benefits of Christ. This 
interpretation is strongly confirmed by Acts 3, 25. 
where Peter says, ij[x€i9 etrre uloi r^y o^a^icr^^f " to 
you belong the promise of the covenant given to 
Abraham ; by your posterity shall all the nations of 
the earth be blessed. For your benefit especially 
hath God caused the Messiah to appear. (Kuin.) 

39. ofToug av — o 0w ^*fw£^ whomsoever the Lord 
our God, by the doctrine imparted for the profes- 
sion of the religion of Christ, and the felicity con- 
joined with that profession, shall call upon, cause to 
be brought over, (see Joh. 6, 44.) ^r^otf-icaXcen^raf. 
See Koppe on Gal. 1, 6., Rom. 9, 24., and Pott*s 
Exc. 2. on Epist. Petr. p. 279 seqq. 

40. ir€poi9 T€ Xoyoiy — ratmjy. By trcidriTe is meant, 
** suffer them to be liberated, or snatclied from per- 
dition." See RaphePs Obs. Herodo., Gataker's Ado. 
Posth. 761 •> and Suicer's Thesaurus in voce. [Per- 
haps (Tci^etrOai may here denote, to be put into the 
way (^salvation. See the luminous statement of the 
various senses of this word, quoteil from Dr. Maltby 
in vol. I. p. 9. of this work. Edit.] Fevcct, race, the 
men then living. Seethe note on Matt. 11, 16. 23, 
364 XKoy^Mv properly denotes what is crooked, 
oblique (so Sap. 13, 13. ^Jxov (riraXi^v, and 16, 15. 
where the word is used of serpents), whence the rA 
(TKoMoL and eJd^Ta are opposed in Luke 3, 5., and 
^jroXiof is especially used of a curved and winding 
path ; as in Prov. 2, 15. though there figuratively. 
HenC;e it is metaphorically applied to what is per- 
verse, sinful, wicked, &c.; as in Sap. 1, 3, (tkoXioJ 



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92 ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

ykp XoyKTfAo) j^opi^otMriv arro ©€6u. FfKc^ ^icoXic^ is a 
term here used in imitation of Deut. 32, 5. yevcii 
trtco'KioL Koj hctrrpaiiiJLtnfi^ where the Hebrew is tDpS^. 
(Kuin.) With the expression houuzpruptro I would 
compare that of Thucyd. 6, 80, 6. 0€o/x€da ica) /xogru- 
pofi^a. 

41. 05y, it must be observed, is a particle oftran^ 
sUion. "ktrii^yos is omitted by some antient MSS. 
and Versions, and is supposed by Mill to have crept 
into the text from a marginal scholium, fiut it has 
been rightly observed by Wolf, Krebs, Loesner, and 
others, that it is more probable that the scribes should 
have omitted the word, either through carelessness, 
or purposely, as being not very necessary. But in- 
deed it often accompanies S^;^ €0"rai and a^roSep^co^ai, 
as is evident from the numerous examples adduced 
bv Wetstein, Kypke, Krebs, Muni he, and Loesner. 
'A^ro^p^co-dai, as applied to things^ denotes to receive, 
assent to, approve, admit, following the authority of, 
&c. So Xen. Mem. 1, 2; 8. ol aTo$€^aft€yoi axcp 
ouir£ ihoKei. Eurip. Helen. 8S8. f,v Se ^ vcSv fti^ abro- 
Zi^rai xrfyouff. See Kypke in loc, Taylor on Lys. 
423. and Irraisch on Herodian 1, 766. 

41. *Ei3a?rri<rdi3(rav. In the early ages of Christi-r 
anity, those who acknowledged Jesus to be the Mes- 
siah were received, by tnis solemn rite, into the Chris- 
tian Church ; so that a fuller instruction did not 
precede, but follow baptism. Upwr^r^r^traa^, scil. t^ 
^KK7<rj(ria. (Compare ver. 46.) Raphel, Eisner, and 
Bos, render this adf;u/7j:e/*a/ ^e^e; and thus, as (ob- 
serves Kypke) irpwrir^troM would have reference to 
a^itrrcur^ai in 1 Tim. 6, 5.: and the words are found 
opposed in Plut. 2, 855., and Joseph. Ant. 7, 1., and 
Vit. p. 1005. But, as Kuinoel remarks, the word 
almost always occurs in the middle voice. He would 
therefore render it adjunxerunt. 

41. ^y> by a mode of speaking common to al-- 
most all languages, signifies man. So the Hebrew 
ttJOn, in Gen. 46, 27., and 4^;^ infra ver. 43. 3, 23. 
7, 15. 27, 37. Rom. 2. 9. Lev. I7, 9., where the He- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 95 

brew is ttJ^M. In this sense it is also found in the 
best Classical writers, both Greek and Latin, of 
which examples are produced by Raphel, Kypke, 
and Wetstein; as Eurip. Hel. 52. and Andr. 611,. 
Aristoph. Nub. 49. Soph. Aj. 154. ^schyl.&c. 972* 
Virg. ^n. 11, 24 and 371. See Cuper*s Obs. 1, 20. 
and Gataker on Anton. 5, 37. With respect to the 
fact^ Eisner compares a similar one related of Pytha- 
goras by Porphyry, Vit P. p. 25. t^rm Se iropra^ €19 

Sicr;^iXiou^ eXtlv rm X(>yoiy. There seems reason to 
think that such like accounts in Jamblichus, Philo- 
stratus, and others, were expressly intended to injure 
Christianity by invidious comparisons. See Doddr, 
42. Having related that the number of Disciples 
had increased to^ three thousand, Luke takes occa« 
sion to give some information on the institutes of 
the primitive Church. (See 4, 32 seqq.) On ^go<r- 
KapT€pofiPT€^ see the note on 1, 14. The rest of the 
words of this verse have been variously interpreted 
by Commentators. Koiya>y/a is by some explained 
societasy consuetudo; and Heuman and Barkey trans*- 
late, " adheerebant societati.** But Wolf, Rosenmul- 
ler, Thaleman, Reichard, and Schott refer kmvwvIol 
to the Apostles, and render: "They followed the 
society of the Apostles, and were familiarly conver- 
sant with them.*' Mosheim, in his Com. de rebus 
Christianor., Hansen, Heinrichs, and others, by 
icoiyooyia understand a communication of goods, bene* 
ficence, alms : a signification frequent in the New 
Testament ; as Rom. 15, 26. Hebr. 13, 16. 2 Cor. 
8, 4. 9, 13. 1 Tim. 6, 18. Others, taking the Koi for 
yyouy, sive (see Graev. on Hesiod, Opusc. 328. and 
Dorville, Misc. Obs. 9, 108.), assign to the words 
the following sense : " They persevered in hearing 
the doctrine of the Apostles, and in communion^ 
namely, by breaking of bread and prayers." Others, 
following the Vulgate, join Koivtovia with the follow- 
ing words, Ku] rj] lOJurei roS a^rw^ by an hendiadis (as 



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94 Acra or ism a w j tii ii cbap. ik 

in Acts «S, 6. Eph. 2, 3. Horn. II. y. 101. fianaTiw 
ica} o/Spa. And Od. «. Gl. Acts 14, 14. raupovs Koii 
oT^fiara); and they take Koi rfi Ktupcovict Koi rji 
ic7JvF€i rw ApTWy for ica2 rfi Mivcwiq, K\our€<o9 rod dqrwj 
meaning a common meal. But, as Wolf ably re- 
marks, the figure hendiadis cannot here have place, 
because jcoI must be repeated four times; whereas it 
elsewhere only occurs once^ when there is an hendia- 
dis. Indeed I would accede to the opinion of those 
who explain xatiya^via of the communication of goods 
and liberality towards the poor. Nor is it any hin- 
drance to this interpretation that ven 44 & seqq. 
treat of beneficence, nay it is rather a confirmation 
of it; for Luke there means to more fully explain 
yrhat he had expressed in few and obscure words 
at ver. 43. Hence also, in 46., he anin makes 
mention of the iarotOima-ia^ and distinctly describes 
it. But the woras Koi rfi kTi&rti rou iprw have also 
been variously interpreted. The phrase icX^y rkv 
SLpTov, and loJia-i^ rou Aprw, in the New Testament, 
are not only used to denote breaking of bread, 
breaking it to pieces, and giving it to others, (see Is. 
58, 7. Jer. 16, 6. Luke 24, 30 & 35. Matt. 14, 19.,) 
but are likewise so used as to denote the meal ilseljf^j 
and the common partaking of the food. Hence abo 
K^ rhif aorw is used of the Lord's Supper in 1 Cor. 
10, 16. Now here by icXao-i^ rw ofprou not a few 
Commentators, as £r. Schmid, Beza, and others 
cited by Heuman^ understand a common meal; which 
interpretation may be proved to be false from this, 
namely, that we find oiSoyij and vowr€uxai associated, 
and thus are enumeratea rather the parts of Dwine 
worship in the assembly of Jerusalem. The Syriac 
translator took the phrase KTjuns roS iprou of the 
Lord's Supper, and Sfrosy which he has elsewhere 
rendered Lama, (as in Acts 20, ?•,) he has here ex- 
pressed by Eucharist. This modie of interpretation 
bad been adopted by some Fathers (see Suic. Obs. 
Sacr. ISO. and Thes. T, 2. p. 105), and many recent 
interpreters, as Heuman, Light&ot, Snicer, Schoett- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. 11. 95 

gen, and Wdf. But in ver. 46. the subject treated 
of is plainly common meals^ nor is there any sufficient 
reason why the words xXoIvrcy aprav should there be 
taken in any other sense than the kxda-i^ roO &pTw in 
this passage. I therefore do not hesitate to assent 
to Umborch, Mosheim, Barkey, Hansen^ and others, 
who take the expression here, and at Acts 20, 7. to 
denote common sacred meals, called agapas^ to 
which the richer Christians contributed, for the use 
and relief of the poorer brethren, and which used 
to precede the celebration of the Lord's Supper. 
See 1 Cor. 11, I6 seqq. (Kuin.) In this last view 
of the subject I must acquiesce. Doddridge em** 
braces the opinion of Casaubon, Grotius, and Wolf, 
that a common meal is meant 

43. €y€y€ro 8^ irourfi '^x^ ^^fi^^- By the vofo-a 
4^X7^ is meant the body of believers, tpe oXo^ yia^s 
(compare ver. 47); and by the fear here mention^ 
must be understood a religious ^r, partaking much 
of reverence and admiration, which indeed are kin* 
dred feelings : " They no longer (says CEcumenius) 
despised the Apostles, as vulgar persons, but, by the 
power of their eloquence in describing the great and 
precious promises of which those of the Jewish na- 
tion who should embrace Christianity might be made 
partakers, their feelings were interested; not to 
mention the signs and wonders which these persons 
bad witnessed.*' Examples of this sense of 4>^9 are 
adduced by Kuinoel from Luke 1, 65. 7» !*>• (See 
the note on Mark 4, 41.) The construction of the 
sentence is, as Wetstein observes, Hebrew, and the 
sense is nearly the same with that of Acts S, 10. 
htKYfl-^aif dafl^ou^ Ka) €ic<rra(r€ai^. Kuinoel thinks 
th^ the following re denotes Jbr, because. But this 
seems inrprobable. 

44. Travrey he 01 Ticretjovre^ ^<rav hr\ roauri. There 
has been some difference of opinion as to the sense 
G^^travM rl auro, which I.ightfoot, Wolf, and some 
others, render, " were collected together (nan^ely, 
lor prayer) in the same place :'' and since it is not 



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96 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

likely that 3140 persons could meet in the same 
house, and since in- ver. 47. we have icXarrc^ icar 
ol^oy aprw^ they think that the Church at Jerusalem 
was divided into many lesser bodies, or families, 
each of which had its religious meetings, and that 
this is what is here meant. Kuinoel, however, ac- 
counts this mode of exposition harsh. Dr. Whitby 
would understand it of communion of action y and 
refers to Ezr. 4, 3. Ps. 49, 2. Is. 66, I7. Jer. 6, 12. 
Most recent Commentators, as Pearce, Heumann, 
and Kuinoel, adopt the interpre^tation of Theophy- 
lact, who takes tV) rl cwiri of perfect unanimity and 
concord. This (say they) is confirmed by a similar 
passage of 4, 32. and by the usage of the Alexan- 
drian interpreters ; as in Ps. 34, 4. And so Thucyd. 
1, 79« But, after all, perhaps the first mentioned 
mode of explanation may deserve the preference, 
especially on account of the very same expression, 
with the verb, having occurred at ver 1. of this 
Chapter, which determines it to mean meeting for 
religious worship. Whether these meetings were 
confined to one place is not said ; though we may 
conceive that they kept as much together as possible. 
As to the objection of Whitby and others, that they 
could not all meet at one place^ it seems of little 
force, since one cannot suppose that it would be 
possible or necessary for all to meet together at the 
same place. Even if the same day were adhered to, 
yet, in the course of it, so many successive meetings 
might be held as would embrace all who had it in 
their power to attend public worship. This passage 
seems to have been had in view by Porphyry de 
Vit. Pyth. p. 25. (cited by Wolf) /xijic^ti oLt 8* Ato- 

Ociirai^ fieyaXrjv *ExXa8a ev ^IraXi'^. 

44. ^a) €iyoy obrairra icoiva, subaud icnfftara. " All 
(says Tertullian) except wives. A foolish observa- 
tion, enough, for a Father of the Church, since 
wives are not KnqfJMra, and could not be supposed to 



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ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. !!• 97 

be included. It is of more consequence, however, 
to determine how far this community of goods ex- 
tended ; and here, upon the whole, I am inclined to 
accede to the opinion of Whitby, Wolf, Heuman, 
Kuinoe), and Heinrichs (and, as it seems, Wetstein), 
that the words are not to be too much pressed, not to 
be interpreted of an absolute community of goods, 
since it does not follow because the richer Christians, 
for the purpose of relieving the necessities of their 
poorer brethren, sold part of their goods, that they 
gave up «//, and had no property in their owa 
hands, and could not afterwards sell it. That this 
power of sale was left them, and was voluntary, i& 
clear from the story of Ananias and Sapphira, Acts 
5, 4. Thus, also, when we read in Acts 4, 32. 
** nor did any one say that aught of his goods was 
his own, but all things were common to them," the 
words plainly indicate that only the use of the pos-r 
sessions was common, not the possessions them- 
selves. *' It clearly appears (says Kuinoel) that 
there were those among tl)e Christians who had 
property, and kept it. Thus in 12,12. mention is 
maae of one Maria, who had houses of her own at 
Jerusalem. Nor do we find in the Epistles aay ves- 
tige of there having been a community of property 
in the rest of the Christian societies. Nay, we find 
that there were rich and poor. By the admonition 
of the Apostles, money, indeed, was collected fuc 
the use of the poor (see 1 Cor. 16, 1.), and contri- 
buted on the Lord's day. They therefore had re-v 
tained their possessions. Moreover, in 1 Thess. 4» 
11., the Apostle exhorts the Christiana to provide 
for their support by the labour of their hands.; and 
in 2 Thess. 3, 7 & 12. he urges this admonition l?y 
proposing his own example. See also 1 Ep. 4, 28. 
^\cts 9, 36. 1 1, 29. Thus the words Kok €l;cov pivavT($ 
Koiva are to be taken in a popular sense, and in nearly 
the same manner as the old adage, vavra jcoivat roi 
r£v ^i'Kwv. See Cic. de Off. 1, 16. Senec. de benefic* 
7, 12 Quid(|uid habc^t amicus commune nobisy 8e4 

VOL. IV. H 



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98 ACTS or THH APOSTLES^ CHAP. II. 

illius proprium est qui tenet, uti illo nolente, non 
possum. (See the note on 4, 32.) By these words, 
then, is designated great beneficence and liberality. 
(Kuin.) 

This interpretation, however, seems to somewhat 
lower the sense, which must, at least, amount to 
this^ that they regarded their property as if not their 
own, but held in trust for the advantage of their 
fellow Christians. So Val. Max. 6, 8. (cited by 
Wets.) Quod Giliias possidebat, omnium quasi com- 
mune patrimonium erat. It is very sensibly re- 
marked by Doddridge, that ** peculiar reasons made 
this community of goods eligible at this time; not 
only as so many sojourners, who had come from 
other parts, would justly be desirous to continue at 
Jerusalem much longer than they intended when 
they came up to the feast, that they might get a 
thorough knowledge of the gospel, but as the pros- 
pect likewise of the Roman conquests, which, ac- 
cording to Christ's known prediction, were soon to 
swallow up all Jewish property, would, of course, 
dispose many more readily to sell their lands. 

The same judicious and pious Commentator insists 
en this circumstance, as arguing the incontestible 
evidence of the Gospel, from its prevailing on the 
possessors of wealth to part Avith their property for 
the relief of persons who, excepting community of 
faith, had no peculiar claim to their regards. 

Some Commentators tell us that these icrf^iuira 
denote the immobilia as property in land or houses. 
But that was not always the sense of rr^fta, as ap- 
pears from Polyan. 2, 1, 10. xoXu ^rX^floy itApeiweov 
tea) ^M'Kv\fMArmv icol rcov a\7<a)V icrt)jtiiarcoy Xa^u^)/ai- 
yq<ra^. Wolf, Eisner, and other Commentators ob- 
serve that both the Pythagoreans and the Essenes 
bad a community of goods. Thus Jambl. de Vit. 
Pytli. G, 17- p« 59. €V Se TO) ypovcp rouro) ra fiuev €ica- 
rrou inrapx^fh rt^tyritrnv al oxxriaij €/toivoSyro, SiSoftfda 
rtit AiroSe&fiyjX^'yoiy €lr roSro yvwpliM^^y o?jr6p €/caXoSyro 
i^iTiicoi Koi oiicoi^ftoKOi Tk9€? Koi yojxodfTfico) oyr€9. Jo« 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 99 

seph. Bell. 1, S, 13* Kara^^yyira) $^ irXdorot/, Ka) dau" 
luxriotf Tup ouiroif to KoivcoytiriKop' otJXc iernv €u(>€!v icrfyr^i 
ram iroft* cnTrvSp ifw^fijfwrar 901109 70^ rouf €19 ti}v aXp€9'iv 
€\(novTa9 hrifjLeieiv t£ rAyfi.0LT$ r^ oiclaVy anrre cv airao't 
nlJTi 7r€v!a9 raTremry^Ta <^aiV€(rdai, ju,i}S* &r€po;^»]y tXou- 
Tou* T(oi/ yAg €KA,(rrot} /cnj/taraiir aua[Ji>€[i*$yfi,€yiop {Limp 
tSiTTcep aS€7^$o7f airaa-iv outriouf ehai. 80 also Ant. 18^ 
2 , and Philo. 6OI seqq. oera yAg ay /xcfi* i^f^Jpap epya- 
cdfM,€Uoi Xa^triu iir) fAio-do) rat>r oJk fSia <l^tj')\,ArtotMnv, 
aXX' eiS" ft€<rov jrgoTidevTff icoiviqv Toiy ^d^Aotxri pf p^erflai tiq* 
At' aJrcoy TrapourKeud^outnif oi^eX^iav* To the slbove 
passages, produced by the Commentators, I add 
Joseph. 793, 35. a^iov Z^ aorSw daufiatrai irap^ leavraf 
rot^ aperii^ [ji.€TU7roioufjL€Uou9 th S/icaioy, fATjhaiuoiS uxd^^ocp 
'ExXiJycov 71 ^p^apmv ti^iv, oXXo^ ftijS' eiy oXiyoy, iKeito^^ 
S* €if TaAoiioS ^t/veXdiv, €v Tco eTriTujSfufd-flai jtAiQ *c€iifa)Xwda» 
Tflb j^fMLxa icoiya attro79 elvai^ uTroXatioi Ze oJS^ 6 tXoS- 
<rioy TiSy oiK6ia>y jut^i^oWs*, ^ jxijS* ?ti oSy KcfcnjiUvot^* 
tcai taie xpatrtroxHriv &i&p€s oxep r€(r(rapaifi(r;f iXioi riy 
A^A^u oyr€f. I can, however^ by no means Assent 
to the opinion of Grotius, Heinrichs, and others, 
that this was an imitatiim of the Essenes; since cir- 
cumstances were widely different: for among the 
Essenes there was an absolute community of goods, 
and no property whatever. But it is plain, from 
what has been said, that this was by no me^ns thd 
case among these Jerusalemite Christians. In 
contributing their ready money, and even selling 
some of their property to relieve the necessities of 
their brethren, they can scarcely be thought to hftVfe 
advertted to the custom of a contemptible Jewi^ 
dect, but were rather influenced by those fr^uent 
ftdmonitioDfi to mutual love and beneficet^ce M oft^n 
and so strongly inculcated by our ble§s^d Lord (s^. 
Luke 12, 33.)5 and enforced, doubtleisfe, very warmly 
by the Apostles. They were the ijior'e readily, too, 
induced to do this, both from the natural wish to keep 
together their sect, and still mofe from the niat 
prospect presented 6f the total Vuin of their country, 

h2 



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100 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 

and even (as they then supposed) of the end of the 
world. Still I am ready to admit that the tenets of 
the Essenes had afterwards their effects (and those 
unfavourable) on the opinions and practice of the 
early Christians. This we may especially recognize 
in the conduct of those who preached up unnatural 
self-denial, and excessive austerities. Thus 1 Tim. 
4, 3. ifaiXt/oKToiv yajx€7i/, aneyer^ai ^^iLarcav^ &c. from 
which, and other passages, we know that there were 
those who systematically degraded matrimony: and 
that this was done by the Essenes I find from Joseph. 
793, 42. our€ yafjL^ra^ cJeravovrai, o5t€ SouXoiv CTi-njScJ- 
own icT^(riy, rl fti^ €\9 aZiKiav ^e^eiif ureiXij^Vc^, ro $6 
^Ta<r€(09 €vSiSoyai ^ron^^AV, namely, to avoid quarrels. 

On the words €l;foy awavTa mivol^ Bulkley cites 
Porphyry, whp tells us that the disciples of Pytha- 
goras had goods in common : Otitrla^ Kotva^ eflerro. 
Justin, the historian, L. 43, C. 1. speaking of the 
original inhabitants of Italy : Omnia communia et 
indivisa omnibus fuerint, veluti unum cunctis patri- 
monium esset. Justin Martyr, Ari. p. 20« edit. 
Thirlb. speaking of the Christians of his own day : 
*' We, that once admired nothing so much as the 
prosecution of riches, now transfer even what we 
already have to common use, admitting all that want 
to a participation of it.*' 

45. ical ra Kn^^ra Koi Tk^iica^^^x^lvi'jcpwrKw. By 
icrifftara are meaut^ generally, possessions. Thus 
Hesychius explains it Torra tol urdp^^ovra. But it 
denotes specially the bona mobilia^ as lands and 
houses. (See Eustathius on Hom. II. ^. p. 685 
Kom.) Hence the Sept. use it to express D"0, 
vinej/Qrdj in Prov. 31, 16., and Hos. 2, 15., andnittJ, 
Jfc/rf, in Prov. 23, 10. In Herodian 7, 12 & 13., 
hou3e8, with their gardens, are called imfftara in 
2, 6, 5, & 3. 10. farms : and in Acts 5, 1,3. the 
word is interchanged with jfmpiw. See also Sir. 
28, 27. & 36, 25. But uirap%i9 denotes wealth in 
general (seePs. 78, 48. Prov. 18, U. Heb. 10, 34.), 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. II. 101 

and is explained by Hesychius owria : and since it is 
here opposed to *cr?jxa it denotes the bona mobilia, 
moveable property. (Kuin.) 

' 45. Ka) $i6jx6^i^oy aura xa<ri, k. a. r. ;^. e. Heusen 
and others think that, at first, the Christians them- 
selves distributed the money ; that soon afterwards 
this was done by the Apostles (compare 4, 34), and 
lastly by the Deacons. (Compare 6, I & 3.) This is 
not improbable ; though, as Kuinoel observes, the 
word may very well admit of being explained, pro- 
vided for its distribution, namely, by the hands of 
the Apostles. Grotius thinks that these words have 
especial reference to the sick, the aged, and the 
infant children, since the people of both sexes were 
clothed at the common expense, and took their food 
at the public table, Kara ^parpia^* But this is sup- 
posing such a knowledge of the circumstances of the 
primitive Church as^ I think, we do not possess. 
Q^cumenius, to the words icada)^ xP^iay €l^€ judi- 
ciously subjoins ou^ aTrXcSy, aAX* olKovofxtKoS^f from 
which it is evident that he adopted the above 
opinion. 

46, 47, icafl* ijjxepai/ — €v r£ if/?o>, they every day min- 
gled with the Jews in the temple worship, npotncap" 
repelv signifies to assiduously attend on ; as in Susan, 
ver. 7. KTitSurh t€ Kar oIkov aorov. CEcumenius and 
Hammond take Kar oIkov forev o7ica>, and understand 
it of an apartment in the temple. But, as Kuinoel 
remarks, who can believe that the Jews would have 
permitted the Christians to have the use of an apart- 
ment for any acts of worship, or even to take their 
meals in. De Dieu, Bengel, Heinrichs, and others, 
mentioned in Wolf, explain the phrase at home^ 
privately. But this is (as Kuinoel remarks) frigid,' 
and not to the purpose. Indeed, there is no reason 
to desert the common interpretation. It seems that, 
as no apartment was nou) able to contain them all, 
they preserved, as much as possible, their former com- 
munity of meals by participating of them in common, 



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102 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES) CHAP. II. 

from house to houses in various groups.* Thus wc 
must subaud fKao-rov; an ellipsis very frequent iii 
adverbial phrases formed of a noun with icaro, as 
Kari ToVouy in Matt. 24, ?•♦ and Kardi ?roXiv, which 
often occur both in the Scriptures and in the Clas- 
sical writers. The opinion, however, of these Cora- 
inentators, who (as Kuinoel) take the words of the 
agapcB^ deserves attention, since there is nothing 
said of the poor^ and kTuuvtc^ tIv aprov, &c. may be 
referred to all Christ's followers, both rich and poor, 
allofwhom^ it was said, assiduously attended temple 
worship. 

46. jtii€T€Xa/x0avov rpo^^ff iv ayaXXiaerci, i. e. the 
rich reioicing that they cpuld exercise their liberality 
towards the poor ; and the poor rejoicing in the 
liberality of the rich. And this joy was unfeigned, 
arising out of their mutual love and unanimity. 
The rich were removed from all pride and ostenta- 
tion, and the poor from all envy and ill will." On 
|UL€raXafti3av€iv rpo(p^y, take foody see Kypke on Acts 
9!J^ SS., and Munth in loc. 'A^tXonjy denotes un- 
dissembled simplicity and sincerity, otherwise termed 
otXotijs'. Q2cumenius, Wetstein, and Barkey take 
it of that simplicity of heart which rejects pride ; 
and this sense they endeavour to establish by ex- 
amples. But though I grant it may sometimes have 
that sense, yet here, as it is applied both to the rich 
and the poor, we must adopt the general one above 
laid down. Of all the English translators, Tindal 
alone correctly renders the passage, thus : " And 
eate theyr meate together, wyth gladness and syngle- 
pes of harte praysing God, and had favour with all 
the people." 

47» ?;tovT€ff X^S**' '^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ XaoV. It seems as if 
this were a brachylogia. The words may be ren- 
dered, ** And by so doing they stood in high favour 

* Indeed, so it seems to have been taken in the age of Philostratus, 
since (if I am not mistaken) he imitates (as he usually does other 
passages of the Gospel history) thi$ circumstance. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. II. 103 

with all the people:' And thus it should seem to 
have been taken by the early Conamentators, since 
CEcumenius says : outoi ku) rh ^lov axo T>fy TriVrfcor 
tf^epptidfju^oy, Koti (piXaXXijXcoy elxov. By the oXop o XowV 
is meant the people at large, as distinguished from 
the Rulers and Priests, and the Pharisaical faction* 
On the expression pfopii/ t^^iv Wetstein compares 
Ex. 33, 12. pfflt/^iv ?;t€»^ Trapjiiol Plut. 1, 849 a. 
xavTcuv ^iTitnrovairaTos^ wv rdiv Xcyovnoy — XP^^^ ^^'^ 
eyei Tpl^ rov h^ftov. So also Herodian, cited by 
Schmid. 

47. Se fajpio9 7r§o<r€Tifl6i — ^eo^ojxo/oo^. By the 
^oi^oftevoi (wrongly rendered " such as should be 
saved:' instead of the saved) are meant those who 
are being saved, those who are placed in a state of* 
salvation, by having rejected the Jewish supersti- 
tions, and embracing the Christian religion. See 
Dr. Maltby in the note on Matt. 1,21. Thus Mark- 
land observes that it is a title of those who were in 
a state of salvation ; as o! a^roAXujx^voi are the oppor 
site, 1 Cor. 1, 18., and 2 Cor. 2, 15. of (rai^ojxevoi in 
Revel. 21, 24. So Whitby, who renders it thesavedf 
and treats it as a general term for Christians : and 
it is certainly so used elsewhere. This seems pre- 
ferable to the mode of interpretation adopted by 
Bp. Pearce, " such as had been saved." For though 
he urges that the Christians, who, upon their re- 
pentance towards God, and faith in Jesus Christ, 
were baptized, are often spoken of in the New 
Testament as persons already saved, i. c. rescued 
from that eternal misery to which they stood exposed 
till they were baptized (as in Ephes. 2, 8., where St, 
Paul says, " By grace ye are saved:' or rather, ** ye 
are those who have been saved:" and Tit. 3, 5., 
"according to his mercy he saved us by the washing 
of regeneration,") yet that can only refer to thei^ 
being put in a state of salvation. 1 am surprisied 
that the learned Prelate did not see this, since the 
truth almost stared him in the face when he wrote 
the following words : " But it should be rememr 



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104 ACTS OF THE AI^OSTL£S, CHAP. II. III. 

bered that this description of the Christian converts 
only considers the state which baptism put them 
into, and does not here (though it does elsewhere) 
point out to them that, when they were added to 
the Church, eternal life was not to be obtained 
without the practice of all manner of good works." * 
By Ko^ios is meant, not God (as some Commenta- 
tors tell us), but Christ, who is said to bring men 
unto God. Compare ver. 36. 

CHAP. III. 

The narration now relurns to what was broken oiF 
at ver. 42 , and the merits of Peter preaching the 
Gospel are brought forward. (Heinricns.J 

1. *Et1 to atjrh i€ nirpof — ivvarrjv. The formula 
^ir\ TO atrroj whose various significations are discussed 
in 1, 15., cannot be rendered ** to the same place ;** 
for the place is expressly mentioned to which Peter 
and John then repaired, namely, the Temple : nor 
(with Abresch.) to the same end;, for the words sub- 
joined, €7r\ rriv wpa¥ ttj^ 7rpo<r^u^9 ^vmxTjv, plainly 
show with what intent they repaired thither: but 
"supped together/' -f" And this signification the 
context requires. The following words ^Vi njv wpav 
rii^ Tgoff-eop^^f — ivvanr^v are [by a sort of popular 
Synchysis. Edit.] put for eV* n^v aigav rqy T^oo"ew;f^y, 
^Tif fy ij iwarr^ rr^s ijft^pay. Now i^ri often, in the 
Classical writers, denotes a/, about ; as in Arrian 



♦ This passage has, as my readers know, been pressed in(o the 
service of Calvinism: with how liule reason, we have seen. In 
fact, this was no place for inculcating any such mysterious doctrine, 
supposing it true, as that of election ; tor, as iVetstein observes, 
*' St. Luke S)>eaks as an historian, of a thing which fell under his 
Tiew, of a fact relating to the Jews, not to the hidden counsels of 
God." 

t So also the word is interpreted by Krebs, who quotes a similar 
passage from Joseph. Ant. 16. 8, 6. speaking of Herod and Arche- 
laus: kiroiitvaTO hi ical evydf/Kast eh 'Vitfitiy l\0eiv, kireih^ irepl 
Tovriav kyiypairro Kaiaapi, Kal /i^XPCf *AyTio\eias ixi ro avro 
7mp^\Boy* 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 105 

Epict. 3, 18. €iri r^v lew, about day break. Polyb. S, 
83. €Ti r^v eoidiviQV, scil. dipav. See Albert! and Wolf. 
The hours of prayer, it must be observed, were three. 
1st, the mornings called ■^ntt?n n7Dn and H'^'^ntt?, 
which was at the third hour. 2d, noon, called 
HTOD n7Dn, the prayer of oblation, at the sixth hour. 
(See Acts 10, 9 ) 3d, the evening, called n7Dn 
n'^ni^, at the ninth hour. So Acts 10, 3 & 30. and 
tliis place. This the Jews derived from the Pa- 
triarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. See Lightfoot 
and Schoettgen ; as also Buxtorf ^s Lex. Talm. 964, 
1361, 2370. Suicer's Thesaur. 1, 1278. on the word 
€iJ;|^, and the authors cited by Wolf. (Kuin.) On 
this passage the reader may, with advantage, consult 
the note of Dr. Whitby. CEcumenius thus re- 
marks on the friendship of these two Apostles ; as, 
for instance, where we read Peter made a sign to John 
that he should ask a question of the Master: and 
when, at another time, they both ran together to 
the sepulchre. And again, too, we may observe, 
Peter says to Christ concerning the same com- 
panion {v€o\ aJroiv, I conjecture auVoS): oSrop Ze 
ri; and what shall he do? Now on the present 
occasion they went together to the Temple, not as 
judaizing, but for a good purpose, and in condescen- 
sion to the weakness of their countrymen. With 
respect to the miracle of which we here read, we 
may remark, that it is related on account of the time 
and place. For though many more were worked by 
the Apostles (as we are tola above), yet of these 
Luke has made no mention, either because they 
seemed inconsiderable, or because the purpose of 
his history was not boasting.'^ (CEcumenius.) 

2. ;^a)Xiy ^k ico*x/ay fxijTpoy aoroS. The same ex- 
pression occurs in Acts 14, 8. So ruflJXiv Ik y^ver^j 
in John 9, 1. and iK yaa-rpo^ in Theogn. v. 307. Now 
it must be observed that the adjective ;^a)Xo$' is in 
the New Testament used of lame persons^ but had 
once a more extended sense, ;faJxa)/xa being em- 
ployed by Hippocrates also of a mutilated hand, and 



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106 ACTS OF THE APOSTLBSy CHAP. 111. 

Other mutilated limbs ; as is observed by Erotianus 
in Lex. Hippocr. and Eustathius on 11. 0. p. 156. 
And this may well be the case, since ;fai7voy origi- 
nally denotes nothing more than defective, (Valck.) 
2. ov eViflouy Koff r^i^av Trgoy rr^v flJgav. 0u^a signi- 
fies gate, or portal. T. Mag. indeed distinguishes 
between ^ruXal, ctI rop^ot/y, gates^ as of a fortress, and 
dJ^ai er) oiiciW But this distinction is not always 
observed. That the poor among the Gentiles were 
accustomed to place themselves at the gates of the 
Temple, and ask charity of those who were entering 
them, we find from Martial 1, 12.; and that this 
custom continued in the primitive Christian Church 
we learn from Chrys., in his second Homily on 3 
Tim. 8ia TovTo itrrr^Katriv ol vivTir^s wpl rw¥ huf^mv^ Iva 
ft'^jSeiy ^\(Fiy\y 'iva fxera €Xei}ju,o<rt>y>}f €i<riif), and thus, he 
observes, their prayers would be more efficacious. 
The Commentators, however, have debated what 
gate of the Temple was that called the a»paia? Most 
of them, as Wetstein, fix upon the Eastern gate 
(called Nicanor's), by which there was an entrance 
from the court of the women to that of the Israelites. 
This gate was (as they conjecture) kut i^o-^r^v, called 
wpoua, beautiful; since (as we learn from Joseph. 
Bell. 5,5, 3. & 6,5, 3. it was formed of Corinthian 
brass, a material even more valuable than gold, and 
was wrought with consummate art. Others, as VVa? 
genseil ad Sota 40., Lund, Bengel, and Walch, in 
his Dissertation on this subject, contend that the 
gate here mentioned was the same with that else- 
where called Susan : and this position they endea- 
vour to establish by various arguments [for which I 
must refer my readers to Kuinoel. Edit.] Others 
(as Lightfoot and Bolten) think it was a gate of the 
court of the Gentiles, called Chalda, from the Hebr. 
ibn, time; so that oJpa/a means tempestiva. One 
thing seems certain, that by >} Upa ij Aeyofto^ 'Qpaia 
is not to be understood a gate which led from the 
court of the women into that of the Israelites j for 
the context compels us to fix on a space inside of 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTL|lS, CHAP. III. 107 

Mount Moriah, which was separated by a wall from 
the gate of the Gentiles. Besides, it is improbably 
that the Jews should have given a name of Greets 
origin to a gate of their Temple. But whether the 
gate tt>pa/a was called Susan, or Chalda, cannot with 
certainty be determined ; though the latter conjec- 
ture seems the more simple and probable. On the 
word Upov see the note on Mat. 21 , 12. where we have 
shown that it generally denotes that area in Mount 
Moriah in which the sacred edifice, with its porticos, 
halls, and apartments, was erected ; but it is espcr 
cially used of the exterior buildings of the temple. 
(Kuin.) Wetstein adduces many Rabbinical passage^ 
on the Gates of the Temple, especially Nicanor's. 

2. To5 aiT6?v iJXeijjxoa-Jyi^v. 'Exeijfxoo-Jiojy, it may be 
observed, not only denotes the act of compassionate 
relief, but also the siips, or sum of money given, 
(corresponding to our word chanty J as in Sir. 29, 
12. (r6yK\€i<F(iV eXeij/xoerJmjv €v rois raitelois^ See th© 
note on Matt. 6, 2. Valcknaer remarks that it is ne-r 
ver so used by the antient Greek writers ; but seem? 
to have been first employed by Callim. H. in Del- 
152. 'Avt' eXojjxoo-Jvijy. * 

3 — 5. ripwra €Xei}jxo(rtivi]v Xa^^Ti^. Some early edi- 
tions omit X«0eTy; and Pricaeus thinks the word is 
not genuine. But this position has been justly dis- 
puted by Bos and Alberti, who (and especially 
Valcknaer) have shown that 'ha^eiv^ (and sometimes 
€fjp€iv and rop^eTv,) is elegantly pleonastic. Valcknaer 
produces the following examples, Hermaes Pastor, 

* Of all the ancient Poets, Callimaehus alone seems to have read 
the Holy Scriptures. Some ancient Christian writers, indeed, of 
great leaining, as Clemens Alex, and Athenagoras, have maintained 
that Orpheus, Pythagoras, Plato, and others, derived all that is ex- 
cellent in them from Moses and the Prophets; which opinion 
seems not only false, but absurd. For, in the first place, none of 
them who lived before Callimaehus had the opportunity of reading 
a Greek version of the Books of Moses. Secondly, if that wisdom^ 
which is too often what the Scripture terms foolishness^ had even 
enabled them to read those sacred writings, they would not have 
read them, as being books of the Jews, those whom they so despised. 

(Valcknaer.) 



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108 ACTS OF THE AP0STLE9, CMAP. III. 

L. 3. aiT^^oMrflai T» vap^ to5 ictipiou XojB^iv. Eurip. Hec. 
V. 40. Aristoph. Pluto, v. 240. Air«5v XajSelv ri jx»icpof 
apyvpi^iop. Soph. Aj. V. 836. AinJ^ojxa* 8f er' oit ftiOLKpiw 
yepas^ XajSeTv. So Twp^eiv in Soph. Aj. 982. cop y&p 
ripao'^ ru^eivy 'EmJcraO' airoJ Oavaroy, oinr€p ^deXc. 
Luke 20, 35. ol Kara^ioAevr^^ tow aia>yof rovov. See 
also Valckn. on Eurip. Phoen. 1324. To these may 
be added the following, cited by Wetstein. jElian, 
H. A. 2, 48. Kopaic€f AJyuxTio*, otroi rtS Ne/Xcp 7rgoo"8i- 
airojyrai, tcSv wXeovroiv ^oiKatnv iicfrai eTvai* Xa^^Tv t» 
aiTo5vT6y. IJban. D. 42. p. i?86 c. Tra^' tjjxoiy jxev 
TQTei XojSciv, aJf yoftoiv ovroiV € J^ei Se Xa^eTy, a ic€icca- 
Xwrai ToTy yojxoif* 

4. areviVay 8e Ilerpof — ely 'ijjxaf. On arevi^eiv, a 
word frequently used by St. Luke, see the note on 
Luke 22, 56. and also Eisner on this place. Peter 
and John, we may observe, fixed their eyes on the 
lame man, that they might know whether he only 
pretended debility, and desired him to look at them, 
that they might judge by his countenance whether 
he were an impostor, and also that they might excite 
the attention of the man. (Kuin.) This however 
seems very hypothetical and precarious. 

5. *0 Zi ijr€7^€v ouroT^p, At ^Tei;f€ Wolf, Eisner, 
and Morus subaud rov vouv. But since ^tJ^ov im- 
mediately preceded, Bos, (in his Ellip. 36(i. Sch.), 
Rosenmuller, Heinrichs, and others, more judici- 
ously supply o^jflaXfxouf. And so also Dr. Owen. See 
the note on Luke 14, 7. 

6. 7- agyyg^ov xoii j^triov. Doddridge remarks that 
this was after the estates were sold, (chap. 2, 45.), 
and plainly shows how far the Apostles were from 
enriching themselves -by the treasures which passed 
through their hands. The following observation 
however of this Commentator is very frivolous; 
namely, that by his mentioning gold as well as sil- 
ver, (which a beggar like this could not expect to 
receive,) he probably meant to speak of himself as 
continuing still a poor man, and not merely to say 
that he had no gold about him. The fact is, that 
these words are a popular formula denoting riches. 

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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 109 

See Herodot. 3, 140. and other examples in Wet- 
stein. *0 hi ?;ca), suck as I have will I give ^ namely, 
** I will exert my power to heal." The sentence has 
the air of a proverb; to which there is something 
similar in the following passages. Soph. El. 450. 
(rjxiKga fX€y raS*, aXK' ofuo^ a ';^ai. Soy aunp. Aristoph. 
Lys. 671. 07r€p oSv €yai, 8/Sa)jxi (to*. On riWay rr\^ 
Se^w see CEcumenius ; and on Na^copalou see the 
note on 2, 22. 

7. Trapa^priixa §6 kfrr^p^o^r^cav airoS ai jSa^eiy KoHi 
ra (T(f^\}pky pedes et malleoli. (Beza.) Ba<r*y properly 
denotes step; as in Aristoph. Thesm. 937- ^hicjK'Km 
y(op€ioL9 eiJ^ti^ o-T^erai 0a<riv. And so Herodot. 6, 5, 
12. (See Eisner.) Alberti and others intei*pret it 
planta pedis^ and quote Lucian, Trag. p. 804. ^P^iwp 
oL'T aKpwv 619 oucpoL^ ToSoiv ^oLc^i^. Preferable, how- 
ever, is the interpretation of Beza, Fessel, Loesner, 
and others, who render it feet; in which significa- 
tion 3a(riy often occurs; as in Sap. 13, 18. to /x^Sc 
/Soerei ^^cdat SuyafX€voy. Diodor. Sic. 644 D. (r^aXe/- 
arjg T^y ^a(rett>y. ApoUodo. Bibl. 1, 3. (on Vulcan.) 
^nipmQevra rii^ ^ao-eiy. Artemidor. 2, 42. oJ ya^ 
a/rtpuTidS^ u9roic6ifii€ya^ 6;^e< ray ^ao'f «f toJv ?ro&ov. Jo- 
seph. Ant. 7» 10. where the giant is said to have 
had SoKTuXouf 6V ^icaWgcp rcov fid(r€wify and 7> 10. 
speaking of Mephibosheth: ei /x€v toi y€ rap ^ourus 
€ij(ov. Soph. Aj. 19. and Trach. 339- Herodian 1, 
15, 19. By the a-c^updi are indicated the malleoli pe- 
dum^ tali, the ancles^ or instep. So Diodor. 770. a. 
Tcov yvpaiKwv roav eviropcov tivcSv jttev Ka^Kivo$9 eriSij^Ty tA 
(T^upa Ti€^aiv <ruv€Te*y6. I add Athen. 68 b. Theocr. 
Idyl. 4, 51. Calhm. H. in Dian. 128- (Kuin.) 

8. e^aXXoftevo^, leaping^ i. ^e. (as CEcumenius 
thinks) to try whether he were really healed, or as 
not knowing how to walk. Schmicl, Kosenm. and 
Kuinoel, think it was not only for joy, but in order 
to show that he was perfectly healed. To me it 
seems that by the e^aXXo/jtevoy is described his first 
trial at walking, which would be at first rather leap- 
ing. It appears, too, to indicate jqy. Of the verb 
6|aXX€<rflai, Wetstein cites examples from Joseph. 

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110 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 

Bell. 6^ 4, 2. Dionys. Hal. Antiq. 2. It signifies 
subsilirey and answers to the Ueb. HJH in Jod % 5. 
See Hebr. 1, 8. 1 Mace. 13, 44. 

9 — 11. Now is narrated the effect which the heal- 
ing of the blind man had on the minds of the audi- 
tors. Kg aToovTOf 8i ToG ladcvrof ya>Xou toi^ tlir^v 9cai 
'Jmapwr^w. Kparetv denotes, " to Keep close to, not to 
stir from the side of any one ;" as in 2 Sam. 3, 6. 
^A^€vrip ^y Kpotroiv roS oTicou roS SaouA. So also Col. 2, 
19. The action may here be traced to love and 
gratitude, (Kuin.) and not, as Beza and Dod- 
dridge think, to fear, lest his lameness might r6tum 
when out of their sight. Oil the trrooL to5 SoXojuuSvro; 
see the note on Joh. 10, 23. The noun collective 
Xaoy has a plural; on which see Kypke in loc. and 
Glass Phil. 326. 

12. 'AxeK^ivuTo T6U Xa<fv, " addressed the peo- 
ple." For fltToicpiWo-flai, like the Heb. nay, not only 
denotes to answer, but to address. Of this sig- 
nification the New Testament is full of examples. 
The summary of the contents of Peter's address is 
thus laid down by Schoettgen. 

The address consists of three parts : Proposition^ 
Explication^ and Application, I. Pkoposition re- 
mote : It is not we that have done this. Positive : 
It is by the power of Christ that this was done, ver. 
13, 16. II. Explication, showing the manner of 
Christ's passion, by virtue of which such miracles 
might be wrought, ver. 13 — 15. III. Application, 
that the Jews ought to receive Jesus as the promised 
Messiah : the reason why all the Prophets testified 
of him, ver. VJ. to the end. 

12. ri Qai}[ML^er€ hri touto), scil. xpay/txari. For 
euercjSc/a the Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate Translators 
read f ^ouflTi'a ; which is, however, a mere gloss. 'Etxre- 
0€ia, it must be observed, is for 8«* eiicr^^ia^j oh pie- 
tatem et sanctitatem ; or, by an Hendiadis, " by 
virtue of our piety." U^roitjicoVi rod 7r€ptTar€7v a^rov ; 
as if having made him to walk. One should rather 
have expected ri T^fiTrareTv: but this is an Alex- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. Ill, 111 

andrian idiom often found in the Greek Translators 
of the Old Testament, who thus express the Hebrew 
Infinitive with the preposition 7. (See Fischer's Pro- 
lus. Nov. Test. 330 & 742. and Leusd. de Hebr. 
Nov. Test. p. 168. Compare 27, 1.) Grotius thinks 
there is an ellipsis of Trgayjxa, and Schmid. ofeveKou 
Markland, however, resolves ^r^TroiiJicoer*!/ into y««jTa?p 
o3<ri, i. e. avrlot9 ootrt ; by which, he observes, ro5 'jrepi^ 
iraT6Ty will be right. He then compares Acts 27, 1. 
'Qy Se iKplQyi To5 aTroTXeTv ijfAaff, i. e. 009 kywro Kpifta 
rod aTOTXeTv, which may, he says, be explained by 
that in 20, 3. iyivero ypaofMi to5 wVo(rTp€^ov. With 
this Markland also compares the Latin, ilium parti- 
cipavit sui consilii, i.e. ilium fecit particem sui con- 
silii. The same mode, too, is adopted by Heinrichs. 

13. @€09 — 7raT€pov TjfxoJv^ the God whom our 
fathers worshipped, and by whom they were de- 
fended, the Deus tutelaris. See the note on Acts 
5,30. Luke 1, 68. Matt. 22, 32. (Kuin.) It is ju- 
diciously observed by Doddridge, that this was 
wisely introduced here in the beginning of the dis- 
course, that it might appear they taught no new 
religion inconsistent with the Mosaic, and were far 
from having the least design to divert their regards 
from the God of Israel. 

13. iio^tre roy ^aiSa at/row 'Iijo'oSv, i. e. made his 
Messiahship and his glory evident. IlaTy is for wiov; 
as in ver. 26. 4, 27 & 30. Matt. I7, 18. (Raphel.) 
At TrapeiwKare subaud eh flavarov. See Rom. 4, 25. 
compared with Matt. 10, 21. 26, 2. 2 Cor. 4, 11. 
" This they did (says CEcumenius) when they said, 
" It is not lawful for us to put any one to death." 
'Hgjn}d"a<rdf aurov Kara irpicoiww IliXaro'j. Here it is 
well observed by Kypke, that agi^r<rflai rwa denotes 
to deny, reject, repudiate, and profess to hold no 
communion with any one, axeiTcTv ; and that it is used 
both of things and persons; as in Callim. in H. in 
Del. 100. aXX* ot' *\')(aiiaZ€s /xev ainipvr^fravro Tro'Xij^y 
if^ofUvr^p. Here, however, something more special 
seems intended, namely, '' denied to be King Mes- 



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1V2 ACTS OF THE APOSTI ES, CHAP. Ill 

siah/' (See Acts 7, 35.) In the same light, too, the 
expression is viewed by CEcumenius, who truly re- 
marks, that they denied Jesus, when they exclaimed, 
" We have no king but Caesar." 

13. Kf/vavroff ^eKelvou aToXueiv. Bos Wolf and 
Munth subaud Seiv. But Krebs has shown (as, in- 
deed, had been before done by Grotius, De Dieu, 
and Bois) that Kptvw has here (as often) the sense of 
determine, will: and he cites Joseph. Ant. 1, 4. 
o^aviVai ik ^ravroy ouk eKpiv^v. 7» li 5. Kplva9*A^€V7^oou 
oLTroKTeiuar & 2, 2. TaGra tow 0€oS Kpivavros 'J^efi rdiv 
SoSofxiToIv. Other examples are adduced by Loesner : 
and, indeed, this signification is frequent in the later 
Greek writers. 'ATroxJ^iv properly denotes to untie, 
then to liberate, let go, and, by metonymy, to ac- 
quit, as here, and in Matt. 27, 15. &c. indeed fre- 
quently in the New Testament and Septuagint, espe- 
cially the Apocrypha. See Schl. Lex. 

14i. ifirfly he tov ayiov Ka) SiWiov ijgy^iroMrflf, ** denied 
the holj/ one and the just.'* This is a cognomen of 
the Messiah ; as in Apoc. 3, J. Joh. 10, 36. Acts 4, 
27 & 30. See Wolf and Koppe's Opusc. p. 34. Pe- 
ter, we may observe, has used the very names strongly 
opposed to the qualities of the <^ov€uy* Barabbas. 

14. Y)'nJ<ra<r96 avhpa (poveot, ^^apitrdrjvat bfJAv. In this 
sense, which is found in Acts 25, 11. Philem.22., the 
word ya^Krhr^vai is also used by the Classical writers : 
and examples are produced by Krebs. Kuinoel re- 
marks, that the Latins expressed this sense by the 
phrase, " donare aliquem alicui." 

15. TOV Z\ OLp-)n)y)iV r^y Joi^Jy aTFeKrelvare, " ye slew 
the author of life." So the Vulgate. Now Jesus 
had himself professed to be " the way, the truth, 
and the life.** See Joh. 14, 6. and the note on that 

Eassage. Examples in abundance are produced by 
Laphel, Kypke, and Munth, of aq^fr^yh being joined 

* This word may signify, not positively a murderer, but improbis- 
iimus. So Casaubon on A then. Col 398. iLvbpoijioyovi Grsci vo- 
cant omnes insigniter improbos : of which signiHcation he subjoins 
several examples. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP, III. 113 

*with nouns having both a had sense and also a mid- 
dle one : but seldom is it found in a good sense, as 
here, and in Hebr. 2, 10. a/>;^i)yo$' Trj^ trcoTTipiaf. So, 
however, it occurs Isocrat. p. 476. (cited by Kypke), 
TcSv TrapoifTcop ayahwv omcufrmv auroTy OLpyyiyth. Valck- 
naer takes occasion, from this phrase, to observe, 
that in these speeches of Peter, though not such 
pieces of finished composition as those of Demosthe- 
nes, or the other Greek writers, there is a dignity in 
the historical, and a grandeur in the didactic parts, 
to which it were impossible to add aught. 

16. eTri TJi wi<rT€i toS ovo/juxroy, ** through faith in 
him.^' For oi/ojxarof is, by a Hebraism, redundant. 
Thus irifTTi^ ^ Sr aJroS is equivalent toiJiriVrif iv aunB 
in Col. 1, 4. these prepositions being frequently in- 
terchanged. 

16. 6Stt)ic€v auro) T^v oXo^X^giav. The word oKf^K'kYiploL 
denotes the condition of being perfect in all members^ 
none being wanting; as in Antonin. 5, 8. Thus 
ix6k\r}po9 and integer (the latter of which corresponds 
to aOiy^s*, as being the opposite of attager)^ often 
signify, like our word whole (from oXoy,* which pro- 
perly signifies completCy solid ; as Corinth, de Dial. 
ouXeTv uyiaiveh) healthy : and so it is here rendered 
by the Syriac. Thus in Is. 1, 6. we have, aTroTro^cov 
ews K6^aX^^ otJK 4(rrh €P aJrcp oKokXr^pia' where Sym- 
machus renders tJyi^ou. 

17- olSa OTi Kara ayvoiav ivrpa^arf, oJ. /c. o. of. u. 
Many Commentators have exceedingly stumbled at 
Peter's here adducing ignorance as the cause of the 
atrocity committed by the Sanhedrim and people. 
Hence Wolf is inclined to think that the words wtr- 
7r€p Ka) 01 0L§)(0PT€s ^[J^y are not to be referred to the 
remote antecedent ayvoiav, but to the pro^rimate one, 
6Tga$aT€, so that the comparison of the people with 
their rulers may only respect their works, but not the 
origin of those works, as the excuse for them: and 
be assigns to the words the following sense : *' I know 

* So oiXe, salve, in Homer; with which may be compared our hail. 
VOL. IV. I 

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114 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, lit, 

that through ignorance you have been induced to do 
as your rulers did." So also Reichard and others* 
But the sense thus elicited is by no means inherent 
in the Greek words, and is at variance with Acts IS, 
27. 1 Cor. 2, 8. Hence Barkey, to remove this diffi- 
culty, has endeavoured to show that the Jewish 
julers, in fact, were ignorant that Jesus was the Mes^ 
siah, although they might have known it. But, as 
Dendorf and Heinrichs observe, the words of Peter 
are not to be too much pressed. The Apostle, in 
order, by softening the atrocity of their guilt, to 
make his speech more acceptable to his hearers, and 
to raise and console them, has brought forward this 
only, the rest not being excluded^ but put aside for 
the present. (See Matth. 21, 33. seqq. and the note 
on that passage.) He does not, however, by this 
mean to entirely absolve them of guilt. (Kuin.) 

The mode of taking the words above proposed has 
the support of the Syriac Version, and is auopted by 
Bishop Barrington, who observes, that otherwise this 
text would be inconsistent with the manifest inten- 
tion of the parable (Matt. 21, 33—39. Joh. 15, 22— 
24). But this seems pushing the matter too far. The 
Apostle does not mean to say that their ignorance, 
so yiir as it might exists was blameless, since that 
would be at variance with what is elsewhere said in 
Scripture, and, as Doddridge observes, it is plain 
that their ignorance, being in itself highly criminal 
amidst such means of information, did not excuse 
them from great guilt. Yet the Apostle does hint 
that this ignorance might seem in some degree to ex- 
tenuate their guilt : for, as observes Eurip. Hippol. 
1334. (cited by Wetstein), njv hk <rii¥ o/xog^riay rl fti^ 
ciSevai |x6v vpooTov ^k7vu€i #cc«o)r. So also Thucyd. 3, 
Ij 38. otJ yap KaKwoicf, rivi roSro xo»€i, aXX* ayvo/a' hwitra 
he ayvoiq, oipdpanroi e^oLfML^rivoutrif iroa^a oucoticrut raur 
?ya>y€ voft/^o). There are similar passages in Thucy- 
dides, 3, 40. and 4, 98. on which I shall have occa- 
sion to produce a great variety of parallel passages 
from authors of every age, which I therefore forbear 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. HI. 115 

to do on the present occasion. See also Lev. 91, 14; 
Luke 23, 34. Examples of Kar ayvo/av are produced 
by Wetstein from Sextus Empir. and Polybius. Thus 
St. Paul, in 1 Tim. 1, 13. urges ignorance in extenu- 
ation of his guilt. Nor must too great stress be laid 
on the words olSa on, since they are frequently, as 
they seem to be here, merely parenthetical, and to 
have the sense of scilicet. Examples of this abound 
in all the Greek Classical writers. And indeed I 
agree with Kuinoel and Heinrichs, that the sense of 
the passage altogether is not to be too much pressed, 
nor any recourse to be had to refined dialectical rea- 
sonings, or ethical disquisitions ; but it must be 
solely considered as said populariter. I cannot, 
however, assent to the position that this was done by 
the Apostle solely ad captandum^ but rather, as Ca- 
merarius suggests, in order by this excuse to throw 
open to them the doors of repentance. 

18. 8€ 0€o^— tTrXijpaiVev oSto), q. d. " God hath 
used that ignorance/br good, by permitting that you 
should commit this crime, and moreover, since thus 
would be fulfilled the declarations of the Prophets, 
concerning the calamities with which the Messiah 
should be oppressed.** See Acts 13, 27 & 29. Luke 
24, 26 seq. Acts 8, 32. By all is meant, as Sanctius 
and Kuinoel tell us, in a popular way, very many. 
I must, however, maintain that it cannot but signify, 
at least, a considerable part, or, indeed, nearly all. 
Besides, we are to bear in mind that the Rabbis 
themselves acknowledged that all the Prophets pro* 
pfaesied of the Messiah. See Sanhedrim, cited by 
Wetstein. 

19- fM^Ta9ovj(raT€ oSv kol) hricr^e^otr^. Now follows 
the application of the discourse, in which Peter ex- 
horts his hearers to repent of their obstinate rejection 
of Jesus, to embrace his doctrine, and live in con- 
formity to its precepts: for all this is included in ue- 
Tav<Mj<raT6, (see the note supra, 2, 38.) of which 
€)ri^Tge>}A3tr€ is considered by the Commentators to 
be a mere synonyme. But it must be observed,, that 

i2 



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116 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 

the former denotes a change of mind and purpose ; 
the latter, a change of conduct. 

19. Ely rl €$aX€i^9^vai wfiuov ray afia^iaf^ ** that 
your sins may be blotted out, and especially that of 
rejecting Christ added to your other sins/* The 
word 6$aX€»<pai, it may be observed, properly denotes 
to obliterate, erase any writing by scratching it out, 
&c. Now the antients wrote (or rather marked) on 
waxed tablets ; and when any thing was to be erased, 
they turned the style or pen,. and with its blunt end 
closed up the marks on the wax, and thus made alte- 
rations in what they had written. See Xen. Hist. 2, 
3, 20. A then. 403 f. Thus the word denotes in 
general delere; as in iEschyl. Coeph. 500. Sir. 46, 
20. €^aX€/\{/ai avojx/av XaoS. It also signifies to destroy, 
deliver to oblivion ; as in Plat. Theat. I87. a. iroMra 
roL T^oVdev €^clK^I^€iv. It here signifies to remit sins; 
as in Is. 43, 23. iyto eijxi €^aX6i^a)v ray ayo/xiay <roa' 
and 2 Max. 12, 42. a^icitravres to yeyoyiy ajxa^rqp^ 
T6Xf «W e^aXciflJd^mi, a metaphor derived from credi- 
tors, who cross out the accounts of their debtors 
when discharged ; (see Col. 2. seq.) and an image 
frequent in the Rabbinical writings. (Valcknaer 
and Kuinoel.) 

Every student will feel thankful for the above eru- 
dite and instructive illustrations of the sense of e^a- 
7i€i^ ; but I must observe that the learned Com- 
mentator seems to have mistaken the primaty sense 
of that word, which is, to wipe away : for as akei^m 
signifies to anoint or besmear with oil, &c. so ^^aXei^co 
denotes the contrary, namely, to wipe off ih^ oil, or 
other liquid. There is the same metaphor in the 
Latin delere (from /eo, lino) and the Hebr. nTTD, 
which is used to denote wipe, wipe ojf, both physi- 
cally and morally. Of the sense expiate Wetstein 
adduces an example from Lysias : Seivov aiv ffv), it ic^^i 

!AySoic*5ow-T ^T€/x6XiJdij|ui6v, Zirms i^a\€i^Myi airm tA 

dfta^'ftara aXXa. 

20. seqq. In their endeavours to explain this pas- 
sage, the Commentators have pursued different 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. Il^ 

courses. For my own part I shall first shew what 
interpretation seems the truest, and then briefly- 
detail such others as have any probability, or have 
been brought forward by eminent Commentators. 

The words oxcof av €y\^d(o(ri icaigoi a¥ay^nj^€a)^ a^i ro5 
TfiQcrwTrotj Tou Kuqiou^ which perfectly cohere with the 
preceding, may be thus translated: " Cum, Dea 
auctore, Isetissima tempora venerint.'' For Sirco^ here 
denotes tvheny after that ; as in Herod. 1, 47- (edit^' 
Basil.) ovms cXflk) o xorafxiy i^n oktw Trr^^eag. Eurip. 
Phoen. 1155. Soph. CEd. Tyr. 1241 & 1250. Horn: 
Od. 8. 109: & X' ^^2. II. ft. 208. Aristoph. Nub. 60. 
See also Beza, Schmid, Glass, in his Phil. Sacr. 375., 
and Devar. de partic. Gr. p. 252. 'Ava\|/o;^, which 
properly denotes respiration, or cooling after being 
heatedy metaphorically signifies refreshment, rest, 
delivery from evil, &c. ; as in the Septuagint version 
of Ex. 8, 15. where we have in the Hebrew nriT^, 
which Symmachus renders av^eny, the Vulg. requies^ 
So Philo 37 !• >3 oxf/iff ev rous avoL'^^€<n ical av4<r€<rt^ 
ct/vav/crai Ka\ ;^aXarai, and Xen. Hist. 1, 5, 6. aya- 
4't/;^eiv. And so also 2 Kings 16, 14. Sept. [I add 
Eurip. Ion. 1604. ^k t^^ ava^;f^y iroVoiv, and duppl. 
6l5. KaKwv 8* at'a\f/(i:^a9 Philostr. Icon. 2. ava^pfs^i^ 
?Xif6iv. Hence, too, may be emended a passage of 
Chrys. 5, 783, 30. Edit.] Now rest is, in Scripture, 
a pei-petual image of felicity [as might be expected 
in Oriental writers. Edit.] See Sap. 4, 7* Sir 51, 
27. and the Commentators on Heb. 3, 11. Apoc* 
14, 13. Thus, by ;ca«pol avai^fti^eco^ are meant timea 
the most felicitous, and specially those of the Mes- 
siah, as being the author of all felicity, in which 
will be collected the assembly of worshippers to be 
blessed by him. For we have just after, in- ver. 24.y 
7rj50Kan}77€iXay ol Trpo^vjrm ray 'Jj/tegay TaGrap. And 
then is added, by wai/ of explication , ko,) &7r€(rT€ty<€¥ 
*Ii}(ro3v. As, therefore, John the Eaptist, in Matt. 3, 
2., and Jesus himself, in Matt. 4, 27., had exhorted 
the Jews to repentance and reformation by the 
words jui£Tayo€TT€, ^yyiK€ yag rj Qatn'K^ia rdiif ovpavtm* so 



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tl8 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 

also Peter exhorts his hearers to repent when the 
refreshing and happy times of the Messiah shall 
have come : and thus the formula is nearly equiva- 
lent to maurh Kuplwj heicrh^ in Luke 4, 19. compared 
with ver. 18. and kuioos^ cwgoVSeicTof, riiiJpa trarrr^qia^ 
in 8 Cor. 6, 2. Finally a^ro wpoa-tovou toS ku^iou signi- 
fies from the presence, and at the will, direction, 
and providence of God. For 'Ato often denotes 
cause, or origin. 

Instead of wpoKetctipuyfieifiop, some of the most an- 
cient, and not a few other MSS. read ^pwccp^apiVp^iw, 
which is approved by Hammond, Mill, Valcknaer, 
Vitringa, and most Commentators ; and is received 
into the text by Bengel, Griesbach, and Matthiasi. 
The common reading does, indeed, savour of a gloss. 
IlpoycipiWerdai, it must be observed, signifies pri- 
manly to lay hands Jirst upon any one, to chuse him 
for any office, destine, &c. ; as in Acts 22, 14. 26, 16. 
Numerous Classical examples are adduced by Ra- 
phel, Wetstein, and Kypke. (Kuin.) 

21 . 2v 8ei oipaaiw [iiv U^eur^ai, &c. Now the Jews 
maintained that the Messiah would perpetually reign 
on earth. (Compare Job. 12, 34. and see the note 
on that passage.) Hence Peter anticipates the pos- 
sible o&;ec/tan of his auditors, namely, that if Jesus 
bad been tlie Messiah he would have continued on 
earth, and founded a perpetual kingdom ; and withal 
replies to it, by saying that it had pleased God that 
Jesus should be in Heaven, and tnere remain until 
the times of the restoration. A^i is well explained 
by CBcumenius ^Sci. As to Se^otrda^ which is used 
by enallage for S€;(€(rdai, the Commentators have 
debated whether it is to be taken for occupaverit or 
acceperity retinet coelum. The former opinion is 
maintained by Schmid, Wolf, Dresig, Morus, Ro- 
senmuller, Schott, and others ; the latter by Beza, 
Castellio, Le Clerc, Heumann, Emesti, and others. 
The sense, in fact, comes to much the same things 
unless any one chuse to make dogmatical distinc^ 
tions on the sense of the words : but the latter, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 119^ 

which had been formerly brought forward by Justiti 
Martyr, in his Apol. 1, \ 6., Didymus, Theophylact, 
and (£cumeniiis, seems, on more than one account, 
to deserve the preference, namely, occupare (which 
interpretation is adopted by Wetstein, who adduces 
many examples. For Scp^cerfiai, when it is joined 
with a place as its attribute, signifies capere, excipere, 
exceptum retinere^ and is equivalent to avaXajx^oveiv, 
icaT€;^6iv ; as in Acts 21, 27- Luke9» 11. So Lysias, 
jcai Tov aySpa — ou ToXiy edeXei Sep^ecrdai 8ia rcXour. 
Philo 1023 B. iw^p otJic iZi^aro — i».ias X^%^^ T6f i|3oXor. 
Aristoph. Plut. 773. p^ofpav Sc ^ourav Keicgcwroy, ^ ft 
iU^aro. See Palairet and Loesner. Sometimes, in- 
deed, but very rarely, it signifies occupare ; as in a 
passage of Demosth. cited by Schmid: m $€ niv 
€y€T€, otJSc SiSovTOfV u/xTv TcSv KCLipHvj ' Ajx^iVoXiv Sc^ourdai 
Suvaferd* av, am^prriiiepoi Ka\ rcCis TrapouTKewti^f Ka) rai^- 
y¥wiutiSj where, however, Seloo-dai is used of violent 
occupation and seizure. As to the passage of Eurip. 
Ale. 807* to which those who assign the sense occu-- 
parcy appeal, it is nothing to the purpose, since the 
words oJ#c ^xder ev S^ovri U^ourdai Softool have rather 
the following sense, ^' non opportune in has asdea 
venisti, ut te exciperemus ;** there being an ellipsis 
of cBKrre (as in 637.) ^^^d of the pronoun as in 
637. and other passages. It is well observed by 
trnesti, that the true principles of interpretation* 
do not permit us to recede from the proper and 
common signification of words, and follow the 
authority of a few examples (especially in the 
writings of the Apostles, who were ignorant of 
those rare senses), unless an evident necessity should 
compel us ; which here does not exist. Besides, the 
very intent of the Apostle absolutely requires that 
th& common signification of Se^owrflai be retained, 
which is, indeed, far more suitable to the context. 
The words Sv ScT otigavov ii^our^ai seem to convey the 
following sentiment : ** removed from the sight of 
men, he is conversant with God, has been raised to 
supreme majesty and beatitude. See 1 Pet. 3, 22. 



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118 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 

also Peter exhorts his hearers to repent when the 
refreshing and happy times of the Messiah shall 
have come : and thus the formula is nearly equiva- 
lent to eyiauriy Kupiw Seicriy in Luke 4, 19. compared 
with ver. 18. and icaioo^ ewrqitr^Kros, ijftepa o-oTijgiW 
in 2 Cor. 6, 2. Finally otTo irpwrwirw row Ktjpiw signi- 
fies from the presence, and at the will, direction, 
and providence of God. For 'Axo often denotes 
cause, or origin. 

Instead of irpoK€KriptJYik€V(ov^ some of the most an- 
cient, and not a few other MSS. read TrpoK€yaoi<riJLeifWf 
which is approved by Hammond, Mill, Valcknaer, 
Vitringa, and most Commentators ; and is received 
into the text by Bengel, Griesbach, and Matthiaei* 
The common reading does, indeed, savour of a gloss. 
Upoyeipicetrdaif it must be observed, signifies pri- 
marily to lay hands Jirst upon any one, to chuse nim 
for any office, destine^ &c. ; as in Acts 22, 14. 26, 16. 
Numerous Classical examples are addiiced by Ra- 
phel, Wetstein, and Kypke. (Kuin.) 

21 . iv h^l otipavtaf fiiv oe^our^ai, &c. Now the Jews 
maintained that the Messiah would perpetually reign 
on earth. (Compare Joh. 12, 34. and see the note 
on that passage.) Hence Peter anticipates the pos- 
sible objection of his auditors, namely, that if Jesus 
bad been tlie Messiah he would have continued on 
earth, and founded a perpetual kingdom ; and withal 
replies to it, by saying that it had pleased God that 
Jesus should be in Heaven, and there remain until 
the times of the restoration. Aei is well explained 
by CBcumenius ISei. As to he^atrdai^ which is used 
by enallage for S6;(€erdai, the Commentators have 
debated whether it is to be taken for occupaverit or 
acceperity retinet coelum. The former opinion is 
maintained by Schmid, Wolf, Dresig, Morus, Ro- 
senmuUer, Schott, and others ; the latter by Beza, 
Castellio, Le Clerc, Heumann, Emesti, and others. 
The sense, in fact, comes to much the same thing, 
unless any one chuse to make dogmatical distinc- 
tions on the sense of the words : but the latter. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 119^ 

which had been formerly brought forward by Justin 
Martyr, in his Apol. 1, § 6., Didymus, Theophylact, 
and (£cumenius, seems, on more than one account, 
to deserve the preference, namely, occupare (which 
interpretation is adopted by Wetstein, who adduces 
many examples. For S^pfcerfiai, when it is joined 
with a place as its attribute, signifies capere^ excipere, 
exceptum retinere^ and is equivalent to avaXajx^oveiv, 
Kar^xi^iv ; as in Acts 21, 27- Luke 9» 11. So Lysias, 
Ko^ Tov aySpa — ou ToXiy edeXei Scp^eerdai 8ia rcXouy. 
Philo 1023 B. 0Tr€p otJic iZi^aro — jxiay ^mqas T€gi0oXor. 
Aristoph. Plut. 773. ;fa)pav Sc nSiarav Kcicgcwroy, ^ij ft 
&€^aro. See Palairet and Loesner. Sometimes, in- 
deed, but very rarely, it signifies occupare ; as in a 
passage of Demosth. cited by Schmid : m Sc vSv 
eyere, otJSc hiomrwv u/xiv tcSv Kaipaivj 'Ajx^wroXiv he^ourdai 
Suvfltfo^* av, aTijpnjjtteyoi icaJ raTy TrapoutKeJoi^^ Ka) rais^ 
Ti^ftaif, where, however, Selaerflai is used of violent 
occupation and seizure. As to the passage of Eurip. 
Ale. 807* to which those who assign the sense occu- 
pare^ appeal, it is nothing to the purpose, since the 
words oJic ^xder ev heovri Se^ourdai oi[M09 have rather 
tlie following sense, ^^ non opportune in has asdea 
yenisti, ut te exciperemus ;** there being an ellipsis 
of were (as in 637.) ^ud of the pronoun as in 
637. and other passages. It is well observed by^ 
Ernesti, that the true principles of interpretation^ 
dc^ not permit us to recede from the proper and 
common signification of words, and follow the 
authority of a few examples (especially in the 
writings of the Apostles, who were ignorant of 
those rare senses), unless an evident necessity should 
compel us ; which here does not exist. Besides, the 
very intent of the Apostle absolutely requires that 
th& common signification of Se^aerda* be retained, 
which is, indeed, far more suitable to the context. 
The words ov &i otigdvoy $^|(X(rdai seem to convey the 
following sentiment : "removed from the sight of 
men, he is conversant with God, has been raised to 
supreme majesty and beatitude. See 1 Pet. 3, 22. 



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120 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 

Acts 2, 33. Joh. 1. 1. (where consult the note) and 
Matt. 20, 21. 

. 21. ''A;^! ypoikcov awoKOLTourT€a}9 iroafrmif. This for- 
mula aj(pi ;^§6vcov is explained by Ernesti, Krebs, and 
Loesner, interea dum, quoad^ quamdiu ; as in Acts 
20, 6. Heb. 3, 13. Joseph. Ant. 12, 7, 6. ** The 
reason why apfgi admits of this sense is (say they), 
that ;^oW does not, like Kaif^^, express the temporU 
terminuSy but continuation of timCy space.'* But the 
words are not unfrequently interchanged, and ;fpoW 
is often used of the terminus temporis ; as in Jer. 
38, 28, (Sept.) Job 6, 11. Esth. 2, 15. Luke 1, 57. 
& 2, 21. where tj/x^pai is put for lifiepaj as here ;f^Voi 
for ypoVoy, by an enaliage of number, and dignitatis 
gratis. Hence there is no need to recede from the 
common signification of &XP^ • "^y> indeed, the 
context absolutely requires that it should be retained. 
By awoKarourroun^ is meant the restoration, restitu« 
tion to a former state, reformation, or change for 
the better; as in Joseph. Ant. 11. 3, 8. onroKard- 
(Trains roiv *Iot>8a/a>v, & 4, 6. toJv 'l6^o<roXtipov awoKara* 
(rratns. Philo 7&J B. toJv icXijpot/p^tSv airoKarourroto'^s 
€19 Tohs 6$ apx^9 Xa;fovTay oiicou^ . This notion, how- 
ever, is little suitable to the present passage, the 
subject of which is the event oj prophecies. Now it 
also denotes per/ec/ion, accomplishment of any thing, 
consummation ; a signification very suitable to the 
context, and which is found in Philo 522 c. r€>.€ioty 
&roicaTa<rTa(riy a^rJjy. Thus Hesychius and Phavo- 
rinus explain it reT^^laxn^j and the Schol. Mosq. here 
interpret it iK^wr^m^. And thus the verb airoica- 
Sfo-roi^iv signifies to perfect, bring to an end, in Job 
8, 6. (Sept.) Now Peter, by the words i^fk jfpww^ 
axoKaTaa'r€wf woufrmv m fXaXijerev o O^iy (** by the 
time in which all things shall be perfected, com- 
pleted, and have their event, which the Prophets 
have predicted*') meant the inauguration or the 
Messiah's kingdom, and the events which shall pre- 
cede it, a fuller propagation of the doctrine of Christ, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 121 

a resuscitation of the dead, the final judgment, &cl 
See Acts 1, 6. Matt. 17, 11- The general sense 
intended is therefore this : ** unto the very end of 
the world.** (Kuin.) 

In the foregoing interpretation, which was also 
adopted by Valcknaer, I must, upon the whole, 
acquiesce. For a summary of the various opinions 
of Commentators on the words themselves, 1 must 
refer such of my readers as may be dissatisfied with 
the present interpretation, to Kuinoel. Dr. Dodd- 
ridge renders airoKaTaarraa-is " the regulation of all 
things,*' and thinks it may very* well be explained 
of regulating the present disorders in the world, and 
the seeming inequalities of providential dispensations. 
From which the sense assigned to the words by Bp, 
Pearce does not materially differ. He observes that 
jcadio^raveiv or icadierravai signifies to establish and 
settle any thing in a good state: and when olttI is 
added to it, then this preposition implies, that this 

food statej in which it is settled, was preceded by a 
ad one^ from which the change is made to a good 
one. This, he thinks, is the sense of aTroKaroLarratns^ 
here, and in 2 Ephes. S, 13. where We have the ex- 
pression a new heaven^ and a new earth ; wherein 
dwelleth righteousness. 

22. Maxr^y /x€v ykp irpo9 rouy var€pas elwey. What 
we read in this verse seems to have no connection 
with the preceding. For whether by ;^voi a^oica- 
TotrTcareoiy be meant times of reformation, or the in- 
auguration of the Messiah's kingdom, &c. Peter, if 
he had had reference to those words, and the pro- 
phecies to be referred to that avoKaronrrains, would 
have adduced quite different prophecies ; as Ps. 110, 
1. Dan. 2, 44. 7, 13. 9, 24 & 26., or Mai. 3, 4. But 
here there is a reference to what preceded in ver. 
19 & 20., and Peter is endeavouring to show that 
Jesus is the Messiah announced by Moses and the 
Prophets. The connexion of the words from ver. 22 
to 26. is this: "Moses announced the Messiah, and 
all the Prophets of our times, to whom he appeared, 



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12^ ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 

have predicted of those times at«>|/u$€<oy. To you 
belong these prophecies, and the promise given to 
Abraham that in his seed should all the nations of 
the earth be blessed. To you God hath sent his 
Son Jesus, and on you He would confer felicity, if 
ye would lay aside your prejudices and forsake your 
sins. Repent therefore and reform ; acknowledge 
Jesus as the Messiah, and admit his doctrine, lest ye 
suffer worse consequences of your obstinacy." Here, 
it must be observed, yap (as often) is a mere particle 
of transition. The passage of Deut. 18, 15. 18 & 
19- is quoted from memory.* (Kuin.) The learned 
Commentator then attempts to shew, at large, that 
the common opinion, which supposes that the above 
passage refers to the Messiahy SLud that Moses him- 
self so meant it, is void of foundation.-f- He and 
his coadjutors, Rosenm. and Dath, make out a 
strong case, which however falls short of conviction. 
In preference to the ingenious and learned specula- 
tions of these Commentators, I would recommend 
to the student that prompt submission of the under^ 
standing of which we have here an example in Scho- 
ettgen, who, though he admits that he has met with 
i^o Jewish Commentator who has interpreted the 
words of the Messiah, yet that the authority of the 
Apostle places this beyond all possibility of doubt. 
And this may (he continues) be proved from Moses's 
saying that a Prophet must be raised up similar to 
himself, i. e. such as should be the author and minis- 

* This seems, however, too unqualified an assertion, since no^ 
thing certsan can be determined until the text of the Sept. has been 
reformed on critical principles, by the diligent use of that magnifi- 
eeat work for which we are indebted to (he munificence of a most 
illustrious University. 

t Of the sam^ opinion too is Wetstein, who observes : Non ne- 
c'esse est per Prophetam hie et comm. 23. intelligere ipsum Jesum. 
Ctim enim Lucas ilium nusqukm Prophetam appellat, et porro Pro- 
phetae omncs propius abessent a Moee, qukui Moses a Christo, pos- 
sumus Prophetam interpretari de totii serie prophetarum a Mosis 
temporibus in Republic^ Judaicil sibi succedentium, et uno ore de 
fUlventu Messiae^ qui prophetarum Dominus est, vaticinantium. 

(Wetstein.) 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. 123 

ter of a new covenant, as was Moses of the old, the 
future abolition of which is so clearly shewn in 
the impressive words of Jeremiah. Since therefore 
the new ceconomy was to be established, it was ne- 
cessary that the promised Prophet should, like Mo- 
ses, confer much with God ; and this our Messiah, 
who was emphatically '*iii the bosom of his Father^** 
did. This rrophet then was very similar to Moses. 
Now to the same degree of Ao(y familiarity^ if we 
may be allowed the expression, none of the other 
Prophets ever attained. Kuinoel observes that avaer- 
T^vai, like the Hebr. CD'^pn, signifies ** to cause or 
order to come forth,** and is often used of prophets 
and teachers, as Deut. 13, 1. 34, 10. Sir. 47, 1. 

23. itrrai Se, for Koi l<rrai. A Hebrew pleonasm* 
See the note on 2, 17- On irSjira ^f/op^^ see the note 

*on 2, 41. 'E^oXoflgcudiJo-^Tai €k tou XotoS, ** shall be 
extirpated from the people.'* The Hebr. (of Deut. 
19, 19.) is loyo tmnH •'ilM, where the Sept has^yo) 
6xSiJ07(ra» €| atJroS, which is rendered by the Vulgate 
ultor existam. Surenhusius, on the Quotations 399^ 
conjectures that Peter changed the points, and for 
•^oyD read 1020. But examples of this form have 
not yet been produced. Peter rather seems to have 
quoted from memory; and the sense seems to be 
this: '*He who shall reject the Messiah will be de- 
prived of the blessings reserved for his worshippers, 
and be excluded from . the eternal felicity destined 
for them. 'E|oXoflp€t>6iv is no where met with in the 
Attic writers, but often occurs in the Sept. (as in 
Gen. 17, 14. Exod. 12, 15. Lev. 17, 4. Num. 9, 13. 
Sap. 12, 8. 1 Mace. 2, 40. Joseph. Ant. 8, 11, 1. 11, 
6, 6. Philo 1, 73, 2.) and is therefore to be reckoned 
among the number of the words appropriate to the 
Alexandrian dialect : on which see Sturz, p. 166. 
(Kuinoel.) 

24. KCLi Towcy Sc 01 wpo^r^rai. It is proper to ob- 
serve the sense of ical Sc (but alsoj^ as in Joh. 6, 51., 
many examples of which are produced by Kypke on 
this passage, and Raphel here and on Luke 10, 8. 



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124 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, III. 

Kuinoel thinks iravr€9 is not to be too much pressed^ 
but denotes " there are many prophecies in Scripture 
concerning these times." This, however, is paring 
down the sense; for though it be admitted tiiat it 
does not always mean strictly o//, yet it must surely 
denote in a manner all^ nearly all^ a very cotisider- 
able portion. Sa/iwi>)X. See 2 Sam. 7» 16. Now 
Samuel was first in the series of Jewish Prophets, 
So Hieros. Chagiga, f. 77r 1- Midrasch Schemuel 
24. (cited by Wets.) Ait ei Saul : Reduc mihi 
Samuelem, magistrum omnium Prophetarum. — Si 
eximius omnium prophetarum judicium timuit, 
quanto magis caeteri omnes. The construction of 
the sentence is this : koa octoi toJv icafle^y ^XaXi^erav. * 
AaXeTy, it may be observed, is used very frequently 
of the oracles of the Prophets. See Acts 2ff, 22. 
Heb. 1, 1. 2 Pet. 1, 21. 

25. i[».€t9 €(rT€ tiloi ToJv 7rpo^rirai¥y **ye are the chil- 
dren of the Prophets." Now Prophets and teachers 
were, by the Jews, styled /li^//er^, and their disciples 
sons. See the note on Matt. 12, 27. The sense 
therefore intended is this: ** The Prophets taught 
you :*' and since mention had just been made of 
the times of the Messiah, the passage may be thus 
rendered, " To you they announced these times. 
Hear ye, ^therefore, and strive after the promised 
felicity." Some Commentators interpret : " To you 
the prophecies pertain."* 

25. kol) T^y SiaSijiojy, ** and to you, the posterity of 
Abraham, the promise (i. e. the promised felicity) 
pertains." Here, too, there is a sort of Hebraism ; 
since in the Hebrew language p (son) is often joined 
to names of things, to denote any one to whom the 

* Casaubun conjeclured, that the reading should be, Kal otroi 
rwK KaQelfis ; but 1 think that there is no need of this change of 
order in the words. They produce the same sense, as they nov^ 
stand in the printed copies : 6aoi will adiuit of a genitive case, and 
that case is often placed before it in the order of ,the words; as in 
Aristoph. Plut. Act 4. sc. 5. v. 105^. we read, 'Ei^ r^ irpqtriiir^ rwy 
^larihiiiv oaas ex^i. And in Eurip. Med S, 476. ms "ttraaiv, 'EXX^- 
fur Saoi TavToy (Tvy€i<r€J3rj<ray Apydoy <ik'a<pas. 



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I 



ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. III. l25 

thing in any way belongs.* See the note on Matt. 
8, 1^. Job. 17, 12. By haQr^tcri is here meant the 

Promise; like the Heb. nna in Gen. 9, 9 & 11. 
s. 25, 14. 89, 29. 1 Mace. 2, 54. 2 Mace. 8, 15. 
Sir. 44, 18. Gal. 3, 15. Ephes. 2, 12. See the note 
on Luke 22, 29. Matt. 26, 28. Markland (less pro- 
perly, I think) explains the passage thus : " Ye are 
the sons of the prophecies and of the covenant; i.e. 
e are heirs (as St. Paul argues, Rom. 8, I7.) : ye 
ave a right to all the advantages of the prophecies 
and of the covenant." 

25. Xcyoiv Tpoy *A0^aaft, &c. On this promise^ 
often given to Abraham, as in Gen. 22, 15. (which 
passage Peter quotes from memory) compare the 
Hebrew and the Sept. So Gen. 12, S. 'EveuXoyijfl^- 
iTovTOLi iv (Toi ttS/toli oi ^oXoi T^y y>)y. Now Peter (as 
Paul to Gal. 3, 16.) has here applied the words of 
Gen. 22, 18. to the Messiah^ the descendant of 
Abraham. (Compare ver. 26.) The sense of the 
passage may be thus expressed : " By the Messiah 
and his doctrine will all nations be blessed. How 
much more, then, will he bless you his countrymen^ 
if you acknowledge him as the Messiah, and admit 
his doctrine." By ra efli^, however, Peter then un- 
idoubtedly meant all Gentiles who should pass over 
to Judaism. (See the note on 2, 39.J ^l^ SieOero is 
for ^y Sieflero (as in 1, 1.) and to> cnrepiMLn evewXoyij- 
diJ^rovTai for iv r£ o"^€pftari eiXoyjfjfliJerovrai. See Glass. 
Phil. Sacr. 462. A I ^argia), tribes^ nations. See 
Kypke on Luke 2, 4. So Tob. 1, 9. 6Xa3ov''Avvav 
ywaiKd iK to3 (nr€p[AaT09 r^y warpia^ rifimv. & 5, 15, 
Tlarpiiiy like the corresponding Hebrew term mSttJD 

* Of this Wetstein adduces the following Rabbinical examples. 
Bava Kama, l,^,S. Filii foederis, i. e. confoederati, extraneis oppo- 
«i(u f. 16, 1. Mezia, f. 71> 2. Sanhedrin. f. 79> S. Mechilta. In 
Ex. 20f 10. and 23, 12. Servus et ancilla. Filii foederis, an servus 
incircumcisus ? Beracboth, f. 16, 2. Rabbi orabat : — sive sit filius 
foederis, sive non sit filius foederis. Sch. non circumcbus. Gittin, 
f. ^, 2. R. Jannai dicit : sicut vos estis filii foederis, ita et legati 
A-estri sint filii jfbederis. 



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126 ACTS OF THE APObTLSS, CHAP. III. 

in Am. S, 1. Jer, 3, 14. Mich. 2, 3, and Neh. 3, 5 
denotes 2L nation or people. (Kuin.) 

26. 6jx7v TTpcurov o 06^^, avao'r^^ay — evTioyoSm-a 
ujxaf. 'Ava^r^vai is (as was observed in the note on 
ver. 22.) often used of the appearance of Prophets 
and teachers. The sense seems to be this : ** God 
hath sent forth his Son as teacher and Messiah.** 
'TjxTv, as being a Dative of profit, signifies *' for your 
benefit." By lepwrov is meant especially ; as in Matt. 
6, 35. Joseph. Ant. 10, 10, 5. and in other passages. 
'lij(ro5v is omitted in many excellent MSS. and is re- 
jected by Mill, Bengel, and Griesbach. EuXoy^iv 
denotes " to confer blessings upon, render any one 
happy; as in Matt. 25, 34. See Suicer's Thes. 1, 
1246. , , ^ 

26. 6y r£ airwrToi^€iv iKatrrov airh rwif irwv^^cov JjuuSy. 
Our Version renaers " In turning every one of you 
away," &c. Tliis mode of translating the wordfs is 
supported by the authority of the Ital. and Piscator. 
Others, however, as Erasmus, Beza, Grotius, and 
Tindal, render: •* So that every one should turn, 
&c." De Dieu, Pearce, and others : ** If every one 
shall turn." Hammond, Morus, Heinrichs, &c. take 
ax'0(rrp€^€tv entirely of Christ reforming and blessing 
the Jewish people ; as in Rom. 11, 26. 2 Tim. 4, 4- 
But this lies open to the objection of Orobio, as 
stated in his conference with Limborch (referred to 
by Doddridge); namely, that Christ did not^ in 
/act, turn every one of them from their iniquities, 
though it must be allowed that he took such steps 
as were very proper for that purpose. Doddridge, 
therefore, adopts the version, *^ Every one of you 
turning from your iniquities,** which he thinks far- 
ther preferable, " as the Apostle knew that the Jews 
would, in fact, reject the Gospel, and bring destruc- 
tion on themselves as a nation, by that means.'* It 
may, I am aware, be said that the action only 
reaches so far as Christ's wishes and best exertions to 
effect it extends ; yet this is not quite satisfactory* 
So that, upon the whole, I am inclined to accede to 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP* III. IV. 1S7 

the interpretation of fieza, Piscator, Bp. Pearce, 
Doddridge, Rosenmuller, and Kuinoei : ** On each 
one turning himself from his iniquities :*" and this 
(as Kuinoei observes) is most suitable to Peter*s 
words at ver. 19- ftfrayoijo-are ku) iTFi<rrpi^ar€. Fi- 
nally, this interpretation was probably adopted by 
the ancient Greek Fathers ; since it is brought for- 
ward by G^cumenius: u opa ica) ouro) ^Xoi^-dc eri- 



CHAP. IV. 

1. OTco-njo-av awToip. This is a formula often used 
of those who come upon any one suddenly and un- 
expectedly • See the note on Luke 20, 1. and Krebs 
and Loesner on this passage. ' By trrparrjyo^ rod legov 
is not meant fas Sdimid and Hammond have thought) 
the commanaer of the citadel Antonia, but the Pre- 
fect of those Priests and Levites who kept guard in 
the Temple. See the note on Matt. 26, 47. Luke 22, 
4. Deyling, Obss. T. S, 236. and Schleusner's Lex. 
It was the duty of this officer to take care that there 
should be no tumult in the Temple. Under the pre- 
text that the Apostles had excited disturbances 
there, and acted without the knowledge or consent 
of the Sanhedrim, to whom belonged the privilege 
of granting permissions to teach, (see Deut. 17, 18. 
& 19. 7. Ez. 44, 15 & 24. Acts 4, 2. Matt. 21, 23.,) 
the Priests (we are told) apprehended them, and 
committed them to custody. (Kuin.) The Saddu- 
cees here mentioned seem to have been private per- 
sons. One may observe, by the way, that from the 
Acts of the Apostles it appears the Sadducees were 
more intolerant than the Pharisees, and evinced to- 
wards the Jpostles a yet more persecuting spirit; 
which peculiar bitterness may be ascribed to the 
doctrine of the resurrection, that fundamental one 
of Christianity, so firmly (and Attally for their dog- 
mas) established by the res?urrection of Jesus. On 



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128 ACTS or THE APOSTLES) CHAP. IV. 

the other hand^ the Pharisees were better affected 
to the Apostles. See 5, 34. 23, 6 seqq. 

2. $iaToyou|X€yoi hot to 8. a. r. X. The word $iaxo* 
v€Mrdaf signifies properly to be wearied out, than to be 
exceedingly vexed, take much to heart, bear with 
impatience, &c. This signification, however, is not 
found in the Classical writers, but is purely Helle- 
nistic, and occurs in Gen. 6, 6. Eccl. 10, 9. (Sept.) 
It answers to the Heb. 325^. Wetstein illustrates 
this sense of the word from Plut. Lycurg. p. 4? f. 
ToL ie (TaifjLOLTa rdiv tcoLfAivio^ Z^oimi^ Ka) ircChans — Zi€xi- 
f^erei'. Versio. Vulg. dolentes. Cod. d. dolore per- 
cussi E. indignantes. Hesych. Sia?rovi}d6)f, 'K'jxrfi€\s. 
Other examples are adduced by Wesseling on Dio- 
dor. Sic. 2, 7* 'Ev to> 'IijeroG may be explained, " by 
the example of Jesus ;" as in 1 Cor. 4, 5. Tva ftadcr^ 

3, 4. edfVTo iis njpijeriv. On the various senses of 
nj^eriy, see Fischer on Vorst de Heb., Dindorf in 
loc, and Schleusner's Lexicon. Among its other 
significations is the present one, ^Xa/nJ Ao/rf, pri- 
son : and in this it occurs in Thucyd. 7> 80. Kar^^i- 
^ourav eif Toif Xidoro/x/a^ ao-^aX^orarijy thai votLi<rotrr€9 
T^y nfgtjtriv wliere the Schol. explains ^uXaiojv. 

3. 'EcrW^a, afternoon : for they had entered the 
Temple at our three o'clock in the afternoon. Now 
inripa^ like the Heb. 1*^ is used of all the afternoon 
hours ; and there were among the . Hebrews tti)o 
€«Vgar the first commencing at our three o'clock ; 
the second at our six o'clock. See the note on Matt. 
8, 15. (Kuin.) HoXXol 8e raJy aicoueravraiy rov Xoyoy 
in'ia-T€tj<rapf &c. 'ETiVrcud-av must be taken in a Plu- 
perfect sense. Many Commentators, as most of the 
ancients, and, of the moderns, Lightfoot and Benson, 
think that this number was exclusive of the three 
thousand converted on a former day ; and Lightfoot 
argues that propriety of speech would require this 
sense. But our autnor is sometimes little attentive 
to this, and here the sentence is a somewhat inaccu- 
rate one. To me it appears clear, as it has done to 



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Acts dt? THE APOfetLiSis^ chap. iv. t2& 

€ainerarl«rf, Kdcator, iDdddHdge, Rdsenhmiiller, and 
Xuitioel, that this nuhiber includes the three thou- 
sand. For, isittiong other reasons, it is not probable 
that the plortico would hold nniore than five tnousand 
men ; and yet many of the prfecediiig three thousand 
would be present; not to mention those auditor^ 
who liiight ndt yet be hdleters. Besides, as Dod- 
dridge and others observe, the Apostle does n6t here 
say (as before) irpocreTe^crav. 'Eyevifdij is for Jacttis esty 
was made. At aySgalv we must sub^ud tSp Titrre}- 
a-Avrmp^ taken frotn the context, narhely, from the 
preceding kTria-r^xrav. 'ApipdSy may have the sens^ 
either of viroruniy or hominum. 

' 6, 6. (roifayhr^vai dturaSf too? ap;^ oVTttp, &C. l. e. tlife 
hiemberd of the Sanhedrim. So Joh. 3, 1. 1 Mace. 1, 
14, & 29. By Josephus Ant. 30^ 1, 2. they aire called 
ap)(oyT€9 l^^tieroXtijxircov, and Sometimes simply^ as 
here, and in Luke 23, 15. Ap^ovn^^. It is therefore 
a general expressioii, usually defined morfe exactly by 
gome add^d words^. By atkcS^ is meant 'louSauoy. 
For pronouns often belong to a noun not expressly 
mentioned, but to be taken out of the context, or 
knd^n from the subject treated of. See Glass. 
PhJl. Sacr. 15^ seqq. and thef note on Joh. 8, 44. 
9,23. 17,^. 

5. ^I^ ^UpbwraXrifi is put for iv 'I^potxraX^/* (these 
prepositions being oftefi interchanged); and the 
Words might perhaps be dispensed with, did we not 
find in other parts of this book sorte phrases which 
would seem superfluous ; as in 8, 38. Indeed B^ziaf, 
Lightfoot, Heuman, and Michaelis, suspect that 
many members of the Sanhedrim were at their coiin- 
try-seats for the summer; and thns' the;f sTCdoiidt 
for the clause in question. (Kuin.) - But tbid seemtf 
very hypothetical, and precarious, 
- 0. Kol "Aihfuy tIp ap-xitpia KOi) Kai^^i^. At KdCii^ap 
we must subai;id ap^i^^a; for Caiaphas Was then 
discharging thepontificial iySic<e. See Joseph. Attt. 
18, 2, 2*18, 4, 3. Joh. 11, 4g. tS, 13. and Krebs Jft 
toe. Hence it has been debated by Commentators 

VOL. IV. K 



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ISO ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. IV. 

how Hanas could be called aqx^€pek. Petavius^ in 
doctr. temp. 10, 58., and most otners (following the 
opinion of Augustin) maintain that there were then 
two high priests discharging the pontificiai office by 
turns^ just as the two Roman consuls used the fasces. 
Others, however, with more probability, suppose 
that Hanas was the vicar, or deputy^ of Caiaphas 
the Hight Priest, and was also, by courtesy, styled 
Hiffh Priest. 

o. 'lojavjojv, Koi 'AXe^avSpoi^. Who these persons 
were, cannot be determined. This only is certain, 
that they were men of authority, and senators. Alex- 
ander is thought by Bishop Pearson, in his Lect. on 
Acts, Krebs, m his Obs., and Dr. Mangey, to have 
been the brother of the celebrated Philo Judaeus, and 
of whom frequent mention is made in Josephus, as 
in Ant. 18, 8. 79» 5. and elsewhere. 

6. KCii Ztroi r^trav hcykvox^s aqyi^^ariKwi. By these words 
Hammond thinks are meant the chiefs of the twenty- 
four iSacerdotal classes. And so Schleusner, in his 
Lex. in v. y^W* But no passages have yet been 
produced to prove this signification of the word. 
Grotius supposes that it relates to the Synedri who 
had gone through the office of High Priest. And so 
Wetstein, who cites Joseph. Ant. 15, 3, 1. 20, 10. 
ult. Bell. 4, 3. 6, 7> & 8- Others, with more proba^ 
bility, understand those Synedri who were relations 
of Hanas and Caiaphas. ^'Luke makes mention of 
these, (says Rosenmuller) in order to show his readers 
what powerful enemies were opposed to the Apostles. 
(Kuinoel.) 

. 7* ^^ '^^^'V ^^^^* ^ ^^ iroiw oi/0/xari 6. r. J. The Sy* 
nedri proposed this question to the Apostles (who, 
they fancied, would defend themselves very feebly 
and timidly) in order to elicit from them some an- 
swer by which they should find an occasion of ruin- 
ing th^m. Most Commentators refer the words ip 
woi(f, Suvotftei, &c. to the discourse delivered by Peter 
in the 1 emple, (see Morus and Rosenmuller,) or to 
the discourse of Peter and the miracle wrought by 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IV. 131 

hihfi, as Ravius and Heinrichs. But that the inter- 
rogation of the Sanhedrim only regarded the mode 
of the cure is plain from the very answer of Peter, 
ver. 9. Other^, as Erasmus, Limborch, Le Clerc, 
Bolten, and Eckerman, interpret thus ; '* By what 
virtue, natural, or medical, or by what magic power?'* 
(Kuih.) And so Wetstein : ** Qui potestate, an 
nomine Raphaelis, aut angelorum alicujus, aut no- 
mine Dei ipsius pronunciato hoc fecistis.'* Oh the 
sense of the words iv woitp ovopxri, in reliance on 
whose help and authority, (as in 3,6. 16, 18. Joh. 
10, 25. compared with Acts 3, 16. hr) r^ Tr/crrei to5 
oi^arof atJroG,) see Lightfoot. " The Sanhedrim 
(says Kuinoel) used this formula, since the Jewish 
exorcists of those times cast out devils and healed 
very dangerous disorders, not merely by the use of 
medicaments, but by employing various formulas of 
incantation, as, for instance, the name of Soloipon, 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, or God. See the note on 
Matt. 12,27. Joseph. Ant. 8,2,9. Just. c. Tryph. p. 
311. Orig. c. Cels. L. 4, p. 183 seqq. Iren. adv, 
Haer. 2. 6, 2. Fabr. Cod. Pspud. V. T. p. 1034 seqq. 
ttud Van Dalen, Diss, de divinitate Idol. V. T, p. 
520. 

8, 9 TrXijerdeis' tlv^yfiwxToy ayi'oti, ** filled with sacred 
enthusiasm, and without fear." (Kuin.) Or rather: 
"filled with the sacred and preternatural aids and 
inspiration of the Holy Spirit." See Doddridge. Of 
this discourse of Peter the following plan is laid 
down by Schoettgen. 

The speech consists of two parts : I. Proposition, 
namely : This miracle was worked by the authority 
of Jesus of Nazareth, ver. 9 & 10. II. JSxplication 
of the Proposition, by what is said in Ps. 118, 22# 
and a general maxim, ver. 12. 

9. 61 i)ft€Ty cnjjtjufppv. Peter glances at the Judges, 
because they had called him to trial, not for an evil 
deed, but . for a benevolent act. £1 signifies cum, 
attandoquidetn ; as in Joh. 13, 32. 7, 4. See Glass, 
Phil 521. (Kuin.) So ^Iso 11, 7. and 18, 15. Clas, 

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ftical examples may be seen in SchK Lex.; to ^hich 
I add Herodot. 2, S4, 1. €\hk M iiey^'^Snuvop yvmfkk^. 
Eurip. Phoen. 84. ;fpij 8*, €i fri^^ W^icay, where the 
Scholiast explains arei^. ^Amicp/vco-dai, it may be 
observed, is a judicial and forensic term (used here 
and in 12, 19. 24, 8.), which properly regards the 
interrogation and examination. Thus Valcknaer 
cites jEsch. Socr. where there is a saying, that, 
among the shades below, Minos and Rhadamanthus 
Bit ovoKpiyovrcs', examining such as come. See the 
note on Luke 13, 14. So the Latin interrogare, of 
which Grotius adduces examples. 

9« €u€^€<r/a avO^ofrou ^d^voS^, for eif Mpcofjmf 
Aa^knjf ap^pnhrw). *A<rfi€Vo5y being a genitive of object. 
So Diodor. Sic. p. 8 d. icoii^ iut^poixmv €u€^y€<ria for 
eiff ro&r ajfdpawTdur. And p. 9 A. eu€py€^ia rou Kaivco 
^lou for clff T^ ifoiiAv jSioi^. Philo, 125 a* 4t (uepyea-la 
roS T^oup ifficuv. See also Glass, Phil. Sacr. 78. ev 
riVi oSror <r((raMr€rai ; Erasmus and Beza render: 
f* Qua ratione, quo modo,'* with the subaudition of 
TpijriDi as in Matt. 5, 13. But it is better rendered 
iy whom. (See Luke 11, 19. Hebr. 3, 12.) For Pe- 
ter, in his answer, has especial reference to the other 
part of the interrogation, €v iroito ovoftan ; and in ver. 
10. declares that the lame man was healed, €v t£ 
MfMtri *lria-oo, by Jesus. Xai^€(rdai here signifies to 
be healed; as in Matt. 9, 21 & 22. Mark 5, 93. 6, 
56. Luke 7, 50. Acts 14, 9. Compare also 11 & 
14..(Kuin.) This indeed appears to be the primitive 
sense of th^ word, whose different significations are 
luminously detailed by Dr. Maltby quoted in the 
note on Matt. 1, 21. The whole passage is thus 

Saraphrased by Heinrichs: ** Quandoquidem non 
e inalefacto> ut solet, sed de beneficiis inquirimur, 
et id potissimum in quaestione venit, cujus ope resti- 
tutus sit claudus, respondemus, Jesu Christi ope 
eum aanatum esse." The 6i» here signifies iy; which 
is not (as some suppose) a Hebraism ; as appears 
from the numerous examples adduced by Wetstein 
from the Classical writers; ex.gr. Soph. Aj» 519. 



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ACTS O? THE APOSTLES^ CHAP* IV. 133 

Dio Cocc. exc. p. 698. ^v col re ku) rjfJLcig (rttij^/xcfla, 
KoHi UTcip (Toti TavTcy airodavou/teda. 

iO. They had, it seems, sent for the lame person, 
that they might interrogate him concerning the 
mode of cure ; and perhaps (as Heuman suspects) 
doubted whether the man healed by Peter were the 
same with him who had sat at the Temple gate beg* 
ging. (Kuiu.) 

11. The passage of Ps. 118, 22. which refers to 
David, Peter applies to Christ ; and the sense of his 
words is : " This Jesus, whom ye rejected, is the 
true Messiah. See the note on Matt. 21,42. ^Kuin.) 
Heinrichs observes that the sentiment contamed in 
these words seems to have become proverbial, indi- 
cating that what has been formerly held in con« 
tempt, sometimes attains great estimation. 

12. K<xi ouK l(rriy iv aXXo) ouSeiA 19 trtBrripla^ ** and 
(indeed) this salvation is not by any other." H <ro>- 
ry^ia signifies the salvation by the Messiah. Kypke 
excellently illustrates this from Joseph. Ant. 3, 1. 
where Moses says, ev aurcS (i. e. in God) y<ip elwx* tiJv 
iram^plav atrroi kolI ouk ev aXXtt>. Aristoph. in Lys. €y 
Tou<p ywfat^h ctrnu 1) cayrr^pioL. In interpreting the 
words (Toynqpla and iroid^vai the Commentators differ 
widely in opinion. Most understand them of the 
salvation of the Messiah's kingdom, and the felicity 
obtained by men through Jesus Christ. See 1 Pet. 
1,5,9, 10. 2 Tim. 2, 10. 3, 15. But others, as 
Whitby, Pearce, Teller, Michaelis, and Bolten, un- 
derstand caynipia and (rcod^vai of the healing of the 
lame man. This, however, involves a considerable 
harshness, since thus a-to^vai must be explained 
otherwise than the preceding trwrri^ia ; or an enallage 
must be supposed in ^'fiitr, by the admission of a 
figure callea the KoivoTofix. But, as Kuinoel observes, 
such a icoiyorotot, except in a hortatory and objur^a* 
tory discourse, is very rare, and can only be adtnitted^ 
when without it there would exist some very absurd 
contradiction : which is not the case here. Besides 
(as Doddridge remarks) if the most determinate 



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134 ACTS or THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. IV. 

word for healing had been here used, (as flcpa^ewd^ 
yai or lairdai,) it must have signified spiritual and 
eternal salvation^ since it is plain that when Peter 
says, f oS hti (Tcokrivai i^iJiSff he takes it for granted 
that all who heard him needed to apply to Christ for 
this healing. Now there is no reason to believe they 
were all afflicted with bodily maladies, nor could he 
have any imaginable warrant to' promise them all 
supernatural recovery in that case. Others, as Mol- 
denhauer, Kypke, and Heinrichs, maintain that both 
the preceding senses may be conjoined; and al- 
though some exceptions are taken to this method by 
Kavius and Kuinoel, yet it seems, not improbably, 
the true one. At the same time there is no neces* 
sity to abandon the common interpretation, which 
is confirmed by the words of the verse following, 
thus rendered by Kuinoel : '* Est salutis auctor, per 
eum contigit felicitas quam Deus promisit; est Mes- 
sias a Deo constitutus.*' By ovo/xa Irepov is meant 
any other person^ since ovopx ha^ often this sense ; as 
in 1^ 15. Peter, too, had reference to the interro- 
gation of the Sanhedrim, iy To/a> om^ti. AcSojxcyoy 
is for SiSorai, namely, hy God (see 2 Tim. 1, 9.) 
destined^ appointed^ constituted. See Eph. 1, 22. 4, 
11. The €v seems pleonastic ; of which idiom Kui- 
noel adduce? examples from Sir. 3. 7. 47, 10. Jer. 
25, 11. (Sept.) Col. 3, 10. Acts 13, 15. 1 Cor. 8, 7. 
13, 14. 0€a}podvT€^ hi rr^v roS IleTpGt} Trappijeriav, &c. 
By irap^i<rta is meant liberty or speaking, intre- 
pidity in speaking one's mind: ot which see a 
learned Dissertation of Walchius. KaraXa3ofJi€voi, 
having understood, learnt; as in 10, 34. and 25, 
25. For icaraXafJi^aya) properly signifies to lay 
hold of, to apprehend, both in a physical, and a 
moral sense. 'AypapftaToy properly denotes one 
who does not even know his letters, generally, an 
illiterate person, or one who possesses not the art of 
literary composition, or one devoid of knowledge or 
sense in general. Now since among the Jews 
science consisted chiefly in the knowledge of sacred 
literature, so here we may suppose that ignorance of 



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ACTS Ol? THE AfrOSTLES, CHAP. IV. 135 

the kabbinical interpreters was chiefly had in view. 
Valcknaer in loc. quotes Athen. I76 e. iSiaiTijy koA 

f 13. 'ISioiraJ. This word has various significations ; 
and in order to accurately determine which of those 
senses is to be attributed to it in any particular pas- 
sage, attention must be paid to the context. Thus 
it denotes private persons, as opposed to those who 
hold any office civil or military; or low and mean 
persons, as opposed to persons of rank ; and when 
reference is made to learned and skilful persons, it 
will denote the contrary, namely, the illiterate. Of 
all these significations examples have been adduced 
by Commentators. See Ruperti on Longin. 258. 
also Irmisch on Herodot vol. 1. p. 259 seqq. and 
Krebs on Acts. 7, 22. One remarkable passage 
seems to have escaped them all ; namely, Thucyd. 

2, 48. icai \arpl9 Koi iSioJnjy. Now since iSkOTTjr is 
here referred to persons in authority or power, and 
magistrates, the whole context leads us to suppose 
that it must be taken in the sense of private and 
plebeian persons. 

13. hreyiveoa-Kop. By this is meant not merely 
knewy but recognised; as in Matt. 14, 35. Xen. Hist. 
5, 4, 12. aJ (Tvv ToJ Tijo-oS are denoted companions of 
Jesus; a periphrasis frequent in the best Classical 
writers, of which Kuinoel collects the following ex- 
amples from those produced by the Philologists. 
Xen. Cyn 5, 2, 15. rouy o-owy, cVei o-uv ijjxw/ €i<ri. And 

3, 3, 14. 01 *A<r(rt>pioi jcal oi <ruv aiiroig. Eurip. Hip- 
polit. 85. <roJ ^w€ijxi. Xen. A nab. 4, 5, 15. Hevo^oiv 
icol oi (Tthf atirtp. Xen. Rep. Laced. 13, 1. Kuinoel 
adds, that it here means the perpetual companions, 
disciples interiorioris admissionis. It is well ob- 
served by Grotius, that the Sanhedrim might well 
recognise Peter and John as Jesus^s disciples, since 
many of them had occasionally attended on his 
teaching. See Matt. 21, 23. Luke 18, 18. Job. 12, 
42. The words ouS^v el^op apreiir^h form a popular 
phrase, of which Wetstein cites the following exam- 



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186 ACTS OF JHE APOSTLBS, CHAP. IV. 

pies. Aristoph. Pl^t. 485. n rl ywf •'E^^i rh o^ 
B/icaiov avTfiTrcTv €Ti; Achill. Tat. 5. p. 287^ fcai ifftci^ 
aWca-OeWey avriXcyciv otJic €l-)(0[uv. Lulce 7> 4Q« 

trAen Mej/ Aaif commanded them to go aside oMt (kfthe 
council: in order to have opportunity for private 
discussion. Similar expressions often occur in Thu- 
cydides, and the other ancient historians. At o-ovf- 
^pc:^of' subaud ^ouy^oLs or ^ovXeu/xara, Avhich is supplied 
\)y Eurip. Phoen. 700. d€Xa) irpor aurotf c-ufx^aX^iy 
^ouX€U|Ulara^ or 7va)/xi}v. So Plut. 2, 592. ri S' otJ 
o^ft0aX€irai yvco/xi^v; & 154. Similar passages are 
piped by Bos and Kypke. 

16 — 18. ri Toi)j(rof4€y rois avfipowroiy toutoij; i. e. 
^* shall we punish them, or let theip go." Iva^^-Toj^ 
(n^fji^hy. Markland suspects yvoKrroy to be not ge- 
nuine, as being no where else so used in the New 
Testament. But the MSS. give no countenance to 
this suspicion, which is, indeed, a very groundless 
one. 

}7. aXX* li/a fiig ^tt) tXcTov S«aK/xi}6^ €. r. X. ' AxxA 
may be rendered however. See Devarius de Par- 
ticulis. At hav^iJLtj^ subaud (n}|X67pv, or SiSa;^, as 
some thinks who quote 2 Tim. 2, 17- But the for- 
fuer seems the preferable method. Aiav^jtteiv, which 
corresponds to the Heb. p7n (see Deut. 29, 26.), 
properly denotes to distribute among several; as in 
Xen. Mem, 3, 14i 1. and figuratively to divulge, 
spread a report. By the Xaoj are here meant the 
Jews in general, except the Jerusalemites. 'AxciXi^ 
p^w€i\7i(rwii.€da. A common Hebrew idion>, by which 
the signification qf any verb is strengthened by the 
addition pf its cognj^te noun. See the npte on Luke 
22, 15. lV(igfc€ri XocXciv, i. e. speak, teach. *£ti rep 
G^ofiuxri ToiiTy, in the name of this person (Jesus)^ 
Ilapayy^€iv here signifies to order , ani\ is ^ t^rm 
appropriate tq king$, msigistrates, generals, &c, ]n 
this sense i\. perpetwally occurs '\\\ th^ Greek histq- 
f-ians. ^^Vy^^rflai, which . oqcMrj jus^ after, must be 
tftk^n in th^. s^m? seRsg a$ the pgrece^ing Xo(X,f7y* 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. IV. 137 

Examples of this signification are given by Kuinoel 
from Theophr. Char. 6, 5. 7, 1. Xen. Cyr. 2, 7. 
4, 58. Herodian 4, 6, 2. 

19, 20. €l ZUawv eVriv — XaXeTv.* The words a 
€lSo|X€tf KOLi >ficouo-a/tev are to be referred to all the 
actions ^nd fortunes of Christ, and all the discourses 
in which he expounded his doctrines. 'EvcoViov tou 
0€o5 is equivalent to irapa no 0€a), " Deo judice^ 
num vere fas sit." See the note on Luke 1, 6. and 
compare Acts 8, 21. So Rom. 3, 20. SucaioiVerai 
TGura <rap^ ^Wtiov aui-oS. There is a similar passage 
in Eurip. Med. 221. hicr^ y^p ouk fwriv ocJ^daXfAelf 
^goreov ooTip ic. t. X. 

19* TjxcSv aicou€iy jxaXXov -jJ ro) 0€a). On this sen- 
timent of obeying God rather than man, Wetstein 
has cited some beautiful Classical examples ; as 
Plato Apolog. C. 17« speaking of Socrates : on eycir 
(?/xa^, w av^^ ^AdijvaToi, a<r7r<xgo/xai ku) ^iXeo, irutroiun 
Sc TiB QciS jxoXXov, ri (JfxTv. Arrian Epict. 1, 20. Hie- 
rocles in Aur. Carm. ei Se eo-riv ore rwv Oeioiv yojxaitt 
ot^Koo^ €(my ij* TcSy yovicoif ?rpoaip€(nr, ti 86? Toiciv ely 
ayr^yofiiiay cjXT€(roWay roiaorijv, ^ toCto, ica) 6?rl TroXXcoy 
Kadijicoyrioy €K Trcpurratr^w^ €ls evavritoinv iKhitfToyv wpoa^ 
iJkci ^wXaTT€iy ; [jl€i^ov(ov yeip icol eXarroycoy xpofC€i- 
fjieyoiy icaXcoy, to^ jutei'^oya Tpo raJy eXarroycoy xouro-dai S€i, 
6Tay jxi] aiL^0T€pa i^ hatroi^^iv* olov' icaXoy /Ji€y toJ dfoj 
x€(6€<r6a»' icaXoy Sf/cai ro?:? yoy€5(riy ei S73 xpo^ r aura ij 
a^^orepmif iyji TreiGwj Ipjxaioy ay elfy} Ka) a/xa;^oy* e! Se 
xpo^ aXXo p,€y deloy yo/iU>^, xpoy aXXo Se 01 yoyely ^^poievj 
p^X^l*'^^ T^y otipereo)^ ToTy a/x€iyo<riy €?r((rda< 8€?, x^Sy 
raSra ftoyoy aTrcidoSyra yoyeuo'i, xpos* a ica) auroi ro7s^ 
d€ioi^ yojXQi^ oti Te/dpyroi* roy yap (^^Aarreiy BotiXo|tt€yoy 
rous" T^^ oper^ff ico^yoyaf ptJ;^ oloy t6 tots' TotJrour Tapa^ai^ 
V(iiHr$ iTuiJL^wyeiv. Soph. Ant. 4^9* ouhe (rdeyoiy roerouroy 
(^o^i^y ra erot K^jptJy/xafl*, a>y aypaxra Kai atr^aXi) OfcSy 
Nofiijxa S$iya(rdo^i jfiyigroy oyr* JT€p3paft€Ty. Liv. 39, 87. 
Veremur quidem vos, Romani, et, si ita vultis, ti- 

* So ^cn. Anab. 7, 6, 14. ei n ovv kyia kvTavOa ijiiicrjaat dya- 
yQy vfidsj iyda trdaiv vyly iioKci, eiirare. 



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138 ACTS OT THE APOSTLBS^ CHAI*. IV. 

memus. Sed plus et veremur et timemus deos iro- 
mortales. Plut. Conviv. 7. Sapp. p. 152 c. nV 8' c2i*, 
€0^, (Tol toGto 7r€i<rfl€nj, ij t^ flcoS ; See Herodot. 5, 63. 
Joseph. Ant. 17, 6, 3. 18,* 8, 2. Maimon. Hal. KeU 
3,13. Sanhedrim, fol. 34 1. Scribitur Jos. 1, 18. 
Numquid etiam, cum legis praecepta exequitur ? non 
certfe — cum ipso ore Saulis jussi essent interficere 
sacerdotes (1 Sam. 22, I7), noluerunt regi plus obe* 
dire quam Deo : Joab contra a Davide non nisi per 
Epistolam jussus interficere Uriara, tamen id fecit, 
Regi suo plus obediens quam Dei mandato. Num. 

22, 18. Exod. 1, 17. Susan. 23. 1 Mace. 2, 22. 
Tob. 2, 9. Acts 3, 29. Athen. 520 a. 

20. ou Suva/i^a yap riiJi^7$, &c., i. e. " we cannot 
bring ourselves to do it ; it is neither right nor just; 
it is contrary to the Spirit which impels us to act.** 
Thus Suva/xai has here, not a physical, but a moral 
sense; as in 2, 24. Of this idiom an example is 
adduced by Wetstein from Papinian : nam cjua^ 
facta Isedunt pietatem, existimationem^ verecundiam 
nostram, et, ut generaliter dixerim, contra bonos 
mores fiunt, nee facere nos posse credendum est. 
See also Glass. Phil. Sacr. p. 209 seqq. The pas- 
sage is thus paraphrased by Kuinoel. " We cannot 
do otherwise. We, by the providence of God, be- 
came the disciples of Jesus (see Joh. 6, 44 seqq.), 
whom God hath chosen to be witnesses of the re- 
surrection of Jesus CActs 10, 41.), whom the Holy 
Spirit directs and actuates, and to whom Jesus com- 
manded to propagate the Divine doctrine. We 
cannot but speak what we have heard and seen/' 

21. 9r^aT6<X7](ra|X€voi, and withal threatening 
them, tlphj in comparison, often denotes addition. 
MijStv eljpi(rKovT€9 TO 9rc5y, &c. Pricaeus, Schoettgen, 
Wolf, and others, subaud ainoy (comparing Luke 

23, 14.), and give the words this sense : " They 
found no handle or pretext.** IlaJy Pricaeus and 
Glass take for oTcoy, of which, however, examples are 
wanting. I would accede to the opinion of Beza, 
who maintains that |xi}S€V is equivalent to /xiq (see 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. IV. 139 

Xen. CEcon. 11, 9. and Msch. Socr. 2, 29.)> since 
the article rl follows, which is usually so prefixed as 
to indicate the following sentence ; as in Luke 12, 2. 
See the note on Mark 9. 23* TJm may be rendered 
on what pretence, or pretext. The Sanhedrim, we 
may observe, knew not how they could decree any 
punishment against the Apostles, or how they could 
so put it in execution as that the people might not 
break out into a tumult. Uavres denotes, by hyper- 
bole, the bulk of the people ; as in Joh. 12, 14. 
(Kuin.) 

23, 24. ^Xdov Trpls robs iSiW. Schmid, Heuraann, 
Morus, and others, explain the words : " They re- 
turned home :*' and the rouy iS/our, they take to 
mean the other Apostles, or the Christians who oc- 
cupied the same lodging with Peter and John. I 
would rather understand by it the apartment, or 
private oratory, in which the Christians had met to 
offer up prayers for the release of the Apostles. 
(Compare 12, 5, 2, 1.) By ISi'oi are often meant 
any one's partisans; as in Philo 630 a. Mcouenjy 
ldaptnjv€ robs iSioos*. 

24. ojxodujxaSov f^pav ^oovriv irpos tov 0€ov. By o/xoda- 
jxaSov is meant together. See the note on 1, 1, 14. 
To the examples there adduced, 1 add Athen. 623 d. 
KpoToti $€ ycvojuivou, Koi TavTtov o/Jiodu|ctaSov aurov icaX(* 
c-Avrmv. The Hebrews prefix the formula T^iVO 
yilp to verbs of speaking ; so that it is almost re- 
dundant. This idiom has been adopted by the wri- 
ters of the New Testament, who prefix hralpeiv r^p 
$a>i^v to the verbs ^Ivov, Xcyeiv, aTo<pfi€yy€(r6ai, which 
give them a sort of intensive force. It is well ob- 
served by Limborch, that all did not at once break 
out into this prayer, since, without divine inspiration, 
[which, however, it is not absurd to suppose, and 
IS adopted by Doddridge,] how can it be imagined ? 
The sense of the words is this : " AH, on hearing of 
the threatenings, addressed themselves to prayer. 
Some of the Apostles pronounced, with a loud voice, 
the following precatory address^ and the rest, in a 



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140 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IV. 

low voice, pronounced the same words, or adopted 
them mentally, adding their own earnest wishes to 
the prayer, which, as being pronounced on so me- 
morable an occasion, was afterwards committed to 
writing/' That this precatory address was (as some 
conjecture) not pronounced extempore^ but a pre^ 
composed form of prayer^ we cannot rationally sup- 

Eose, since the words advert to circumstances not 
nown until that very time; as, for instance, 
the threatenings of the Sanhedrim, (ver. 29.) of 
which they had been but just then informed : and 
the words oucoturaifTes oftoduftaSiv fi^op ^cotn^i^, will not 
allow us to imagine any interval between the report 
of Peter and John, and this prayer. 

The words <ru * o dciy o Tronjeray rov oupavhy Ka) ttqv 
y^v Koi ngi/ doXatrcrav, Koi ttolvtol rk ^v auroir form, a 
periphrasis of Lord of the universe. A similarly 
worded prayer is cited by Wetstein from Joseph. 
Ant. 4, 3, 2. ray )(apa^ el^ rov oupavov aywryax^^ yey«- 

y^y Koi dotXacra^y, & Bell. 3, 8, 8. Hieros. Avoda 
Sara, fol. 42, 3. speaking of Alexander the Great : 
Non dominabatur in mari : Sed Deus O. M. domi- 
natur tarn in mari quam in tellure. 

25. o %ihL (rrofxaror Aa3/S r. ?r. <r. ۥ Almost all 
Commentators, both ancient and modern, even Dath, 
(who is sceptical enough upon such points^) agree 
that the Psalm has reference to the Messiah. But 
from this opinion Kuinoel dissents; whose reasons, 
however, do not seem entitled to much attention 
when opposed to the united authority of the sacred 

* It is generally thought that eU or el, oirii is wanting after 9v^ 
This has been partly owing to the construction's being suspended 
through several verses, and not coming out before ver. 29 \ and 
this difBeulty was increased by the words Koi ra vvv^ which were 
very proper; to, vvv (or ravvy? being opposed to Tork^ which may» 
or may not, be understood before dT«i»v : '' Thou» Lord, who /or- 
merly saidst by David, Whtj do the Heathen rage, &c. now also look 
upon their threats,** &c. If formerly be omitted, the mention of 
David is sufficient to show the opposkiou to now, \) Beds is put 
for a Q^i. (Markland) 



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ACTS or THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IV. 141 

writer, and the most eminent Theologians, including 
Rabbi Solomon Jaschi, who confesses that all the 
ancient Rabbis did so interpret it. I shall therefore 
omit the empty Speculations of that Commentator, 
and rather turn to his solid philological illustrations 
of the passages in question, which being, as usual, 
derived from the best sources, are deserving of great 
attention. 'Uarl, why. So the rTO7,'which Symmachus 
fenders €19 rij for what. Hesychius explains the 
word by hari. ^poaa-treiy (Kke the Heb. '^T\) and 
its derivatives are used of the whinnying, or neighing 
of horses ; as in Xen. de re Eq. 12, 12. Diod. Sic. 
687 i>. Callim. Lav. Pall. 2. See Gataker on Anton. 
9. p. 364. and the Commentators on T. Mag. 901. 
It is, however, used metaphorically of men. Hence 
^ptJayfta and rt><poy are joined by -^lian V. H. 2, 10. 
Aristaen. 2, 12., and we have ^p6ay[xa and i^eyoL^Mrj- 
X^oL in Plut. de Ed. 2, 6. So 4>fiia(r(r€iv in Diodor. 
Sic. 191 i>. 3 Mace. 2, 2. Other examples may be 
seen in Valcknaer. The sense, therefore, is this: 
^ Why do they rebel against the Messiah, why en- 
deavour to shake off his rule." 

25. Aao) €[t€\€Tri<rap KevSi ; MeXeroi', like the Heb. 
ilXlf signifies to meditate on, think of; as in Mark 
13, 11. Xen. Cyr. 5, 5, 14. k€vol (as Bengel well 
observes) has the force of an adverb ; as in Job. 21, 
34., where the Sept. renders TrapoKOLTielre K€va ; but 
by Aquila the Heb. p^"y is expressed by Kems. (Kuin.) 
Wetstein illustrates the sentiment by a proverb found 
in Suidas and Apostolius : kcvol K€voi Xoy/^ovrai veL 

26. irap^irrr^tray ol ^our^'Keh ti}p y^y, i.e. stood up 
(Jbr opposition). The Heb. is a^nn, which with 
hsf signifies to minister untOy help ; as in Job. 1, 6, 2. 
Zach. 6, 5., and is, by the Alexandrian Jews, and 
the writers of the ^ew Testament, expressed by 
7rafiaTrt^K€vai. But 73^ I'^S^ilH is also, like Trapourrrj' 
icevai^ used in a bad setise of those who oppose^ stand 
as adversaries against ; like ay^trTf^Kevai and (ruwV- 
Wda*. The words mpP hv cohere with 12S^n% as 



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142 ACTS or THE APOiTLSS, OtAr. IV. 

here Msrel rio Kopioo with irapafmiK€var Kara tou Kupiou 
jrai KarSi tou Xgi<rro5 aJrou, ** against God, and the 
King anointed and appointed by him." For those 
kings rebelled against God, by resisting the King 
whom God had appointed. (Kuin.) 

27. (nmixliri(rav yoLp €t aXTjfl^/ay. Tdip has here the 
sense of utique, surely. See the note on Job. 9, SO, 
Many MSS. of different recensions, and several Fa- 
thers and Versions add iv 77 ttoXc* rauTYJ^ which was 
approved by Lightfoot and Hammond, and has been 
received into the text by Beza, Bengel, and Gries- 
bach, with the approbation of Rosenmullerand Kui- 
noel. The words are thought to be supported by 
Ps. 2, 6. to which they seem to have reference. But 
how then are we to account for their omission ? To 
me, I confess, they appear to be derived from the 
margin; and such, I suspect, was the opinion of 
Wetstein. The plural XaoTy, it may be observed, is 
put for the singular XaaJ, which Kuinoel thinks is for 
the sake of more exact correspondence. I have, 
however, noticed many such instances of plurals for 
singulars in the later Greek, the Alexandrian, and 
the Hellenistic writers. Such a use also had place in 
the Latin populus, of which Wetstein adduces exam- 
ples from Livy, Justin. Mala, Pliny, and Virgil. It 
is remarkable, that in all of them the plural is asso- 
ciated with another noun in the plural, which seems 
to confirm the observation of Kuinoel. 

28. TTOirltrai o(ra 13 ;f€if <rou Ka] 13 ^otiXlf (Tou irgoa>^i(r€ 
yevea-dm. Some Commentators are of opinion that 
Toi^era* connects with eypitrai at ver. 27, not the in- 
termediate words 'Hpafo^y and XaoTy 'Itrpai^K with <ruy- 
riX^ri(rau> But this trajectio is harsh, and, as far as 
I know, unexampled. Hoir^trai may more rightly be 
referred to <ruvi);fdi)<rav. Compare 3, I7 & 18. *H 
j(€ip (TOU icaJ 1} ^ovX^^ are an hendiadis for '* thy all- 
powerful will." (Kuin.) And so CEcumenius. This, 
however, appears harsh and unauthorized. I prefer, 
with most Greek and Latin Fathers, as Vatablus, 
Camerarius, &c. taking it to denote the providential 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IV, 143 

ordering of God. For, as Whitby justly observes, 
the hand of God, in the Old Testament, relates not 
so much to his power, as to his wisdom and providen- 
tial dispensations. So Job 27, 11. "I will teach yoa 
by the hand of God. (See more in Whitby.) The 
sentiment conveyed in these words is this : " They 
persecuted and slew Jesus the Messiah ; but this was 
done by the will, providence, permission of God, 
who could, if he had pleased, have frustrated all their 
efforts. * 

Ta vdv is an elliptical expression for KaroL tol u5v ovra 
Tr^yfAaTUj in prcesentid^ for the present. The ex- 
pression occurs in the best Classical writers; of which 
examples are given by Raphel, Eisner, and Wetstein^ 
Grotius observes that in Hebrew the correspondent 
particle nny has a hortatory force. It is rightly re- 
marked by the Latin Fathers, and, of the modero 
Commentators, Menochius and Kuinoel, that otiSc 
signifies, " So look upon their threats as to frustrate 

* The same view of the subject is taken by Wetstein, in the fol- 
luwing elegant annotation : 

" Herodes et Pilatus sine dubio volebant suum consilium perfi- 
cere, su^ue poiestate abuti. Putabant non posse aliter fieri^ qukm 
ut lumen Evangelii extingueretur : se vel minis vel ultimo certb 
supplicio Apostolos ad silentium redacturos^ omnem, per quam 
elaberentur Apostoli, rimam esse obstructam ; se aut callido isto 
consilio, quo silentium ipsis indixerant, aut vi apertd. victuros: 
Apostoli verb ipsi> dum haec aguntur, ad Deum confugiunt; homi- 
num consiliis opponunt consilium Dei, cujus sapientise comparata 
omnium hominum calliditas stultitia est; hominum potentiae oppo- 
nunt divinam potentiam. Scimus causam Evangelii, quee et nos- 
tra est, tibi curs cordique esse : scimus hostes nostros tecum hel- 
ium gerere ; scimus te omnia ipsorum consilia et molimina uno 
spiritu difflare posse; credimus, eos ne capillum quidem capiti nos- 
tro eripere posse, nisi tu permittas ; te autem ne permissurum, nisi 
qubd nobis salutare, et doctrinee Filii tui promovend® idoneum 
erit. Si decrevisti ut hostium vexationibus porro exponamur, 
habes nos paratos veritatis testes ; si nos decrevisti h prsesenti perl- 
culo eripere, cujus potentice hoc est facillimum^ agemus tibi gra- 
tias. Confidimus autem, quomodocunque res cadat, causam Evan- 
gelii sub te rectore detrimentum non esse passurum, et illis, qui te 
diligunt, omnia etian:i quae pessimo consilia et summli vi ab inimi- 
cis ipsorum agitantur, in bonum c^ssura." 



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144 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IV. 

the execution of them.** Of this use, however, they 
give no examples ; nor do any occur to me, except 
I may be allowed to compare the very same use of a 
not dissimilar word, namely, the Hebr. IpD, to viaity 
which is used both in a good and bad sense. The 
Commentators remark, that 8or> and the Latin da^ are 
frequent in prayers. See Rom. 15, 5. Hom. II. y. 351. 
Virg. Mn. 2, 789. and consult Eisner, WoU; and 
Raphel, on Mark 10, 37. 

30. €¥ r£ rriv pfcTpa (row €KT€iv€iv (re eJy fowiv, ** while 
thou extendest thine hand to heal the sick." A He- 
brew phrase, declarative of power. See Glass. 934. 
- 31. Ka\ heriderrwif atirSp etraT^evdr^ i riiro9> This un- 
expected earthquake was to the congregation a sign 
that God had heard their prayers^ and would help 
them. For even the Gentiles believed tliat earth* 
quakes were sometimes marks of divine approbation 
and favour ^ of which many examples are adduced by 
Pricffius, .Doughty, and Wetstein.* Ka) ^TXijVfiijcrar 
&TaifT€s TIvetifAarof ay/ou, " filled with sacred ardour," 
as some recent Commentators render; but which 
is a mode of interpretation that exceedingly lowers 

' * Of these the most im|M)rtant are the following. Virg. iEn. 3, 
90, Vix ea fatus eram ; iremere omnia vi«*a re|>cnte, Liminaque 
laurusque Dei, tot usque Uioveri Mans circum, el mugire adytis 
Cortina reclusis. Callimachus, in ApoU. 1. oloy 6 r' wirutWurog 
itrelaTO b6i<pytro% opTnji, ota t S\ov to u^XaOpoy^ Ikus, cjcqs ootis 
iiXiTpbsi Kal bri Tov ra dvperpa KaXf tocI <I>o70os hpacr<T€t. Jamblt" 
chus de Myster. 2, 4. de apparit. Deor. rrjy re yfjy fitiKiri bvycurSat 
^(TTayai avrwy KaTioyTwy, Ovidius, M. 15. 672. Vix bene desierat, 

Oum Adventuque suo signumque serasque fbresque Marinore- 

tinique solum fastigiaque aurea movit. Esaj. 6, 4. Statius, Theb. 
4,331. Mirabar, cur templa mihi tremuisse Dlanae Nu|ier visa. 
Plut. Public, p 101 D. XiyovtTt aeifrBffvai rh &X(TO%y iic b' tihrou 
i^tjyrfy iiciretreiy fiey&Xriy — 7iy b* Apa Qtlov tt to ^Oeyfa/icvoy. 
Schoettgen has the following Rabbinical examples. Jdra Rabba, 
5 24. Cum R. Simeon ai)enret os sunm, conimotus est Jocus, 
«nn« yTPit«, et socii commoti sunt. Adde locum ex Tanchuma 
slipra ad c. 2. 3. adductum. Sohar Exod. fol. 4. col. 14. R. Simeon 
^xtuHt vocem, et oravit ad Deum S. B. Quum preces finisset, venit 
R. Elleser filius ejus et R. Abba, et sederunt coram ipso. (Quo 
fiacto viderunt, quod tenehne claro die exortse sint, et lumen ingeus 
submersum est in mare Tiberiadis, nrtH «inn ^D J^iwtm, et totus 
ille locus commotus est. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IV. 145 

ing the sense. There seems to have been a sensible 
illapse of the Holy Spirit ; though I am not prepared 
to say, with Dr. Doddridge, that this was accompa- 
nied with any visible symbol of its descent ; still 
less, with Dr. Benson, that the cloven tongues again 
fell on them. This^ indeed, is being wise above what 
is written, and such temerity is carefully to be 
avoided, since it may lead, according to the temper 
of mind it meets with, as well to superstition, as to 
scepticism. 

82. See the note on 2, 44. To5 tk irTjfioMs rw vkt- 
T€wra»TQ}¥ ^v 7)* Kap^ia Ka\ rj 4^X!^ f^iA. The expression 
1} KapSia kol) i} %pri;^ [m^, it must be observed, was a 
proverbial description of the most tender affection 
and close unity .''^ On tlie words orihk e!^ n ra>i/, 
&c. see the note on 2, 44. 

33. icai ftcyaXi} Suvoju^i ^^^SiSouv r. jx. o. a. There 
seems no reason, with Pricaeus, to interpret the ex- 
pression €v Zuvanf.€i of miracles. It seems only to have 
reference to the force and efficacy of their elocjuence 
and power to persuade and move the hearts of their 
hearers. See the note on Luke 4, 32. 24, 19. (Kuin.) 
The same view of the subject is taken by Heinrichs 
and Wolf. For my part, I would not exclude the 
force of that inartificial, but impressive eloquence, 
which, founded in conviction, and supported by the 
visible effects of Divine favour, would give their 
words an effect rarely to be found in the most po- 
lished oratory : but I must maintain, that there is 
comprehended in the expression what would, above 
every thing else, enable them to speak with such 
power, namely, the miracles which they were occa- 
sionally enabled to work. 

* Of the examples adduced by the Commentators, Grotius, Pri- 
CSU8, Ebner^ and Kypke, the following are the most apposite. 
Plut. in Cat. who cites the following antient verse : Avo t^Xol, ypvx^ 
fUa. Diog. Laert. I^ 5. C. I. § 9. epwrrjdels rl e<n>t <p[\os ; i^ri ^ia 
%pvxri ^v6 awfAQiriv iroiKovva, Eurip. Orest. 1047. Aristot. Eth. 9, 
8. Ovid, Fast. 4, 7^ Minutius Felix : Crederes unam mentem in 
duobus divisam esse. 

VOL. IV. L 

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146 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IV^ 

33. yapiy T€ fteyd^t) '-^v heiiri/t^mg aorautf *^and they 
were all in great favour with the peopled* By x^P*^ 
Beza, Pricaeus, Heuman, Whitby, and Doddridge, 
understand the favour of Ood (as in Luke ^, 40. 
Ephes. 6, 91. Benget renders, *4n favour both with 
God and man." But to these interpretations I can- 
not assent. For the very connexion (compare ver. 
37), and the parallel passage of ver. 47* clearly shew 
that the words are to be here understood of the fa- 
vour of the people, which the Apostles and the rest 
of the Christians gained by their mutual love and 
harmony (ver. 32), and by their liberality towards the 
poor. See ver. 34. (Kuin.) To this mode of in- 
terpretation, which was also adopted by Grotius, Ca- 
saubon, Pearce, and Rosenmuller, I entirely accede. 

34. Stroi yap /mfrogcs* ;fa»pi«)V i? olicioii^ ^^^X^ ^' 
Galvin and Heuman rightly remark, that it cannot 
be hence inferred that all and every one of those who 
had farms or houses, sold part of the possessions. 
For here we have not wavres o«i, as in 5, 36. Matt. 
7, 12, 18 & 44., and fo-oi is elsewhere put indefi- 
nitely; as in 9, 39. This view of the subject is 
strongly confirmed by the words addressed by Peter 
to Ananias. (See 5, 4. and the note on 2, 44.) The 
phrase TiS^vai Tropot rois* xo8aF riyoy, which occurs also 
in 5, 2. 7, 57. denotes to commit to the care and dis- 
posal of; for in the Hebrew, parts of the body are 
ofl?n used for the person himself. Of this Wetstein 
adduces several examples. (Kuin.) We may ob- 
serve, moreover, that this action was intended as the 
most reverential mode of making the deposit; as is 
remarked by CEcumenius, whose words are these: 
"Eti rh vpos rw)S ToSay, Koi <r^af ouyrtSs TepiToi€i, mi 

iv€ihov9 a(prjp€i rwv evSgiay roiv Tp€^ix€y<op. *" 

* Wetetein here compares Deharitn, R. 4. and Vqjikra, R. 5. 
'' R. Elieser, R. Josua, and R. Akiba^ came to Antioch, where Hwed 
Aba JodaUi who used to give liberally to the Rabbins* His wife 
said to him, why hast thou not gone down to the markets-place for 
these last two days ? He answered : The Rabbins have come» and 
1 have no money to give them ; so I am ashamed to go down to 



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-ACTS QW THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IV. 147 

Of TiiuGiiy valu€y the following: examples are adr 
duced by Wetstein : Appian. B. c. 5. p. 1088. ti^^ 
Twv en vnr^puTKoiUvwu. Demosth. C. Aphob. 1. r£p 

Doddridge has well refuted the insinuation of Oro* 
bio, that it was no small advantage to poor fishermen 
to be treasurers of so considerable a bank.'' " No- 
thing (says he) can be more unjust and unnatural 
than to suspect that men who were so ready to sacri* 
fice their lives to the cause of truth and the happi- 
ness of mankind, should be capable of falsifying such 
a trust as this for the sake of a little money. Their 
miraculous powers were joined with a thousand 
marks of probity in their daily conduct to warrant 
such a confidence, which was but a natural token of 
due respect. We see in chap. 6, 2, S, 4. how ready 
they were soon to transfer the management of this 
affair to other hands; and the following story fur- 
nishes us with an additional answer to this cavil, 
.which is beyond all exception.** 

36. Of the number of those who sold, their po&- 
sevens for charitable purposes, was Barnabas, afler^ 
wards a celebrated Christian teacher. On the mean* 
ing of this name see Schleusner's Lexicon. This in- 
deed is a point on which the Commentators are not 
agreed. It is usually thouglit to denote, son of con- 
solation ; but Kuinoel, afler summing up the various 
opinions with his usual diligence and accuracy, de- 
termines it to mean, '*son of doctrine,'* i. e. doctor. 
The question seems one of no easy determination ; 
but, like most such, is of little importance. 

37. yyrdpy(ovros aJrcS aypou. He could not have 
sold that which was his paternal inheritance as a Le- 
vite ; but this might perhaps be some legacy, or pur- 
chase of land id Judea, to which he might have a 
title till the. next jubilee, or perhaps some land ita 

tbe market-place. His wife^ who was ibnd of the precepts of (he 
Kahbins, said to him : Have we not a piece of land remaining ? 
Sell half« and ^ve to them* And be went and did so; sold Uie 
half for five coins, and gave them to the Rabbins, saying : Pray for 
me. And they prayed for him> saying<: God supply thy want, &c. 

1.2 



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148 ACTS OF THE APOSTLBS, CHAP. IV. V. 

Cyprus. (Doddridge.) That it was lawful for the Le- 
vites to huy land, we learn from the example of Jere- 
miah himself, who was of the tribe of Levi. (See Jer. 
32, 170 It is observed by Bp. Pearce, that those 
Commentators who contend that this land must have 
belonged to his wife, because according to the law 
mentioned in Numb. 18, 20, 23 & 24. a Levite could 
have no inheritance in Israel^ seem to have mistaken 
the sense of that law, " which (says he) means only 
that the Levites, as a tribe, were not to have a 
share in the division of Canaan among the other . 
tribes. This did not hinder any Levite from pos* 
sessing lands in Judea either by purchase or by gift, 
as well as in right of his wife. Josephus was aXe* 
vite, and a priest too, and yet in his Life, ch. 76. he 
speaks of lands which he had lying about Jerusalem^ 
and in exchange of which Vespasian gave him others 
for his greater benefit and advantage. After all, I 
see no reason why we may not suppose that this land, 
which Barnabas had and sold, was not land in Ju- 
dea ; and if so, the words of the law, no inheritance 
in Israel, did not (however understood) afiect their 
case. His land might have been in his own country, 
Cyprus, an island of no great distance from Judea: 
ana he might have sold it at Jerasalem to some pur- 
chaser there, perhaps to one of his own countrymen." 
Xp^jxa is equivalent to rifti^* at ver. 34. It is rarely 
found (as here) in the singular, to denote inoif€^ ; 
yet it aoes so occur in Herodot. 3, 38. Diodor. Sic. 
10, 106. where see Wass. (Kuin.) I add Diod. Sic. 
6, 479. in Cod. Coislian. 

CHAP. v. 

After commending the undissembled liberality of 
Barnabas, Luke adduces a memorable example of 
the contrary (hinted at by the adversative oi) in 
Ananias and Sapphira, who, on having sold some 
land, deposited part only with the Apostle, pre- 
tending to have brought the whole. And both of 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V» 149 

these, he relates, perished by sudden death. (See 1» 
12.) That Ananias had brought his gifl publicly, 
and in presence of the assembled congregation, is 
plain from the whole narration: for at ver. 11. it is 
said that the Apostles were gathered together, and 
that a great fear seized the whole congregation. 
The crime committed by Ananias and his wire was, 
indeed, no slight one^ They had pretended piety, 
had endeavoured to deceive the Apostles, had deli* 
berately committed the fraud, and had thereby in* 
eurred the guilt of sacrilege, inasmuch as the money 
was destined to the use of the sacred society, and 
might therefore itself be accounted sacred. So Cic, 
Offic. 1, 13.,totius injustitise nulla capitalior est, quam 
eorum, qui cum maxim^ fallunt, id agunt, ut virl 
boni esse videantur. Many Commentators contend 
that the atrocity of the crime was increased, inas* 
much as those who had sold their goods, and delivered 
them to the Christian society, had a right to support 
from the common treasury. But that Ananias had 
no possessions or property but that in question, we 
are not told ; nor (as was remarked at 2, 44. and 
4, S3.) can it be proved that the richer Christians 
divested themselves of all their property. It is not 
necessary for me to notice the conjectures in which 
Michaelis, RosenmuUer, and Heinrichs indulge, 
since they are both destitute of proof, and little 
probable in themselves* As to those who endeavour 
to account for all upon natural principles^ their 
hypothesis (which is, indeed, no novelty, but was 
formerly broached by Origen) involves more difl5- 
culties than it removes; so that, if we had not so 
many proofs of the credulous incredulity of sceptics, 
or at least latitudinarians, we should be surprised at 
seeing them seriously maintain such a position. 
Though instances of death, brought on by fright, are 
on record ; ,yet that any two given persons dwelling 
together shall both die of fright, is too improbable 
even to think of. And as to what those Com men- 
tators urge, namely, that Peter did not, by divine 



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150 ACTS or THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V. 

inspiration, foresee, much less threaten, the death of 
Ananias, because he makes no mention of death, 
this is a false conclusion, since whatever previous 
knowledge Peter might have, to threaten the death 
of Ananias would have been, in the present circum-^ 
stances of the Church, highly imprudent, since it 
would have given the magistracy that handle against 
the Apostles which they desired ; and hence there is 
no cause for the wonder expressed by some Commen* 
tators (as Kuinoel) that the Sanhedrim took no cog^ 
nizance of the matter, since from the prudent course 
which Peter pursued, it was impossible for them 
to have any hold upon him. Indeed, the words 
KoIX i^(r(i\)(n 0-6 contain not a threatening, much less 

gs Porphyry said) an imprecation^ but a prediction. 
oubtless, the same Holy Spirit which revealed to 
Peter the fraud, revealed also the punishment which 
would follow it. Here CEcumenius judiciously <^ 
serves : Tpia heKar^ raurlv rt}yiicat>ra onjjut^ia* >>aApalanf 
7M0(ri^, ftcX^nj^ hoLUoias iK^o^tn^j Kcii iv) toutois itfui^ 
p6<rif €K irqoiTTa^yfJLaTayv. 

1. ercuXi^o-e #CT^/Aa. See the note on 2, 45. Here 
KT^fta denotes a piece of landed property ; for at ver. 
3. it is interchanged with Wp»ov. 

2. 6W6r^iVaro. Noo-^/go) signifies to separate, 
and voo"^i^€<rdai (from vo<r<pi, apart) denotes to put 
aside, convert to one's own use. It is chiefly used 
of peculation and embezzlement of public money.* 
At T^y rtfjiiis subaud fUpo9 n ; an ellipsis common 
both to the Greek and Latin, writers, and such a 
one is found in the modern languages. Kuinoel 

* Of the examples adduced by Rapftiel, Kypke, Munthe» and 
Loesner^ the following are the most apposite. Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, 49« 
in bk Koi xp^/xora kyiif olba 6ti toXXo iv Tf orpaTOiribf itrrlrt Zy 
bhic hyvoH on hvvarbv kfiiy, koivwv ahr&v ^yruty rots avyical-etXrf^o^ 
91, yofffUa&Oai pir69a hy fiovXifieOa. Diodor. Sic. 450 B, ol 
rotn^i^fteyoi ra 'xpiiuara ra <r^4fi9t^. Phil. 563 p. Awuyra ray 
Apyvpqy Kal ypvaby otroy Ik Ttji nfiijs Hdpotre tov trirov kv rols fiatn" 
Xktas eBritravplSeTO TOfjielois, ohiefday bpaxfjiijy yotrfiaauevosS* ^ 
Mace. 4, 8?. ypv^wfiaTa rlya rCjy rov Upov yoerff^ierdfieyos lxaf>cVa7t> 
ry *AyhpoyiK^ . , . . . 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLBS, CHAP. V* 15 1 

here brings forward an observation (partly from Bp. 
Pearce), obvious, indeed, to any one, namely, that 
when Ananias deposited the money with Peter, he 
intimated that it was the whole price of the land. 
Such minute circumstances as may themselves be 
easily supposed, the sacred writers (and indeed the 
best Classical ones) are accustomed to omit. See 
Pearce. At <ruv€i$uiW we must supply toGto. So. 
Thucyd. Vol. 2, 92, ?• edit. Becker. ^tiveiW roTs 
iripois rl ^?^l^ov^eu(^a. The ancient Commentators 
agree that tbis was sacrilege, the punishment of 
which (says CEcumenius) was dea.tn. One must 
here (observes Mede, in his Diss. 26, p. 151.) dis- 
tinguish between the species facti, which was sacri- 
lege, and the circumstances of the deed, namely, hy- 
pocrisy, desire. of vain glory, avarice^ &c. 

3. Siar* €T\r^frei^ h XarwSiS tqv icogS/av q-ow. The 
best Commentators seem agreed that ^x^/soGy t^v 
Kuoliav Tivos is a Hebrew form of expression, signi-^ 
fying to impel, incite, embolden, persuade any one. 
See Hammond and De Dieu. ** It: answers (observes 
Fischer) to the Heb. •'317D ^7 M17D, which is equi- 
valent to the formula ''3170"i^M il'^on, which the 
Greek Translators render iTitrmiVf o^aa-eUip, ova-- 
7r€ifl€iv riva. ThUs the formula W 1«7D nttJM.with 
an infinitive declaring the action, is used of any one 
who, is induced, who dares to do anything; as in 
Esth. 7, 8., and Eccl. 8, 11., where 17 MTQ is ren- 
dered by the Sept. iirT^jipo^opn^Qri KOLpBia uicSv too apdpai" 
irou €y airois rod voirjcai rh koucov. Now wTir^po^opeifTr 
dai is used metaphorically of men who are hurried 
away by excess of eagerness to do any thing. The 
expression is to be taken figuratively. For as, in 
Scripture, those who obey the Divine will are said, 
to be .guided by the Holy V Spirit, so are thosQ^who 
comjnit iniquity said to be filled with the evil spirit, 
Satan. Besides, at ver. 4. Ananias is s^id to have 
formed this plan in his mind. The expression is 
therefore equivalent to ^' How is it that thou hast 



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152 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. T. 

dared to form and execute such a flagitious plan/* 
See Doddridge's paraphrase. 

At 4f€ti(rourdai subaud eh rl* The verb takes both 
a dative, as in ver. 4., or an accusative, as here, and 
denotes to lie ; and since a lie is a species of fraud ac- 
complished, or attempted, by words, it also signifies 
to deceive, act dissemblingly towards. (Kuin.; Ex- 
amples of these siKniiications are given by Bos^ 
Schmid, Kypke, and Wetstein. Thus Joseph. Ant. 
IS, 1. 4/6u^aft€yoi airov T€ hco) roy ^eurO^^ia. Antonin. 
Lib. fab. 17- i^wrara tov Aa/xT^v, aop^v yjyowrot 
r€K€tp. Deut. 33, 29. (Sept.) ical ^tHrfon-ai <r€ o! 
^xjipol (Tw. Ps. 77f 36. Koi Tji y\ci<rfni airw €\}/€a- 
^ovro aur^. 17> 49. e^ei<ravTo. But it is more fre- 
quently used with the accusative in the sense of 
deceiving ; as in Diodor. Sic. 199 d. ot€ m^W o^ti- 
trapTo. Herodi. 2, 11, 12. 10, 8. Is. 57, 11. (Sept.) 
TiW €wXa0tj66<<ra i^o^T^irj^, Koi i^itra^. Hos. 11, 2. 
olyop €\^6ua-aTo aJrou^. I add Jos. 388, 38. ou#c o^ 
auTiS Kara^/eJSeTflai toS 0€oS ^rjra^" & 1147, *• ^* 
KaroLo-xeha^m 06o5. 

For a detail of the nature and extent of the crime 
I must refer my readers to the very judicious obser- 
vations of Dr. Whitby. Kuinoel observes that 4^ 
creMrdai must here be understood of attempt^ not per- 
farmance : an idiom not unfrequent ; as Eurip. Ion. 
1326. ^Kowra? m ff^ ?*cT€iv€y.^ See Glass Phil. 202. 
He remarks, too, that by x^juia Ayiw is here meant 
•< us who are filled with the Holy Spirit.- (6, 3, 
7, .51.) 

4. ou;^) v^vw (T^ €iJL^€y **M long as it remained 
(thine), did it not continue at thy disposal.'* Hence it 
appears that none were compelled to sell estates by 
any law or institution of the Church. 

4. Ti oTi ?9ow €P Tji Kapiia o"ow ri TpayiiM rwro ; The 
phraseology is abrupt and elliptical. T4yw€v is to 
be supplied ; and t» oti is put for Sian. The com- 
plete phrase occurs in Joh. 14, 22. Tid^mi iv rf 
KOf^ia, or €19 r^¥ Kaf^iaa^ (21, 14.) answers to the Heb'. 
a*r73^ n^wn in Hagg. 2, 19. Dan. 1, 8., and is used 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V. 153 

of those who aliquid altd mente repostum tenent^ 
consider of, plan, and determine to do any thing. 
So MaK % 2. eotif jtti^ d^o-Oe 6«^ rr^v Kap&ioof ufj^wp roS 
XoSyai ^otur t£ iMftari jxou. Very similar is that 
form, which so often occurs in the Greek Poets, 

4f. OfJK fy^trw aydpcDToif, oXxA r£ 0e<p. Ouk an- 
swers to aX>A, and the sense is, not so much — as. 
This signification of miic is frequent in Scripture. 
See the note on Matt. 10, SO. (Kuin.) When S^l^ 
is used with the article, it always means God the 
Father. Now Ananias and his wife did not deceive 
ordinary men, but the Apostles who were filled with 
the Spirit of God and Christ, and therefore they 
insulted both the Spirit, Christ, and God the Father. 
Of the Holy Spirit we have express mention in this 
verse, as also in the third and ninth ; of Christ in 
the ninth verse ; of the Father in this and the thirty, 
second verse. 1 Cor. 6, 19. 3, 16. 1 Thess. 4, 8. 
Ex. 16, 8. Esaj. 7» !»• (Wetstein.) 

S. 7r€(rm i^e^nj^^f expired. Here we must supply 
Bm. There is a similar ellipsis in eicrveiy, aTo\|n>;^€iv, 
&c. The complete phrase occurs in Eurip. Or. 496. 
ear(r^6x€iv r^y 0ioy. Soph. Aj. 1656. and Virg. ^n. 
2, 262. vitam exhalare. (Valckn. & Kuin.) Por- 
phyry, and some Jewish detractors, accuse Peter of 
cruelty. But the visitation was not Peter^s, but 
God's. That the severity (as Doddridge observes) 
was not only righteous, considering that complica- 
tion of vain glory and covetuousness, of fraud and 
impiety, which, as Limborch and Mr. Biscoe (p. 659 
' — 661.) have well proved the action contained ; but 
also, on the whole, was wise and gracious, both as it 
served to vindicate the honour of the blessed Spirit, 
so notoriously affronted by this attempt to impose 
on those who had been so lately and eminently 
anointed by his extraordinary effusion, and farther, 
as it tended more effectually to deter any dishonest 
persons from joining the Christians merely for the 
sake of present alms^ to which, by a fraud like this, 



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154 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, V. 

many might, on easy terms, have purchased a pre- 
tence, who would also, no doubt, have proved a great 
scandal to a profession taken up on sucli infamous 
motives. Moreover, such exemplary punishment of 
so heinous a.crime was the more expedient, as Chris- 
tianity was now in its first rise. So, just at the 
opening of the Mosaic institution, Nadab and Abihu 
were struck dead with lightning for a fault (as it 
seems) of much less aggravated guilt (Lev. 10, 1,2.): 
and the wisest human governments generally act on 
the like principle.* 

* " The Bin of Ananias aad Sappbira (observes WeUtein) adalit-^ 
ted of no excuse. The Disciples had entered into a society consist- 
ing of the rich, the poor, and the middle classes^ on condition that 
the rich should contribute mtieh, those of the middle class accord- 
ing to their means, and that from the fund so formed^ ell should 
derive their common support. ( See «upra 2, 46.) Ananias, there* 
fore, who pretended to be poorer than he was, thirsted for gain, 
hoping to receive more from the common treasury than he had con- 
tributed. Had this evil example been followed by otherSi the Church 
would soon have been severely burthened (see 1 Tim. 5, 16.); nay 
the funds would shortly have been exhausted by the expenses in- 
curred through such fraudulent persons (see^ Pet. 2» 13. Judg. 
19.) who^ under pretence of poverty and piety; would i-eap the 
fruit of others* labour. This would have opened a wide door to 
hypocrisy and idleness, and have utterly extioguisbed the benevo- 
lence of the wealthier classes, whose charitable dispositions would 
have g^ven way before their wealth should have been exhausted ^ 
tor who would have supported persons of property, who pretended 
poverty in order to become a burthen on the bounty of others. 
This abuse would not only ha^e injured the reputation of the nas- 
cent Church, but have cut the very nerves of all its prosperity. Yet 
this sin Ananias and Sapphira, regardless of law divine and human, 
liad not hesitated to commit, knowingly, voluntarily, and delibe- 
rately, without the plea of imminent peril or uigent necessity* 
Just, therefore, seasonable, and even necessary, was their punish- 
ment, that the fraud might not turn to the benefit of its authors,, 
and that all might see that this new society viras an assemblage of 
bonsst and good men. Ananias sought tlie praise of liberality :- the 
event, however, was, that the turpitude of hia crime was thereby 
manifested to all, and the memory of it transmitted to -every 
future generation. Ananias and Sapphira sought to live on the 
labour of others, and lost life itsdf. By their dissimulation they,' 
aa fiir as in them hf, deprived the mUly poor of their aupporty and 
converted it to their own use, than which what could 4>q mpre 
cruel ? Just therefore it was that they should not jexperience thei 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V. 155, 

5. ico) eyevero 0000^ /tteyap hr) xotMra^. I agree with 
Whitby, Hammondi and Bolten, that this may mean 
all those who heard the words, and witnessed the 
event which followed them. It seems to be a po- 
pular, though not strictly accurate mode of ex- 
pressing that sentiment. At all events, I see no 
reason to suspect (with Kuinoel) that the words are 
a later addition, since they are found in all the MSS. 
and Versions: and though it may be true (as he 
says) that there are interpolations more ancient than 
any of the MSS. (as an instance of which he cites 
Mark 1, 27- 15, 23. Luke 2, 2. Joh. IS, 21.) ; yet 
these are very rare, and hence there is no cause for 
suspicion, since, the sense above detailed being 
adopted, the words cannot seem out of place. 

6. caia(rr&ifv€s Se o! sfeaircpoi, namely, those who, in. 
ver. 10., are called o! veopta-Kou tVho these v€cor€$oi 
were, the Commentators are not quite agreed. It 
is the opinion of many recent ones, as Heinrichs 
and Kuinoel (derived from Mosheim, or rather Dr. 
Hammond) that by ol v€a>r€goi we are to understand 
some servants, or officers (sextons), appointed to 
perform various inferior duties in the Church. Kui- 
noel cites a long passage in support of this opinion 
from Mosheim de Rebus Christ, ante Const* who 
remarks, that unless the young men were such, one 
does not see why they alone should have, without 
delay, risen up^ removed and buried the corpse : but 

mercy, but suffisr the severity of the Almighty. (See Jam. % 13.), 
So Diodor. Sic. 5, S4. xaptiararov hk r&v T\fi<nox^pf^y iOvCiv oir- 
roU €ffTt TO T&y OhaxKaliay 6yofiaS6fJL€yoy triKmifJLaf ovroi yap icaff' 
ixaffroy hot biaipovuevoi n)v xaapay yewpyovffi, koI tovs Koprovs 
Kotpoirewvfityoi fi€r€L€ib6affiy iK&arf to fiipos, koI tou yoe^urafjie^ 
yois Tt yewpyoXt d^yaroy ro wpdrifwy redeUaai. (Wettteill.) Ro-^ 
flenmuller adds, that another and yet more urgent reason for the 
punishment was, that by this striking and memorable exaibple the 
authority of the Apostles might be confirmed. '* For (continues 
he) if the fraud of Ananias and Sapphim had succeeded, and the. 
report of it had^ got abroad, a suspicion would have arisen that the. 
Apostles lied when they said that they were endued with the inspi* 
ration of the Holy Spirit and the Divine help, to the diminution andf 
destruction of their credit -and authority. •' . i 



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156 ACTS or THE apostles, chap. v. 

that if we suppose they were persons discharging a 
public employ m the Church, we may discern the rea- 
son why, without orders, they ^ould have performed 
the sad office. ** That there were (continues he) 
public servants or officers in the first society of the 
Christians, no one can doubt who considers its nature, 
and the circumstances under which it originated, 
and the manner in which their sacred assemblies 
were conducted. The offices of sweeping and clean- 
ing the Church, of placing the seats and tables, and 
of making proper preparations for the celebration of 
the Lord*s Supper, and the Agapae, required certain 
persons appointed for that purpose. ^^ This, too 
(adds Kuinoel), is confirmed by the use of the Alex- 
andrian Jews, who employed yeoyio-ico^ (which cor- 
responds to the Heb. ]t!^) sometimes in the sense of 
servant^ at others of soldier*' 

In this opinion, I cannot, however, acquiesce ; for 
though it may be probable that there were such 
officers in the early Churches, yet Mosheim adduces 
no authorities; and that they should have been 
called by that name is not probable, since the duties 
in question would not absolutely demand young 
men; nay, propriety would rather require middle 
aged or elderly ones. Besides, even admitting all 
that he says of t^ay/o-icoi, yet that will not hold good 
of f€mT€poi, which, as it occurs ^^/, may be sup* 
posed most correctly to designate the persons in 
question. Now, on the common hypothesis, the 
comparison will have much propriety ; on the new 
one, none at all. I would therefore retain the 
usual interpretation, and understand by o! ¥€(oT€poi 
some of the younger and stronger* and therefore 
best able to perform the office of removal. It may, 
indeed, be objected (as it is by Mosheim), that one 
does not see why they should have buried him. I 
answer, that this burial was probably no more than 
laying him out for burial^ depositing him in the 
family vault, probably prepared for the purpose (as 
appears from ver. 10. where it is said thi^t they bu*^ 



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ACTS OF THS AP0STLB8, CHAP. Y. 157 

ried her by ber husband) ; Just as our Saviour was 
only deposited in the sepulchre by Joseph, prepara- 
tory to the rites of embalming, and the funeral pro^^ 
perly so called. 

6. (n^(rr€i7>Mf axnh. The Vulgate renders amo* 
vertmt, and others subtraxerunt^ or cornpuerunt. 
But (as Kuinoel observes) no good reason can be 
given for deviating from the common signification 
of 0-t^WxXai, especially since there follows, just 
afler the funeral term 4K^tp€iv. Fuller, Casaubon, 
De Dieu, Grotius, our English Translators, Dod- 
dridge, and most recent Commentators, assign 
to (rua-r€XXa> the same sense as that of ir^^itrri'Kkm^ 
which signifies ^^to roll up in a winding-sheet, or 
shroud,** &c« This sense olLirwrrh^M is indeed very 
rare ; but Grotius and others adduce examples of it 
from Eurip. Troad. 376. oSy S' "'Apiojy Ixoi OtJ xa&^s 
cJSoy, ou iofi/ipTOf iy x^poh IlcrXoi^ a'uv6<rraXi]a'ay. * 
Although o-uo-rcXTuo has the same sense as vcpurn'Kkm^ 
which extends to all the offices preparatory to burial, 
yet the circumstances of the present case compel us 
to understand it only of wrapping in cloaks. OfeK- 
^peii^, in the sense of efferrcj to carry forth for bu- 
rial, the Commentators and Critics produce exam^- 
Eles in abundance ; none of which is it necessary to 
ring forward; and I shall only observe, that though 
iK^4p€iP is usually a term appropriate to funeral rites, 
yet nef*e it seems to simply denote removal Jor hw- 
riaL "EAa^a^ may be understood in the manner I 
havo above suggested ; though burial on the same 
day was not unn-equent among the Jews. I must 
add (what, I believe, is little known), that the Oreehs 
occasionally removed dead bodies for burial on the 
day of decease. So Eurip, Alcest. 345. where almost 

* ThuB, (I must here obeenrej may be settled the meaning of a 
much-disputed passage of the same Drama, 106. J ir6Xv$ 6yKos 
^areXX6fi€y%0y rpoyiyiay i i. e. " O the mighty splendour of my 
departed ancestors.** Literally, shrouded, buried. By which inter- 
pretation we are furnished with another example of this very rare 
signification. 



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158 ACn KiW TSX APe&ThEMi CHAP. V. 

iiDinedtitdy after Alcestes has expired, Alcestes the 
tender husband, for whom she died, after having in* 
dulged in some short bewailings, abruptly exclaims : 
oXX €K^opay yiip rouS( dtfo-oftoi V€Kpw^ *^ but I must 
forbear, and go and give orders for the removal 
of this corpse.** 

7. eyeifero Zk ah ciq£p rgicuv. I am inclined to think, 
ftom the circumstances which attended this, that 
the death of Ananias happened at some one of the 
hours of prayer^ and that the coming of Sapphira 
was at the next following prayer time. It is iudi- 
ciously observed by (Ecumenius, that Peter did not 
call for her, but waited for the time of her comings 
(perhaps the usual one), thus giving her an opportuk 
nity for repentance. She enters ^continues he), not 
knowing what had befallen her nusband, since no 
one had dared to tell it to her, through fear, and re* 
verence for the master ; and yet a space of three 
hours was sufficient to communicate the information 
to very many. But fear, it seems, kept them silent^ 
and thus St. Luke was induced to record, as some* 
thing extraordinary, the space qf time that inter- 
vened, and the ignorance of the woman/' Hence 
we may know what to think of the opinion of Lights- 
foot and some others^ that the three hours were 
spent by the young men in the progress to and from 
the sepulchre, which, as usual, would be situated out 
of town. Nothing can be determined, since we know 
neither the distance they would have to go, nor ex- 
actly what they had to do. -i*he copula ica), we may 
observe, is for ot€, as often in the New Testament* 
There is the same use in the Hebr. \ Nor is the 
idiom unknown in the Greek and Latin Classics. 

8. aTrMKoldr^j (thus) addressed her. See the note on 
S, 12.) EIttc |uu)I, ei rwroirrw rl jfrnprn aTcSo^de ; By 
ro(rouroti, so much^ is bfieant the sum which Ananias 
had offered to Peter ; and we must subaud hk and 
.rip)ftarof . ^Av(^ila>iu^ especially in the middle voice, 
has, among other significations^ that of seU.^ 

* The Latin vtndo, it must be ob8ei*ved> is properly vtnum do; 



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ACTS or THE APO8TLBS9 CHAP. V. 159 

9 — 11. n on, how (is it) thah Snband yeyofe^^ as 
In ver. 4: Wetstein here compares Terent* Eiui* 3, 
5, 11. Quid est) qu6d Isetns sis? Stw^Mnj^ hpS^ 
TfEip&mn r& Try^Sfta KtMioo ; Here one may compare 
Joseph. 787> 10. d^M-^'ics^ eSy irvpt^nrnwrpitv erl \{/€uSo- 
XoyiV and Polyaem. 93; 5> 6. where <rui»€nftoirro has 
the same sense as live present eicpression <roi^€^vi)6^. 
Limborch^ here well observes that they tempted the 
Spirit of God, which spoke and worked in and by 
the Apostles, since* by this deed they had made trial 
whether the Spirit would detect their fraud and hy- 
pocrisy or not. Not (continues he) that they directly 
intended this : they hoped that their fraud might es- 
cape detection. Yet they might, in a certain sense, 
be said to tempt the spirit of God.** The same view 
of the subject is taken by Bp. Pearce, who renders : 
** to try whether the Holy Ghost, with which we are 
filledj knows the truth of things, or not.** Beza and 
Rosenmuller adopt a more general definition. ** To 
t€mpt God (say they) is so to act as to seem to doubt 
of the omnipotence, veracity, or any other of the at- 
tributes of God.** Heinrichs, Pott, and Kuinoel re- 
cognize in the formula merely the sense of offending 
God by sin ; and they refer to Hebr. 3, 8 & 9. and 
1 Cor. lOj 9. But this is cutting matters short in- 
deed, and manifestly explaining away the sense! 

9. 01 7r6i€9 TcSy flaxpeivrow, &c. This is clearly a He- 
braism for 01 ioc^ivresj since the Hebrews often ex- 
press a man by some member of his body, which is 
principally used in accomplishing the action in ques- 

vni oar tell is from the Ang. Sax. syllan, to let go, deliver up. 
But there is not, as Kuinoel supposes, in the use of the &to, any 
reference to the money to be received as the price, since Atto signi- 
fies away, *Airoilbutfii simply denotes to give up or away; just as 
does iyllan. The idea sell is too complex to be explained by any sin- 
gle word. Uo\i^ signifies iiteraUy to " turn over to pother,** horn 
woXha, to turn. The Hebrew term properly denotes to deliver up -, 
as in many passages. See Gesenius, who produces examples. Thus 
capio, of the Ladn, and the caup-yan, caap-^m, and koop-en^ of the 
Northern languages, signify " to take tdoncself," to 6«jf f and theGer. 
.man v€r'ka^f€n, the cmHrary, namely, to give up io another, to selL 



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160 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Y« 

tion. See Ernesti, in his Prolusio de Vestigiis lin- 
guae EbrawB in Lingud GraecA, and the note on 4,S7. 
Wetstein here cites Esaj. 52, 7- Nahum 1, 15. 11. i. 
519. i^'Jrc 7roBa9. Schol. tiJv ^oSc o^^i^^y. But he 
might more appositely have compared Eurip. Hipp. 
657. o-uv TTctTgo^ uoXcoy TToS), quaudo cum patvc vevevso 
rediere : where Dr. Monk produces a similar passage 
from tiie Orest. 1215. vaodiyw liyw TroSa, expected 
virginis reditum. So also Eurip. f^ppl. 90. |xi^ ftoi ri 
jx^'rijfV ^^ iJ^rourrelxof ttoSI, where Markland rightly 
observes, that ttoSI has no reference to the manner in 
which Theseus came, whether on horseback, in a 
chariot, or on foot, but simply to his coming and 
going. He then compares Eurip. Here. Fur. v. 336. 
Q r€ic¥ oiutpr^ir ddxia> [M^rf^ xt&i. Hence it is clear 
that in the present passage the expression merely de- 
notes trapwHrioL^ return. 

10. €ur€>Aovr€9 8^, coming in : as they would, at the 
next hour of prayer. See supra, ver. 7. 

12. iioL h€ r£v y€ipeiv reSv aTO<rroXaiv, i. e. by the 
Apostles. So the Hebr. TWO Tl in Exod. 9, 35. 

12. Ral ij<rav ojxodujxaS^v — ko^ ywaiKwv. These words 
are usually supposed to be parenthetical, because 
ver. 12 connects with ver. 15. But this seems little 
satisfactory ; for (as Zeigler and Beck have seen) in 
a parenthesis^ according to psychological laws, the 
discourse proceeds in one tenor, and does not, as 
here, consist of short sentences connected by very 
slight bonds, and not cohering with the discourse 
which it interrupts. 

The above Commentators, and Kuinoel, are of 
opinion that vv. 13 & 14. at least are spurious, and 
patched up from 2, 1 & 46. and 5, 42. Kuinoel, 
nowever, regards ver. 15. as genuine, since the words 
cohere with those both of 12 and 16. For my own 
part, I am inclined to consider all the verses as ge- 
nuine, being supported by the united authority of 
tiie MSS.Versions, and Fathers; and I consider them 
as presenting a remarkable example of synchysis 
(though scarcely more so than sqme to be met with 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHA?, r. l6l 

in Thucydides), which in one comparatively un- 
skilled in the proprieties of the Greek language, as 
our author, cannot seem surprising. Bp. Sherlock 
indeed (ap. Bowyer) proposes the following transpo* 
sition : " And great fear came upon the church, and 
as many as heard these things : And believers were 
the more added to the Lord, multitudes both of men 
and women: (12) And they were all with one accord 
in Solomon's porch. (13) And of the rest durst no 
man join himself to them : but the people magnified 
them. (12) And by the hands of the Apostles were 
many signs and wonders wrought. {15) Insomuch 
that they brought forth the sick into the streets." 
But there is, perhaps, as little faith %o be placed in 
these violent transpositions as in alterations from mere 
conjecture; and on the present occasion the transposi- 
tion merits the less attention, since it is liable to some 
diflSculties, which are thus ably stated by Markland : 
I. ** It may be asked, who are the a^ayrey, ver, 
12; whether the Apostles only, or the believers ? If 
these latter, the number of tnem by this time must 
be near^ if not abovej ten thousand : too many, one 
would thinks on several accounts, to be together in 
one place. But if the Apostles only, why should 
the ol XoiTTol, which may include the rest of the Chris- 
tians, be fl/ra/W to join them? Secondly, who are 
these ol XoiTol, ver* 13, who seem to be distin- 
guished from the o Xaoy in the same verse ? If Bp. 
Sherlock*s transposition be admitted, the aTavrep per- 
haps were only all these new cmiverts^ ver. 14, not 
the whole number of the Christians; and then oi 
XoiTTo) (ver. 13) must be the same with o Xoo^, viz. 
those who were no/ converts^ who did no/ associate 
with . those in Solomons porchj but nevertheless 
thought and spoke well of them. In some editions 
(as in that of Bp. Fell, Oxpn. 1675,) a parenthesis is 
put before Koi r^-ap, ver. 12. and continued to ica) yu- 
paiKwvj ver. 14, so as to connect the beginning of the 
.12th verse with the 15th. This makes the narrative 
hang together better than it does in those editions 

VOL. IV. M 



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164 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V. 

yifhere this parenthesis is wanting ; and then Ararr^ 
ver. 12, must be the Apostles only, rmv Xoixcov still 
uncertain : but see Grotius and Le Clerc. For my 
own part, I would publish with Dr. Fell, but would 
read with Dr. Sherlock, because an editor of the New 
Testament ought not to depart from the written ca- 
tties : but a private person, who reads for his own 
improvement, though he is, and ought to be, under 
great restrictions, yet I suppose he has greater liberty 
than the other." 

I need not say how entirely I accede to the jus* 
tice of the last remark, which is perfectly accordant 
with the critical canons of the greatest critics, as 
Hemsterhusiusy Valcknaer, Bentley, and Porson. 

13. ToJv Sc XoiTToJi^. tVho are here meant the Com^ 
mentators are not agreed. Some think thej)r are the 
adversaries of the Apostles* But, as Kumo^ ob- 
serves, KoXXourdai is no where else found in this 
sense. Pricajus, Morus, and Rosenmuller, under- 
stand the rich, and those of the higher classes, with 
dispositions similar to that of Ananias. But this 
would require the following transposition : acoI €/»e* 
yaXuve i Xao^, rcSv §€ Xof^raiy wZ^i^ eroT^lML icoXXacr^ai ati- 
ro7r. Kuinoel is of opinion, that as oi Xo/xoi are op- 
posed to the Apostles in Solomon's porch, we may 
understand the rest of thos^ present, whether Chris- 
tians or Jews. Nearly the same view of the subject 
is taken by Bp. Pearce. But this mode of expositioii 
seems somewhat harsh. * 

15. €9r) icXfvcoy Kcd Kpa&^rwv. On these words pee 
the note on Mark 2, 4. where Kpa^&aro^ is distin- 
guished from kXiv^i as denoting a mean and low 
touch, (see also the note on Joh. 5, 8. Append, p. 
8O7.) and #cXiyi), the couch of richer persons. By 

* (See Doddridge.) Indeed I am not satisfied with any mode 6f 
interpretation I have yet seen ; and> to u^ the words of Poiaoi^ 
^Ego quod fugiam habeo, quod sequar noo nabeo^ omni^usque 
fere in rebus, et inaxime in Criticts> citius quid non sit, quam quid 
sit, dicturus.*' "EfieyaXvye, extolled, thought highly of them. Wef- 
stein cites similar examples of niagnificare from Plautus and Terence. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. T. l6B 

thiBse words therefore it seems to be indicated, that 
both the hi^h and low resorted to and implored the 
assistance of the Apostles. 

15. fva io^oiUvou. Lightfoot observes, that it is 
not clear whether they were healed; and he thinks 
it probable that the laying of the sick there was not 
an act of Christian believers, but of the superstitious 
Jews. Rosenmuller, too, remarks, that this is to be 
referred to the superstitious notions of men, only 
mentionedy not approved^ by St. Luke or the Apostles. 
But the complexion of the sentence taken with the 
context clearly suggests that they were healed* Nay^ 
Kuinoel admits it to be extremely probable^ consi^ 
dering the circumstance which follows, namely, th* 
healing of the sick by handkerchiefs: the reason why 
this is not directly asserted perhaps is, that only sfnne 
of those were healed, although, as we are told, all of 
them. " It is clear (continues Kuinoel) that the 
power of healing was not in the shadow of Peter, any 
more than in the vestments of Jesus (see the note oa 
Matt. 9, 20 & 21), but in their faith. Nor did Petier 
and the other Apostles sanction any such notions ; 
nay, tUey professed that they did not show forth these 
mighty deeds by any power of their oism^ but solely 
through the aid of the Divine power ofJesm.^ 

16. rwy wioi^ woXccov, i. e. the circumjacent towns 
(supply K€ty.&io^v or ovraiv). This, like some other 
prepositions and adverbs, is often used as an adject 
tive or participle. The following examples are cot 
lected from Philologists by Kuinoel. Xen. Cyr. Ij 
40. vom (Zv edi^s* rmif iripi^. Xen. Anab. 4, 4, 7* 

2, ^, 14. where the ellipsis is filled up: ol wepi^ 
o\fcourr€S' & 7> 8, 12. ra [Lev vipi^ ovra eivSpa^oSa r^t 
Tu/wrio^. Anton. Lib. c. 30. iK rSv Tepi^ TroXieow. 

17^ &¥wrraLS is a Hebrew pleonasm, and not ex^ 
pressed in the Syriac and Arabic Versions. Casau^ 
bon and Heumann think it equivalent to ird comma- 
vebatur : but proofs are wanting of this sense, espe'^ 

m2 



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:164 .ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. ▼. 

cially as the words iir aCroog ar^ not added ;* which 
alone coutd justify Beza*& version insurgent. 

The formula orw rivi clmi is, like p^rk tiif09 clrar, 
tised of being any one*s partizan [or it may mean 
here and infra ^. those discharging official dutieis 
in conjunction with the High Priest, as assessors^ 
the ol apxorr€f. See Schl. Lex. Edit.] ; as in Acts 
4, 13. where s^e the note. Here it designates those 
who took part with the High Priest, as being of the 
.same religious sect ; and since there follows ^* eSa-a 
alp€<r$9 Tcov SaSSouica/fiuy^ it is manifest that the High 
Priest was himself a Sadducee. eomn>entatorsf 
however, are not agreed whether Hanan (4, 6.), o4* 
Caiaphas was attached to the sect of the Sadduceed; 
or wnether both the sons of Hanan are said to have 
been Sadduceies by Joseph. Ant. 20, 15. p. 698. 
Hanan himself was the High Priest^s vicar, and as 
such might, by Courtesy, have the name of High 
Priest (see the note oh 4, 6. Luke 3, 3.), and had 

S>wer to convene the Sanhedrim, (trer. 21 & 27.) 
ut since here and in ver. 2L aoy^ic^^h^ \i taken by 
itself, it is obvious that Caiapna,s must be under* 
stood, who was the Pont. Max. And that he was a 
Sadducee his very austerity seems to confirm (see 
Joh. 11, 49); for the Sadducees were, beyond all 
othef Jews, severe and harsli. See Krebs in loc. 

17. AH^eris denotes properly a chusitig^ election ; 
€dly, a taking up an opinion^ and the opinions thera- 
fiielves ; and lastly the persons; or party; who main- 
tftin them; So Diodor. Sic. p. 82. KaipStt al^€i^ 
xri^iwy and Acts 15, 5. 26, 5. Examples may be 
seen in the Philologists or Schl. Lex. ; to which I 
add the following: Athen. 190 e. oiicoSev ?;f«/<ra tjjv 
roiatrniy atq^a-ip. Diog. Laert. 10, 2. (speaking of 
Epicurus) : hreira \Uf t(Ss njv wr auroS oi r^y Srdiic^^ 
txifi€<r€m9 ijy^/iuoWff. Dionys. Hal. p. 12. 01 rii^ XroiKfiS 

17- €TX^6i)<rav ^^Xou. Z^Xo^ here denotes anger * 
as in Joh. 2, 17- The cause of the especial bitterness 



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AtTS OF TH^ APOSTLES, CHAP. V. l65 

evinced by the Saddncees towards the Apostles has 
been shown in the note on 4, 2, 

18, I9onro otuTohs iv T^^O'ei ^fuoa-la. On r^pij(riy 
see the note on 4>, 3. Wetstein has collected many 
examples of this phrase, and the corresponding Latin 
ones custodia pubUca, publicum career^ &c. 

r^9 ^uXotK^r. I shall pass by the vain conjectures of 
Thiess, Eckerman, Heinrichs, Eichhorn, and others, 
on the tnode in which this liberation' was brought 
about. By endeavouring to account for it inde* 
pendently of Divine agency, they (as usual) create 
more difficulties than they remove; Their specula* 
tions (into which it is unnecessary for me to enter) 
have been overturned by Storr, in his Opusc. 3, 
iS6 seqq. 

20, crraOeWcff XaX€TT€. Beza and Kuinoel regard 
trraB4vT€9 as a Hebrew pleonasm, and Grotius thinki 
it has reference to constancy/, (See Schl. Lex. in v^ 
^ 19.) But (as I have on a former occasion ob- 
served) it is a forensic expression used of those who 
are set up to speak, either as orators and advocates, 
or as prisoners in defence of their own cause. So 
Acts 17, 32. 2.5, 18. 

30. .y\.a'\€ir€ — ra prjfjLOfjra r^r S<o^9 raCry^^* By 
f^l^ara t^^ ^anif we are to understand, as in Joh. 6, 
€8. (/Jij'fiara ?a>^y aimviw) the doctrine which confers 
and imparts eternal felicity, and shows the way to 
attain it. See infra 7j 38. This skme doctrine is 
called X^ia §(Svray i. e. ^cooroiotWa. So also Sir. 4*5^ 
5. vojx6^T^9 ?a>^. Again, the words pT^/xarar^y ^(oij^ 
ratmjff are used by hypallage for prJiMLra ratira rii^ 
^wrl^l as in Acts 13, 26. u[uv \iy09 t^Jp <raiT7}^/ay 
ratJnjy aT€(rraXi3, where also the pronoun demonstra^ 
live is added to the latter noun, with which it 
agrees in each case, though it belongs to the^rmer 
noun, and ought to correspond to it also in case; 
the words being put for 0[l7u Xefyoy ouror T^y<ra>Tijp/ay 
lixcoTaXij. So also Rom. 7> 24. ns [t^ potrerai 4k t«o 
€'<ifULTos rwj dai/arou rourot/j which is for iK rwrt\j r^ 



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JC6 ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP^ V. 

rwjxarotf roS ^amrw. In the same mannei^ too, fbe 
present passage is taken by the Syriac and Arabic 
Transktors. . That such hypallages are not unfre- 
quent in the profane writers, both Greek and Latin^ 
has been shown by Munth in loc. (Kuin.) 

21. itjrh Toy ofApt^f at day -break. See the note on 
X^uke 24t> 1 . nap«y6i^'|ui€K0ff is treated by recent Com- 
mentators as a Hebrew pleonasm. But it seems a 
pharactedstic of the simple and popular style in all 
languages. By the oi a-hv avrcp I would understand 
the cipx^vT€9f &c. See the note supra I7. 

21. SwcicoXccrav to o-uvcSj iov, kuI Too'ttv tiJv y€pwxrtet9 
The word yepowria seems added by way of explana* 
tton. Pausanias tells us that the Lacedemonians 
palled their senate by that name. And Dionys. 
Hal. A. 2, 12. (cited by Wets.) says: toSto to <niK- 
fipioy *ExXi)>'««'t) egjxijvetxJjtiWEydv TepwHrioaf jSoJXcrai Sij- 
Xovv* Ka) [f^ixP^ ^^ TUffOrro^ otrrw^ ifTrh rwv Po^fMuoy 
icaT^rau I'he same term is applied to the Sanhe- 
drim by Philo 789 b. 1025 c. See also 2 Mace. 1^ 
10. 4r, 44. " The word yeqotxria (observes Bp^ 
Pearce) seems to be used no where in the New Tes- 
tament, except here. But Joseplius in Antiq* 12, 
S, S. uses it as follows, in Antiochus's letter to 
•Ptolemy : aToXtxId-dm ij y^pf^rxria^ ical oi \€p€tsy Kotl 01 
yoat^$.\M.r€is tou icpoS, oiJv xmlp rr^s ic€^aX^^ TeXoG^-iy, let 
ine senate, and the priests j and the scribes from the 
iemple be discharged from the capitation tax. What 
the difference was (if any) between this yeptm'ia. and 
the Trp^iT&irrtpitiif spoken of in C. 22, 5. and Luke 2^ 
66. is perhaps not to be now determined.'^ Kuinoel 
thinks that St. Luke added kou Toa-av t^V yepwcia^ 
T. w. in order to show that though the attendance 
was often thin, vet in this case it was very full. But 
the words merely denote that the High Priest and 
his Assessors endeavoured to procure a full attend* 
ance by sending out summonses to all the members. 

23. K€K^€i(riJk€vov iv irdfTji t^ ocr^aXeia. Here WQ 
have an adverbial phrajse for the adverb oo-^aXo!^ 
Wetstein compares Cebet. Tab. irdyra kuT^ ^uoe-era^ 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP* V. 1^7 

fj^T& vourr^ itr^aMia^. The ev- is for <rui/. So the 
Vulgate, " cum oinni diligentia." The e^co is ogiitted 
i)i several MSS., Versions, and Fathers, and has 
been thrown out by Griesbach, Matthiae, and Hein- 
richsv BiJt I agree with Kuinoel in doubting whe- 
ther they have done right in this instance. For (as 
he observes) scribes often omit what to them seems 
superfluous ; and, indeed, such exegetical additions 
Sire found in the best Greek and Latin writers: ex. 
gr, Plato ApoL 2. t&Kou ^roAXa igSij €ti}. 

24. %i f€ Upeu^ Ka) o &TpaT7iyos toG iepoo /cai ol *Ap- 
yt^^Jp. *Up^9 is here pUt Kar i^or^if for the Pont. 
Max. ; as in 1 Mace. 15, 1* Josepn. Ant. 6, 145, 1. 
Heb. 5, 6. See Drusius and Krebs on this passage, 
and Carpzov. Exerc. Phil, on Ep. ad Heb. 4, 14. 
p. 210 seqq. By tlie ol apx^epeis are meant the 
twenty four chiefs of the sacerdotal classes. (See 
the note on Matt. 2, 4.) On a-rparriyo^ to5 iepou see 
the Qote on 4^ 1. (Kuin.) 

• 24. AnpropoDV vepi aurdSv^ ri av yevoiTo toSto ; The 
Translators and Commentators are not agreed a^ to 
the trtre sense of the words ri op yivoiro. The Vulg^ 
renders, " ambigens quidnam hoc factum esset.*^ 
The same sense is expressed, but in better Latin, 
by Beza and Piscator : ** Quonaili hoc evasurum 
esset.*' So our English Version, from Beza and Tin^ 
dd (approved by Erasmus, Casaubon, and others), 
" doubtiiig whereunto this would grow.'* This> how^ 
ever, seems too arbitrary atid unauthorized a mode 
of interpretation. The same may be said of the 
version of Schmid and Kuinoel, " ambigebant quo- 
modo hoc factum fuerit ?" The words are best 
rendered by Grotius, Wetstein, and Valcknaer; 
" quid hoc esset rei ;" which Latin phrase, like the 
Greek one, was a popular expression of somewhat 
extensive application, and therefore to be explained 
according to circumstances. Here the sense seems. 
to be this : " did not know what to think of it, nex- 
^er how or by what means it was done, nor what it 



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l68 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHaP. V* 

meant or portended.** This mode of interpretation 
I am inclined to adopt, on account of the very si* 
milar passage infra 10, 17? fl>V U iv iatrrm $iijto^i, ri 

28. Ou jragayycX/oi irapijyyc/Xa/xfv, &C. On this 
phrase see the note on 4, 17. In this sense the verb 
vapoLyy4Ww is used in Dionvs. Hal. 448. 5r«ayy€X- 
Xojxfv (scil. aurhv) ra S/icaia oc£i TJyeiP. By oyo/xa is 
meant person; as Pearce, llosenmuller, and Kuinoel 
remark ; and tlie words iri t£ Mff/xrt rovro> may be 
rendered, "respecting this person** (namely that he 
was unjustly put to death, has been raised from the 
dead, and is the Messiah). The rotiro> is by Pricaeus 
and others thought to imply contempt; as in 4, 18. 
and of this Schoettgen adduces the following exam- 
ples from the Rabbinical writers. Juchasin, foL 1&, 
2. R. Tabai fugit Alexandriam, ne se Principem 
Synedrii constituerunr. Ei vero cum aliquo disci- 

?ulorum in via eunti occurrit R. Jehoschua filius 
^erachja ttJ^Mn irOM DV, cum illo viro. Et traditio 
est UTMn miMtU, quod tile vir discipuYus ejus (R. Je- 
hoschua scil.) fuerit, a quo venit secta, &c. Verum 
Juoque est, quod tile vir natus sit anno quarto Regis 
annaei secundi, qui alias dicitur Alexander, et est 
annus 263. a condito templo secundo, a tempore 
Cbasmonseorum 51. ab urbe condito 36, 71. ' 

•'filled Jerusalem with your doctrine.** Wetateitt 
here appositely compares Liban. Ep.721* oJic^Xor, 
iu Sr chroNf ^Xdcy iroXfcttV, iratra^ ^i^Xijcra^ roip &r6p 
^*fuov Xoycov. Justin, 11, 7, 14. Midas — Phrygiara 
totam religionibus implevit, quibus tutior omni vitd 
quam armis fuit. BjoJxecrfle e7raYay€h a^' lifMt^ ri 
aljxa Tou Mpwirou rouroti. *Eirayay€!v signifies to 
bring upon; as in Dem03th. cnuialperov auroi^ erayov- 
rai SouXc/av. Gregor. (cited by Wets.) T«ri tov v€p\ 
rii^ ^/ri^ eTi3yayo/x€v k/vSuvov; Kuinoel tiiily ob- 
serves (from Eisner) that €Jray€<r6ai is a word ap- 
propriate to evils, dangers, and punishments (and he 



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ACTS OP THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. W 1()9 

might have added criminations) brought upon any 
one.* Eisner explains the phrase ^ayciv ro a7fta 
rms by, " ascribe the cause of any one^s death to ;^* 
as in Levit, 22, 16. Koi t^ra^otxriv f ^' ^ourou^ ayojxiay 
xXr^ft/x€X(/a^ 6V r^ itr^Uiv rk aiyia aJrcov. Demosth. 
/>ro Corona^ p. 333. ei §€ 9rf>oy iy^pav ri ^i'Kw^iKeias 
iSw wica air lay ivayo} rourm. Apollodor. Biblioth. 
L. 1. c. 8. p. 34. iUa^ cVayeiv. Judg. 9, 24. roS 
f irayayciy Tt]v ahkiaof rcov 63So|XY)icoyra uicSir 7€^|3otaX 
leaf rob aliLora aurcSv. But the most apposite illus- 
tration is that of Wetstein from Demosth, in Mid. 
w9 eTaiTiaer-oftci^ f4€ <povou ical roioSro T^iyfua ^nuya* 
ym. Eisner well remarks, that it is strange these 
persons should accuse the Apostles of bringing this 
manU blood upon them, when they had themselves 
exclaimed, *^His blood be upon us." 

29> 30. a^rticpiOc}^ ^e o Tiirpo9 Ktii oi o^roVroXoi (Txov. 
Peter (who was usually spokesman) answers in the 
name of himself and his companions. In the Gos- 
pels, too, that is ascribed to many which properly 
belongs only to one. See the note on Matt. 15, 15. 
Of this speech of Peter Schoettgen gives the follow- 
ing plan. 

The speech consists of three parts, Exordiumj 
Proposition, Confirmation. I. Exordium, taken from 
a gnome, or maxim (ver. 290 ''• Proposition : ** It 
is incumbent on us to preach the Resurrection ;^* 
which, however, is not expressly declared. III. 
Confirmation, because our divine calling consists 
in our testifying concerning the Resurrection of 
Christ. 

29- 9r6idap;^€iy ^ 0€(p fxaXXov '^ avdpcuVoir. See the 
note on 4, 19. The verb .?r€iflap;^eri/ is especially used 
of obedience to the orders of those who are placed 
in authority, whether parents, or rulers. Compare 
Tit. 3, 1. Xen. Mem. 3, 5, 19. «ida/9;^e«/ rtXs ^^o-- 

* He subjoins the following examples, derived from Eisner, 
Loesner, and other Philologists. Sir. 4, 17. <t>6ftok hi ical beiXlay 
IrAlei IfT* ahr^y. And 4, SI. 23, 16. xal ro rphgy |irafec 6pyf)y. 
Philo, 80 E. 1039 B. Herodi. 4> 6, 6. 



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IJQ ACn OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V. 

rmeri. See Munthe. To the eicamt)les produced 
by the Commentators I add Soph. Antig. 74. eirel 

'Kk£i ySif aUi Kei&^iMi : where the Scholiast explains 

. 30. 'O 0€o^ — •Itjtrouy. *' The God whom our fathers 
worshipped, and whose protection they experienced 
(see 3, 13.) hath raised up Jesus." Grotius, Rosep- 
muller, and Heinrichs here make a refnark which 
seems derived from Grotius and Doddridge on 3, 13* 
VThis was wisely introduced here in the beginning 
of his discourse, that it might appear they taught 
BO new religion inconsistent with the Mosaic, a2)d 
were far from having the least design to divert their 
regards from the God of Israel.'* Kuinoel, however, 
is of opinion that Peter intended i*ather to hint that 
Jesus is the Messiah promised to the Patriarchs; 
and he refers to Joh. 8, 56. 

30. tf u[A€i9 h^jd^ipitratff^e KpefMuravre^ M ^uXoti. 
By Sicp^eigiVaerde is meant ** put to death ;" in 26, SI- 
The word is used by the later Greek writers (as 
Polybius, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Josephus, 
Strabo, Plutarch, and Herodian) in the same sense 
as 8i€;fpa<rda« by the earlier ones: and so it is ex- 
plained by CEcumenius. It signifies literally, " to 
take in hand, matiage, and perform any business ;*' 
dnd, by ^ metaphor known in our own language^ 
both to despatch business^ and also to despatch a 
pefsoft^ or vulgarly, (by the same metaphor,) ** to 
do any one'Q business.*' 

The §uXoti is rendered in the E. V. tree. But 
though the word defiotes the trunk of a tree, either 
green, or sawn into a beam, it also signiifies a beam^ 
and especially the upright beam or post of a cross ; 
and therefore ought, in such a case, to be rendered 
cross; as here and in 10, 39. Galat. 3, 13; and 1 
Pet. 5, 14". So the Heb. !{y in Est. 5, 14. In justice, 
however, to our venerable Translators, it must be 
confessed that even the word tree had originally all 
tha;t extent of signification just noticed in ^tixoy, and 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V. 171 

meant timber as well as green tbood. Of this there 
are yet vestiges in our language ; especially in sonie 
compound words, as saddle-tree, axle-tree^ gallow^ 
tree; treen-ware^ &c. StiXoy, from ^'a>, cognate with 
^€a>, signifies sawn or hewn timber. Of this sense I 
am not aware that any Classical examples have been 
adduced. The following passage may therefore be 
acceptable. Artemid. 4, 33. cVXr^yij nji/ ir6<paXi)ii 

, 81, to5t6v i 0ti^ oL^XTiyo^f &c. The student will 
observe that the words oLp-^ylv koH <rtt>Ti}fa, though 
in apposition, yet must have supplied before tbeofi 
ofs", or €iy to ehon. By &px^y^^ ^^ meant head^ leader^ 
lord; as icJpioy in 2, 36. which (by the way) is dcr- 
rived from the Hebr. ItD, rendered by the Sept-^ 
ipx}i7^Sy in Is. 30, 4. Neh. 2, 9.» and from whence 
seems to have come the French Sire and our Sir, the 
K of icupios* being probably sometimes pronounced soft. 

31. SoSvai |X€Tavoiai/ t^ *l(rpai3A, ** to lead, by his 
doctrine, the Israelites to repentance." Kai a^er^v 
q^joLpridiy is for el^ rriy a<p€<riv, "in order to remission 
of sins.'* So 11, 18. [leravoMV cSoiicev cly ?an}i^. Both 
the phrase and the thing signified are well illustrated 
by Wetstein from the following passages. Joseph. 
B. SoGvai jAcravofav hrl rots xCTrpay/xevoiy. lb. S, 6, 3. 
jxerai/oia^ 8»8ouy KOupw^* & 6, 6, 2. ^»S»8ou^ Cfuv }^p6vo9 
fit |ti€rayoiaif. Aristot. Philipp. tois fACV yap ayKo/^ovoS- 
«-«/ u€Taj/o«av S/Sou. Quint iL D. 267. IHud videte, an 
si aliquem Reipublicse error aut fortuna, si quem aut 
consilium aliquod aut temeritas imraiserit, detis lo- 
cum poenitentiae, permittatis emendari, velitis meli^ 
ores fieri cives. Inf. 11, 18. Philo Allegor. Leg. 
t. 1. p. 108, 42. ouhe To7y a^wjcgravouo-iv eufluy iire^itrtif 
0€ot, olKKol S/8a>o-i j^povov ely /xeravoiav, /ca) r^y tou 
<r^aX{Aaro9 Ta(riy. 

32. /ca) iJfteTs' €erfi€V auroS [J^aprup^^ rtvp frtiiMLTwv row- 
Tcov, " and we are his witnesses of these things, and 
moreover (ical — 8c) the Holy Spirit.'* TaJv pntuj^arwi^ 
are genitives of object ; and pTjjxara is equivalent to 
TrpdyiMLra (see the note on Matt. 44. and Luke 1,37)^ 



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17* ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V. 

and must be referred to what we read in ver. 30 & 
SI, namely, that God raised Jesus from the dead, and 
exalted him to be Prince and a Saviour. Others by 
pv^fLara understand the doctrine of Christ, wliich is, in 
ver. 20. called pr^iMra rri^ ^an}y, namely, the doctrine 
of resurrection and the Messiahship of Jesus. At Trei- 
flag;foSeri subaud tJjxTj/, " us the Apostles, by the com- 
mand of God, bearing testimony to and teaching 
tliese things/' 

33. o! §6 aKou(rayr€9 heirpiovro. The word hairpUiy 
signifies properly to saw through; as in 1 Chron. 20, 

&c. Both the simple and the compound are also 
used of gnashing the teeth : and of this numerous 
examples are adduced by Wetstein and others. But 
this signification, whatever Beza and Camerarius may 
urge, is not to our present purpose, except as giving 
an example of intension in the physical sense ; but 
here we require an intension of the Jigurative one. 
For, as havpieiv signifies to saw through^ so also it 
denotes to cu/ to the heart, as here, and in 7» 54. 
where the words ra7^ Kapliais are added. Thus Hei- 
sychius explains herrpiovro by ed'ifi-oGvro. It is well 
observed by Gataker, that the Greek Classical wri- 
ters use in this sense prjyyvtrQai^ and happtiyvu<rQai, 
and the Latin one^Jindi and rumpi. 

38. icai £0ot<X€t5ovTo av^T^^iv aurw^^ " they decreed tp 
put them to death." (Kuin.) Others render, ** they 
deliberated to put them to death ;** which latter ver- 
sion I prefer. But the force of the imperfect tense 
requires, ^* they were taking counsel and delibe- 
rating£' &c. Now, both propriety and (as we find 
from Eisner and Pricaeus) custom required that, dur- 
ing deliberation upon the guilt or the punishment 
of a criminal, he should be withdrawn from the pre- 
sence of his judges. It should seem that their rage 
made them, on this occasion, forget decorum, till 
they were reminded of it by Gamaliel, a Pharisee 
and (as some suppose) a secret follower of Christ, or 
at Jeust a man of great prudence and moderation,' 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP; V. I7S 

jand who, after the Apostles had departed,* tobk the 
opportunity of giving counsel to abstain from atl 
violent measures, and to leave the issue of these new 
doctrines to Qod. . . 

34. *Apa(rTa9j rising up; as brators are wont to 
do.* See Matt. 26, 62. ^Aifaa-roL^ seems therefore 
merely ud orntitunti for ornament. 
; . 34, Fap^Xi^x, Gamaliel. A frequent name among 
the Hebrews. (See Numb. 1, 10. 2, 20.) According 
to the opinion of most Commentators, we are here 
to understand the Gamaliel called kut i^ajr^if Rab- 
ban, son of Simeon and grandson of Hillel, Paul's 
master.-f- (See 22, 3.) 

: 34?. T/jxioff ^ayrl r£ XoiS. So Hom. Od. k. 38. cited 
by Wets, flraon ^1^9 Koi tZ/xio^ eoriv aydpoi^roi^* and 



* * In illustration of this Wetstein cites Eustath. on Hom. II. a. 5^. 
iLyairras 6 'A^cXXcvs brififiyop€'i, ovna ii Jiv idos rois vaXaiois, K^y 
fiatriXtis ^aav, its av ijtpiey rovs kvkX^ ivnrrpi<^iy, Kal vwo icayThfv 
hr* "lorris iiKoveffdaC ti ok irdre rts KadnfLeyos ibfifttiy^pii^tf kaiyb^f 
TO vpayfAa ibdicei, koI 6 tovto Toi&y trapaiTfiffeias Ibeero* Kada.irov 
o * Ayafiifxywy iroiiiaei, ore bih tit T^Tpav^aTfjtrBdi ahriBey l{ ikbpr\$ 
iia\iy€Tai. I need scarcely remind my reader* of the Ovidlafi« 
** Surgit ad hos dominus clypei septemplicis Ajax.*' 

^ t The following curious informatioti has been collected from the 
Rahbinical writers by Lightfuot and Wetstein. Sanhedrim 1. foL 
ll.^. Accidit Rabban Gamalieleni sedere super gradum in monte 
dnnius, et ante facieni i|>sius fui^e tres Epistolas decretales, et di- 
cereipsi: ToHe epistolam unam» et scribe fratribus nostris* fllii^ 
captivitatis in Babylonia, fratribus nostrU tiliis captivitatis in Medift, 
et fratribus nostris, filiis captivitatis in Grsci^ cunctisque captiyi* 
tatibus Isra^litarum : Pax vcstra multiplicetur. Notum fecis vobis, 
agnbs parios esse, et pullos cohimbinus teneros, et mensem Martium 
nonduiii advenisse : placuit proinde verbum istud cot*aro me et 
coram sociis meis, et addidi ad annum hunc mensem, unum. R. 
Abraham f. Dijor in Cabbala ; £cce cognoscimus, Rabban Gama* 
lielem fu'sse caput Academise et principem, ejusque acta fuisse re- 
cepta in omni terr^ Isrselis; et iti omnibus captivitatibus, neque im- 
jiediisse vel regem vel quemquam in mundo. BerachoikA. f. 98. 
52. R. Gamaliel dixit: estne *aliquis» qui novit conciniiare preca* 
'tionem contra Hsereticos ? Const it it Samuel parvus> eamque con- 
tfinnavii : — Abnegantibus religionem non sit spe^ ; omnes in uni- 
irersum hseretici moroento citius pereant; eradic^s regnuiri^upeHiia^, 
pt confringas cito in diebus nostris. Benedictiis tu domine firangeni 
impios, et deprimens superbos. 



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174 ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP« 1^ 

Joseph. BelK 6, 13. oSrop t£ hrifuo tio-tJ^ ical t/juwo^ 
Dionys. HaL A. 6, 11, av^^g t<£ S)}pa> rijxio^. 

34. 'Eic6X€tKr€J/ e§a> 0. r. rows' ajrooroXou^ 7roiiJ(ra», **he 
advised that,** &c. By ?|6> Troieiv is meant remove ; 
in which sense ?ro««i/ is not unfrequently used with 
adverbs of place, such as ^^co, l^oi, 6inr^y, evror, 
7ro/5^a>. See the examples adduced by Eisner, Kypke, 
ana others. The most remarkable one is that from 
Philostratus. iKiroiehroS SiicourTTjg/ou, where the sophist 
seems to have this passage in view. Such imitatiotis 
I have noticed on former occasions. 

35. Of the speech of Gamaliel Schoettgen gives 
the following plan : 

The speech consists of exordium^ proposition, and 
conjirmation. The exordium we have in ver. S5. The 
proposition is : The whole business must be left to 
the Almighty and to time (ver, 38)- The confirma- 
Hon establishes this, 1st. by historical arguments 
(ver. 36 & 37) ; 2dly, by an argument equally con* 
elusive by contrary suppositions (ver. 38 & 89). 

35 » "Avipes *l(rpari7STa$, Trpoa-eyere kaurois. I assent 
to Alberti, Wolf, Kuinoel, ana Markland, that the 
comma should be removed from rotn-oir, and placed 
after eooToiy; since (as they suggest) the Greek 
writers do not use vpotrl^eiv with an kiri. But I can- 
not agree with Markland, that eVi must be rendered 
contra^ for that signification is very rare in the New 
Testament, and Gamaliel was too prudent a person 
to offend those whom he wished to conciliate, by 
taking for granted that they had made up their 
blinds to destroy the Apostles. Whereas Spov and 
7rpour(r€iv n have after them hei tivI, in the sense of 
respecting any thing. So ^lian. H. A. 11, 1. (cited 
by Wetstein Xeyo) yo^ oera t€ Sparai ctI reurois' To?p 
ratifpois, fcai oera hrqax^. Lucian. Tox. 23. rei o/xoidt 
trpo^ev €7r avroh. Hence (I must observe) is confim- 
ed the reading of Suidas and Edit. Junt. in Aristoph. 
Concion. 295. cttou jcarcff-c/yaiv, traorwi gry oerep^oiv, Sint^ 
which reading is preferred by Brunk, though^ unac- 
countably, not adopted into the text. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. T. l^S 

36. Gamaliel now, with great judginent, addocefs 
two recent and well known examples of men who 
had collected to themselves numerous followers, and 
who nevertheless, together with their adherents, 
came to destruction. IIpo rourcov twv ijfte^cov, haud 
ita pridem^ not long ago. The opposite phrase tp 
this is OLTT ap^amu i]jx6ga>v in 15, 7- Wetstein cites 
Achill. Tat. 5. p. 301. Koi cop o\lya)v ?rgo rourcov i3p,€* 
poav ep'X€rai Aio^avroy o Tu^iof i^ 'A}y wrow ^^rXeuicas^ 
Phoedrus 1, 1, 10. Ante hos sex menses. It is well 
remarked by Theophylact, from Chrysostom, that 
Gamaliel does not remind them of old, but ne>Y 
examples; since such are most efficacious in perr 
euading men. 

36. 'Avcerr*], rose up^ arose. Vorstius and Loesner 
compare the Heb. pip in 1 Kings, 3, 12. where the 
Sept* has o\Jk avourriJcrcTar 2 Kings 23, 25. Sir. 47, 1, 
jcai fi^rA TOOTO mf€<rry\ Naftav. Acts 7» 18* oaficrti 
^(Ti'K^hs €T€po$. Heb. 7f 15. They add some other 
passages where eTravjVrijfti has the sense of rising 
into rebellion^ especially Luciari Tyrann. p. n* 93. 
€7r) S^ T0U9 ^patrmoLrm^ TrpotronrepaofJiev^^y kou So^u^o^u^ 
cruj/ayayo^ eTavaara^, t^ toX^i rvpavvo^ icaWer-nj, which 
p^assage I quote, in or4er to emend. Instead of 
x^oa'airepotijUkCMo^ read 7rpoar€raipo6[i€vo^ ; for so the 
sense requires. 

37. 06t>Sap. Josephus, Ant. 20, 5, 1., makes men- 
tion of a certain Theudas, wlio, in the reign of 
Claudias, excited disturbances- in Judea, pretending 
to be a Prophet ; and was destroyed, with all his 
followers, by Cuspius Fadius the rrocurator. But 
this Theudas canAPt her^ be meant, sincp the Theur 
das mentioned by Josephus excited the disturbances 
fourteen or fifteen years after the speech of Gamialiel 
was delivered. In order to remove this difficulty, 
tUe Commentators have pursued various methods ; 
which may be. seen detailed in the Critici Sacri, 
Pole's Synopsis, Wolfs Curae, and Kuinoel's Collec- 
tanea* Of these Opiniotis my limits wiU only permit 
me to state two of the most important; Ut, that of 



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176 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAF. V. 

Archbishop Usher and L. Capellus, which has b^cn 
adopted by Ottius, Bp, Pearce, Wetstein, Bowyer, 
and others. This hypothesis I cannot do better 
than state in the words of Bp. Pearce. 

In fiiTOur of Luke's account it has been generalty said, that Jose- 
phus must have been mistaken in placing Theudas's insurrection so 
Jate as when Festus was governor of Judea^ and that it roust have 
happened before the insurrection caused by Judas of Galilee, as 
Luke has placed it. But surely Josephus could not have been mis- 
taken in this point, when he lived in Judea, under Festus*s govern- 
ment ; and therefore must have known what happened in his own 
time, and what not. Ail the difficulty will be removed, and Jose- 
phus's account be made consistent with Luke*s, if we follow the 
opinion of Archbishop t)sher, in his Annals, A. M. 4001. He thinks 
that l^ke'd Tfieudas is the same witli that of Judas, of whom Jose- 
phus gives this account (in Antiq. \7, l^, 5. and Bell. Jud. 2, 4, 1.) 
** a little after the death of Herod the Greai, he raised an insun-ec- 
tion in Galilee, and aimed at getting the sovereignty of Judea :" and 
fhat he was dfefe^ted and put to death id implied in sect. 10. of the 
flame Chapter. Now to prove t)iat this TheudoM of Lvke is the same 
yv'ith tbBi JuSat of Josephus, the foHowmg conaideratioas are kud 
before the reader. The same Apostle, who is called Judas in Joho 
14, 2£. and Luke 6, 16. and called Jude in Jude 1. is in Mar 3, IB. 
Called Tfiaddeus, and in Matt. 10, 3. called Lebbevs^ whose surname 
was Thaddeus; which last Evangelist has (I think) given him th« 
name of Judas in ch. 13, 55. for he, as is said there, was the brother 
of James (Luke 6, 16.) and as such the son of Alpheus, whose son 
James was. (Mark 3, 19. and Luke 6, 15.) This Apostle therefore 
having the names of Judas and Thaddeus t and Lebbeus, given to 
him, two of those names must have been one and the same ; b<F^ 
cause no Jew had more than two names, unless when a patrony- 
mick name was given to him, as when Joseph^ sumamed Justus, 
was called also Barsdbas, i. e. the s6n of Sabas, in Acts 1 , 23. See 
note on Matt. 10, 3. It is no unreasonable thing to suppose thact 
Thaddeus and Theudas are the tame name, and thereftire it may bt 
concluded with probability, from what has been sak), that Jose* 
phus*s Judas, mentioned as is before noted in Antiq. 17, \% 5. and 
in Bell. Jud. 2, 4, 1. is no other person than he whom Luke speak* 
of under the name of Theudas, To which 1 add, that Archbishop 
Usher, in the place of his Annals before referred to, says that 
rM\w of the Hebrews is the same with nun of the Syrians, which, 
if true, strengthens this solution of the difficulty -arising from the 
seeming contrariety of the two writers. In the following verse aft- 
dthet Judas is mentioned by Luke, but he is distinguished by the 
pame of Judas of Galilee, a title given him by Josephus in Antiq. 
18, 1, 6. and in Bell. Jud. 2, 8, 1. 

To others, however, this hypothesis has Appeared 
extremely harsh. 2. 1 shall proceed to state another. 



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ACTS or T«ft APOStLfid, CHAP. V. 177 

which seems by far the most probable ; namely, that 
of Scaliger, Beza, Camerarius, Lightfoot, Drusius, 
Casaubon, Grotius, Hammond, Basnage, Heumann, 
Krebs, Limborch, Whitby, Doddridge, Lardner, 
Morus, Rosenmuiler, and Kuinoel, who, on the 
authority of Origen c. Cels. 1, 6. p. 44. maintain 
that there were two Theudases, of whom the one* 
mentioned by Josephus was the more recent, and 
the one spoken of Gamaliel, the older. The former 
Casaubon and Krebs think lived about the time of 
Christ's birth. Beza and Kuinoel, however, refer 
this history to those times in which Josephus (Ant. 
17^ 24.) tells us that Judea was harassed with innu- 
merable seditions, which Varus could with difficulty 
suppress. For those events (as they observe) which 
happened at the time in which, after the death of 
Herod the Great, there was an interregnum in- 
Jadea, while Archelaus had gone to Rome, to obtain 
the confirmation of his father's will, and when Jesus 
was yet in Egypt, Josephus has passed over in silence, 
as. he has done this insurrection of Theudas, which 
probably occurred at that time; not to mention 
many other events, of which, nevertheless, the truth 
is unquestionable. (See the note on Matt. 2, 16.) 
The second Theudas they suppose to have been a 
son or grandson of the first, and who again brought 
together his scattered followers, similar instances of 
which may be remarked in long-buried and almost 
forgotten sects, which sometimes revive. The ^rst 
Theudas (to use the words of Dr. Doddridge) seems 
to have been supported by smaller numbers than the 
second of the name, and (as the second afterwards* 
did) perished in the attempt : but, as his followers 
were dispersed, and not slaughtered like those of tl)6 
second Theudas, survivors might talk much of him, 
and Gamaliel might have been particularly informed 
of his history, though Josephus only mentions it in^ 
general. Dr. Lardner, in his judicious remarks -oii^ 
this subject, has shewn that there were many persons 
of the same name, whose histdries greatly resembled 

VOL. IV. N 



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178 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. V. 

each other. See Lardner's Credib. of Gosp. Hist. 
Part 1. Book 2. Ch. 7. 

In addition to this I must observe that numerous 
passages cited by Wetstein prove the name Theudas 
to have been a common one ; so that we need not be 
compelled to suppose the second Theudas was a son, 
or grandson, or near relation of the first ; not to say 
that the second demagogue might assume the name 
Theudas, as knowing that it was yet held in rever- 
ence with the people. 

36. Xcyov €lvai nm cauroy. Most Commentators 
suppose there is here an ellipsis of /xfyav (see Bos 
Ellips.) ; but Schajfer on Bos 268. and Weiske de 
Pleon. p. 81. reject it, and maintain that ris is put 
for iUya9^ and denotes a person of no ordinary kind, 
eminent for rank, talent, &c. in which sense clvai riy 
also occurs. The idiom is not unfrequent in the 
Greek and Latin writers, from whom examples are 
cited by Wolf, Kypke, Eisner, Loesner, Valcknaer, 
and others ; as Epict. Ench. 1^. kuv So^f ricriv cTyai 
Tiy. Liban. Ep. 1265. o wwas r€ aurov d^ elr^v iyoi ti. 
Soph. Elect. 9S9. '^^X^^^ '^^^ elvai, to?o-i p^^i^jxao-i o-Scycoy. 
Juvenal. I, 75. Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et car* 
cere dignum, si vis esse aliquis. I add Aristid. 2, 
19 !>• vpt^tnnFiiT'xywirro uirlp toS riyt^elvai Soic6iv. Liban. 
Orat. 6 1 A. ejcAuifjeis — to3 SoKeTv, clwxi ny & 1021. 
o^ittiv ehai Ti9. See Kust. on Theocr. Id. 4, 30. 

On the contrary, the Greeks use ouSciy for a person 
of no estimation ; as Epict. c. 31. nmg le oJSeis* ouda- 
f4o5 €0*1}, ov h IMV019 €7yai riva hei in-) o-oi. Both these 
idioms have place also in our own language, a some^ 
body, a nobody. 

36. Tpoo-cicoXXijdij, was adjoined. Some good MSS., 
with the Syr. Vulg. Ital. and Arab. Versions, read 
3r^€iiXiflij, which is preferred by Griesbach, Morus, 
Hemsterhusius, Valcknaer, Schleusner, and Kuinoel, 
as being too rare a word to come from the scribes, 
and which, on that account, was changed by them 
into one more common and obvious. Ilpo^icX/ycflrdai 
rm signifies to incline to any one, adjoin oneself to 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. V. 179 

him, follow him. The verb does not' occur in the* 
New Testament ; but its dei*ivative vq6(rK\i(n9 in 
1 Tim. 5, 21. And the reading TgoereicXijflij, which 
is found in many MSS., may be an error of the 
scribes for T^o-e^XiSij. Yet, when I consider that 
irpwTKQ'KXoia-bQn is a word of frequent occurrence in 
the Old and New Testament (as in Acts 5, 13. Gosp. 
15, 15.), though disused by the Classical writers, I 
cannot but suspect that the readings T§oo-6icXid^ and 
3rpo<r€icX7j6i3 are only TopoSiopflptoo-eiy of half-learned 
sciolists. 

36. heh^f^o-av, " were scattered and dispersed.'* 
So, among other passages produced by Eisner and 
Wetstein, Herodian 6, 7, 2. op ((rrparh) a7ra| SiaXu- 
Bfh ou ptf^im ffipoi^€To. Arrian, Epict. A. 6, 18. To 
which 1 add Thucyd. 7> 34. SiaXudcWos* toS trrparov, 
dispersed. And 4, 74. SiaXwdcvro)!/. And 5, 50. hOs.6* 
^(rav. And 2, 23. 3, 26. (See other examples in Pri^ 
caeuB.) The phrase y/v6<r$ai els* ouScv answers to our 
amie to nought; as also ^iceiv ely otJSev: on which 
phrase see Eisner, Raphel, and Kypke. So Eurip. 
Hec. 622. ds els* to [Kr^^h rJKoiJLeu, ^pofn^pxroproS irpiu 

37. avetrrri 'louSay FaXiXaTos', iv rai^ t^iUpai^ r^9 
ajToypaflJ^y. Schoettgen here cites a passage of R, 
Abraham in libro Juchasin, fol. 139, X. where men- 
tion is made of this Judas. ** Illo tempore tres fue-r 
runt sectffi, nam prajter Pharisaeos et Sadduceeos Je- 
buda Galilseus tertiam sectam incepit, quae dicitur 
Essenorum. — Opinio Nasiraeorum, qui Esseni dicti 
sunt, quorumque auclor fuit Judas Galilaeus'. Illi 
vero caussam dederunt Judaeis, ut contra Romanos 
rebellarent, dicentes, Neminem debere aliis homini? 
bus imperare, neque Dominum vocari, nisi soluni 
Deum S. B/' 'AroygacpiJ here signifies a census, or 
valuation, not only of persons but of property. (See 
the note On Luke 2, 1.) Josephus, Ant. 18, l,.l* 
ealts it oLTTorifjuv^cn^ otJ<ria>y. Neither ought the census 
here mentioned to be confounded with the census 0^ 

N 2 



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180 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, V. 

population made in the reign of Herod by the order 
of Augustus. The present census was taken by 
Quirinus, after Archelaus, the son of Herod, had 
been sent into exile by Augustus to Vienna, and his 
kingdom had been reduced to the form of a Roman 
province. See the note on the passage of Luke's 
Gospel, and Deyling*s Obs. Sacr. P. 3. p. 257. This 
census Judas and his companion Sadoc abused to 
the purpose of exciting insurrection, by represent- 
ing to the people that it manifestly involved servi- 
tude, and that the Jews, as being the people of God, 
ought to be exempt from paying tribute to the 
Romans. (See Joseph. Ant. 18, 1, 1. and the note 
on Matt. 22, 16, seq.) Judas is by Luke called a Ga- 
lila^an, and by Josephus a Gaulanite (from the town 
Gamala). But Josephus, who elsewhere (as, for in- 
stance, in Bell. 2, 20, 4.) carefully distinguishes Ga- 
lilee and Gaulonitis, yet he himself, in another 
place, calls Judas a GaHlaean; as in Ant. 18, 1, 6. 
20, 5, 2. Bell. 2, 9, 1. Judas had, therefore, a dou- 
ble cognomen^ perhaps because he had been born in 
Gaulanitis, but had been brought up or dwelt in 
Galilee ; as Apollonius, though an Egyptian^ yet 
was, from the place of his residence, called Rhodius. 
(Kuin.) 

37- oari(rn\<re Xaov. The verb i^itmiiHf it must 
be observed, has, in some of its tenses, an active 
sense ; namely, to excite to an insurrection, or revolt ; 
as here, and frequently in the best Greek writers, 
especially the Historians as, for instance, Thucy- 
dides. It sometimes occurs with an oltto ni^f, but 
never fas far as I remember) with oTrta-w aurouy which 

Sroperly requires another verb, and not a^ian^ftu 
;he Vulgate renders, " avertit populum post se ;*' 
with which Pricaeus compares Macrob. 2, 5. avertere 
in se populum. On iKuvoi see the note on Matt. 28^ 

12. and Luke 7, 11. 

38. Ktti tA vuv y^iyo}. Here there is an ellipsis of 
irra & TpayiKtra. See the note on 4, 29* ' A7ro<rn?T€ 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLRS, CHAP. V. 181 

d^ rw affBpwiranf. A sort of euphemism for <^ ab- 
stain from putting them to death,* as ye deter* 
mined.** There is a similar kind of passage in Diog. 
Laert. ("cited by Pricaeus) jxi) d^oicr€iver€ tov afvdgoMroy, 

38. ^'Oti eflty fi €| av^pohroiif^ &c. Drusius here 
cites a similar sentiment from Perke Aboth, 4, 11« 
omnis congregatio quae fit in nomine Dei stabilis 
erit ; quae vero non fit in honore Dei, cadet. And 
Wetstein (from Pricaeus) cites an opinion pro- 
nounced by Marcus Antoninus whether Avidius 
Cassius should be put to death. *^ Si ei divinitus 
debetur imperium, non poterimus interficere, etiamsi 
velimus. Scis enim proavi tui dictum, Successorem 
suum nuUus occidit : sin minus, ipse sponte, sine 
nostra crudelitate fatales laqueos inciderit.'* He- 
rodot. 9, 16. ri 8€i y€V€<r6ai €k row d^oC* ofji^rj^avop 
cbrotrree^f/oif atf^pcixto* Eurip. Melanipp. 41. ydjxou^ i* 
oroi <nr€wSoueri ju-ig ^^frpwfjievou^, uAttiv TovoSeriv tJ Sc to 

Moreover, the ci seems to mean but, j^(as it seems) ; 
80 in Soph. Antig. 278. awjt^, €|ttoi roi fi.^ ti do^Xarov 
Toupyov ToS* if ^vvoia jSouX^ua^ TraTuxi. 

39- M^ore icai flfojxap^bi €6g€d^«. The word flco- 
fta;^oi, Pricaeus, Hammond, Valcknaer, Markland^ 
and others, connect with kaxrar^ avrou^, and separate 
the intermediate word from the rest by means of a 
parenthesis. Others, as Camerarius, Grotius, Beza, 
and Kuinoel, regard the pi^Trore, &c. as elliptical, and 
would subaud o(ar€, or the like. That there is an 

* Markland pronounces this signification (which also occurs in 
Acts ^2, 29. ) to be rare j and he asks whether it be not peculiar to 
St. Luke. I answer, not so ; since it is met with occasionally in 
the Classical writers. So Thucyd. Q, 47. where he says that the 
Athenians, who had, during the plague, first had recourse to reli* 
gioua expiations, at length finding all means usjeless, ahrSty kiritmi* 
aay, desisted from them. The words ral idtrare ahrovs are added 
icar €lriyn9iy> in which there is an ellipsis of some word, either 
iLvekdeiv (as Valcknaer thinks), like the Latin missum facere, or 
m adverb. So our let alone. Here we may compare Joseph. 868. 
*liaayaBnv iaee. 



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183 ACTS OF THE AP09TLBS» GHAP. V. 

ellipsis is clear frdtn the words being found suppli^ i 
ex. gr, Lu. 21, 34, Herodot 3, 36. opa, orrw^ pij tr^y 
oToer-nJo-oivTai Ilepcai. -^schyl. Suppl. 507. ^w^^o^ai, 
[Ml 6pa(ro9 r€ia\ ^6&oy. Prom. 67. ottoos^ pi) (raxjrhv oijc- 
Ti€h TTore. Aristoph. Nub. 256. 2 Tim. 2, 25. And 
this seems, upon the whole, the best founded opinion. 
*JEw^/(ric€(rflai is used for elmi. See Schl. Lex. Among 
the numerous examples cited by Wetstein of fi^ojctap^oy, 
and the sentiment suggested, the following are the 
most apposite 1 Philostr. V. A. 4, 15. (where he 
perhaps had this very passage of the New Testament 
in view) i&rirep dcopxp^civ ^uXaTTojx€vo$', ;f<op€i, €(p^, 
oi 3ot>X7)* (TO yap Kpeirrov ri utt e/xou oipj^etrdon. & 6, 10. 
fieoiy ovTiKOjxoflcTCiv iMLviav otfjLai. Arrian. Epict. 3, 24. 

dioy, ^€V6ti fl6opx;^oOyroy, a>V povov oiov t€, toTj $a/jxa<ri 
ToJy eauToG — rairixeipa rffS fleofuxp^iay raurijy xal ax€t* 
deias" ou ftovov 9ra7$6f Tai&uy eKrio-owriVj aXX* aurop €70. 
See also Virg. ^n. 5, 465. Justin. 2, 12, 9. Curt. 
7,6. Horn. 11. p. 18. Justin. 24,8. Curt. 9, 7. Plaut. 
Pers. 1,1, 26. Diodor. Sic. 14, 69. I add Soph. 
Trach» 491. fcoti toi yoVov y IvolItiw ^^a^pofx^da^ fleouri 
8uo-jxa;foSvT€y, to omit other passages. 
. 40. CTCiVfiijeray auroS, " were inclined to accede to 
his opinion ;" so far, at least, as to let them go, 
though not without chastisement. And this, as it 
peems, to save their own credit, lest they should ap- 
pear to have apprehended them causelessly, as also to 
strike terror into the people. Now flagellalion was, 
indeed, a punishment very usual both among the 
Jews and Romans for lesser delinquencies (see the 
note on Matt. 10, I7. Luke 23, 6. infr. 22, I9. 
2 Cor. 11, 24.) f yet it was regarded as ripopia 
ai<r;ti<r'nj, a most ignominious punishment; as we 
learn from Joseph. Ant. 4, 9. On Seg^iv see the note 
on Matt. 21, 34. 'Erl to> oyojtAari lijo-oG, i. e. con- 
cerning Jesus. See the note on ver. 28. (Grot. & 
Kuin.) With the words Sc/gayres' — aWxway atirws 
I would compare a very similar passage of Athen. 



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ACTS OF THE JIPOSTLES, CHAP. V. VI. 183 

41, 42. ;fai'govT€$', remembering with joy the words 
of Christ (in Matt. 5, 11 & 12). A great height of 
virtue this to patiently and even joyfully suffer evil 
in a good cause. (Grot.) 'Ato ^r^oeroiVou, &c. A 
Hebrew pleonasm. See Glass. 108. 'Tx^g toS ovo- 
fjuxros*, " for the cause of Jesus." In the words 
Kmrri^m^trcuf ariftoo-d^vaiy Casaubon, with his usual 
taste, notices the elegant use of the figure Oxymoron^ 
which arises when two ideas, repugnant to each 
other, are so joined as not to be really repugnant, 
but only to seem so; of which the following exam- 
ples are cited by Wetstein. Terent. Eunuch. 5, 2, 
25. Non te dignum, Chaerea, fecisti : nam, si ego 
digna hac contumelid sum maxim^: at tu indignus, 
qui faceres tamen, Senec. de Provid. 4. Digni vlsi 
sumus Deo, in quibus expereretur, quantum humana 
natura posset pati. Arrian Epict. 1, 29. on d-€ hi^ 
lJir^(r€ TOiaJTi}y Tifjwj v, icai a^iov ^'y>jVaTo ^rpoo-ayayeTv €i^ 

42. irourav i^fU^av every day. Subaud Karit and 
iKwrrYfl. The preposition is in this distributive sense 
added to all nouns of time. And since Kar oIkw is 
opposed to iv no i6go>, it plainly signifies in private 
houses ; Kar ohcoy being put for Kar o7icouf , from 
house to house : for icarA here, perhaps, exerts its 
distributive force; though it is not perceptible in 
Acts 20, 20. Sijftocria Koi kolt oIkou^. 

CHAP. VI. 

1. TKijduyovraiv, increasing. For the word has pro* 
perly a transitive sense ; as in Heb. 6, 14., and the 
passive is often used in the New Testament. But it 
occurs in this intransitive sense here, and in Exod. 
1, 20. €TXi)flii€y Xooy (which St. Luke seems to have 
had in mind) and 1 Sam. 14, 29* Bos tells us that 
there is an ellipsis of the pronoun eatrrw^ ; which 
may, however, be doubted. Many active verbs are 



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184 ACTS or TUB AP08TLSS, ClfAP. VI. 

used as neuters in all languages, both ancient (He- 
brew, Greek, and Latin) and modem, including our 
own. On 7oyywtf-jtAoy (whence, possibly, our grudge) 
see the notes on Matt. 20, 11. Joh. 7, 12. By the 
Hebrews are meant the Jews of Palestine, who spoke 
the Hebrew, or rather Syrochaldee, which was po- 
pqlarly called Hebrew. To these Hebrews are op- 
posed the HelleniatSy 'ExxijywT-a). Now in the in- 
terpretation of this word the Commentators are by 
no means agreed. Erasmus, Drusius, Heinsius, 
Scaliger, Lightfoot, Hammond, Le Clerc, Schoett- 
gen, Bengel, Rosenmuller, and others, are of opinion 
that they were the foreign Jews who spoke Greek. 
On the contrary, Camerarius, Beza, Salmasius (de 
Hellen. 175 & 233. and in fun. Helleu. 26), Wolf, 
Morus, Zeigler, and others, regard them as Prose- 
If/teSj men in origin and religion Gentiles^ but after- 
wards made Jews by circumcision, and now finally 
converted to Christianity. Wetstein, Heumann, 
Faulus, Kuinoel, and Heinrichs, however, maintain 
that they were foreign Jewish Proselytes, who spoke 
Greek. ** For no good reason (say they) can be 
assigned why we should not suppose them tp be 
Proselytes. Nay, the very tenor of the whole nar- 
ration seems to compel us to regard them as such. 
For of the number of thpse who were appointed by 
the Apostles to superintend the distribution of the 
aim? to the Hellenistic widows, was Nicolaus a Pro- 
selyte. (See ver. 46.) That by the term 'EAXijwaTai 
are meant Jews speaking Greek, appears not only 
from the opposite term 'E^paioi, but from the usage 
of the Greek language ; since cXXijvi^civ, by the force 
of its original signification, denotes to imitate those 
who speak Greek, either in language, or customs. 
Of the same form are ^pr/^eii' in Xenoph. Anab. 
4, 5, 23., p^S/^€ir in Suidas and elsewhere, and fXXaj- 
fl^€iv, which occur in the best writers ; as Pausan. 
Bcpol. p. 23. (k};^ cXXifvio-dtPTa otJ8(^ aMv SiaXcrr^ U 
/SofSitpiK^. Tkucyd. 2, 68. €XXi3v/(r6i3(rav t?)v i^iji^ yi^cSc^ 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAIC VI. 185 

So also Strabo 156 a. Photius Bibl. Bo|i^ 3* ^v 
TouTO) ovofJLQty ^ijeflv, ov fcol 'ExXijViVai yXaJrray Kdi 
yvdiLxfl. Lucian Philopseud. 16. o Sa/juuov Se UTroKpi- 
f€Ta$ iTiKr^vi^mVj rj ^pfia pl^cotf, ri JfOcy av aoroy ^. 
Philo V. Mosis T. 2. p. 139, 24. o! 7r/?oy rft irarpliD 
Ka) TT^ cXXr^viioJy iireTrai^eiovro Traioeiav. Diogen. h. 
Anachars. 1. 102. iHiihi^tov rk voju.i/ta ^ra^aXueiV r^y 
xarpiSof, JToXwff cov €V t^ eXXijvi^^iv. So also otTTWc/^^iv, 
c^K€Ki^€i¥^ fF€p(rl^€iVy &c. Scc the copious Collectanea 
of Wetstein, from whom the above Classical exam- 
ples are derived ; and who also cites many Rabbi- 
nical writers on the subject of Jews speaking or 
studying Greek, from which it appears that Greek 
literature was not forbidden by their greatest Rabbis. 
Thus in Bara Kama, f. 83, 1. it is said of Gamaliel, 
that he had had a thousand scholars, of whom five 
hundred had studied the law, and five hundred 
Greek literature. 

So also SchoL ap. Matthias ad h. 1. 'ExxijwerTcov' 
reip '£xXi)vi(rri (pdeyTOft^voiv Kairai *E,^paiwy ovrcou rco 
y€P€i. And of this opinion was Chrysostom. The 
reasons urged by those who endeavoured to show that 
these *ExXr^yi(rTai were Greek Proselytes are ill- 
founded and inapplicable. " If (say they) the Jews 
speaking Greek were called Hellenists, why has 
Paul of Tarsus, a Grecian city, never mentioned 
himself as a Hellenist, but a Hebrew or a Jew?'' 
To this it may be replied, because in the passage 
where he calls himself a Hebrew (Phil. 3, 5. 2 Cor. 
11, 22.) or a Jew (Acts 21, 39. 22, 3.) it would have 
been absurd to have called himself a Hellenist. 

Those Commentators observe, moreover, that if 
tbe name Hellenists had been given, not to Jews born, 
but to Jews of foreign origin speaking Greek, one 
does not see how it could happen that the Hebrews 
should neglect the Hellenists, and overlook their 
widows. But, as we have observed on Job. 7, 36., 
the Jews of Palestine, and especially the Jerusa- 
lemites, used to account themselves superior to the 
jews residing out of Palestine, on the ground of their 



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186 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. YI. 

birth and residence in the Holy Land, and especially 
the holy city, and because the foreign Jews could 
not so accurately observe the Jewish rites as those 
living in Jerusalem or Palestine ; and finally because 
they used the holy language. See the note on Acts 
2, 4. n. 1).) 

Hence also the Christian converts, Jews who 
spoke HebreWy (such as are here mentioned,) held 
themselves far superior to those formed of the Jews 
who spoke Greek, Finally, the above Commentators 
appeal to Acts 11, 19 & 20. from which they think 
It appears that by the 'ExXijvKrral are meant Grecian 
proselytes. But to this it may be replied, that the 
true reading there is 'ExXT^vay (as we have shown in 
the note on that passage). (Wets. & Kuin.) 

The last' detailed hypothesis seems to be, upon 
the whole, the best founded ; though both the first 
and second have been maintained with considerable 
learning and acuteness. I admit, however, with 
Markland, that they were Jews (see Acts 11, 19 & 
20.) ; though no more is certainly known of them, 
or the reason of their name, any more than of the 
Synagogue of the Libertines (XijSfpr/yoiv, in which all 
the copies agree), ver. 9.i as is clear (he observes) 
from the different opinions and conjectures of Com- 
mentators : an infallible mark that the passage is not 
understood. 

The^r^^ mentioned hypothesis is ably supported 
by Schoettgen, who, though he has (I think) failed 
in his principal purpose, has brought forward some 
instructive remarks on the Hellenistic style of the 
Old and New Testament, which I consider it incum-' 
bent on me to lay before my younger readers, espe- 
cially as I have reason to believe that they are little 
known, from having been introduced, as it were, 
prceter propositum, and in the middle of a commen- 
tary. 

Si quis ex me quserat, an credam> Novum Testamentum stilo Hel- 
lenistico scriptum esse, huic respondeo, me hoc credere, et per 
totum hoc opus demonstratum ire 3 eed ita tamen> ut h«c Bobnh et 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VI. 187 

cum summtl erga Deum reTerentitl statuanfur. Niininifn Gnecitas 
N. T. non est tain pura, tani limata, tain concinna, qualis iu Demoe* 
thene, Isocrate, aut aliis priscorum tem|K>rum scriptoribus occurrit, 
sed omnia hebraismis scatent, id quod sane contra leporem sermonis 
Attici Cat. Verurn, quod probb notandum, culpa hujus rei non 
redundat in Spiiiluin Sanctum, divinas hasce litteras inspirantera. 
Js enim auctor est omnium linguarum, et, si voluisset, aut sapientiae 
ipsius commodum fuisset, sane stilum Demosthenes et Isocrates 
millenos super^ntem Apostolis inspirare potuisset, ita quideni, ut 
Attici illi oratores prs subltmitate et puritate sermonis in N. T. 
videri possent bnrbari. Vcrum Spiritus S. duas precipu^ causas 
habuit, quod banc linguam Hellenisticam retinuerit. 

1. Prima est, quia necesse erat eo sermonis genere uti, quod 
auditores intelligerent. Evangelium prsedicandum erat primo Ju- 
dsis, postea Gentilibus. Utrique cailebant linguam grscam, sed 
tamen cum insigni differentid. Priores eam mult is Hebraismis 
contaminaverant, sed tamen phrases permuhas habebant ex V. T. 
petitas. Praeterea vero veram religionem majoribus traditam hue 
Usque conservaverant. Posteriores Grscitatem quidem puriorem 
habebant , sed tamen etiam aliquantum declinantem, nihil autem 
vene religionis possidebant. Uinc Dei sapientia, insuper habita 
puritatb prxrogiti^a, Judsis potius condescendit, quia Judsi 
eandem religionem retinebant, mutatis tamen mutandis, gentiles 
vero novum plane cultum addiscere debebant. Ad Judseos vero sic 
loqui et scribere cogebantur Apoetoli^ ut ab ipsis intelligerentur, 
quemadmodum ipse Servator in concionibus suis lingua Hebraica 
non pura, sed corrupta et depravata, locutus est, non, quod ipse 
Hebreeam linguam pur^ loqui non potuerit, sed quia auditoribus 
eondescendere voluit, ut ab iisdem intelligeretur. Remexempio 
illustrabimua. Non ita pridem Franco furti ad Viadrum fato sud 
functus est Reverendus Vir, Cbristianus Miillerus, Verbi divini ibi- 
dem Minister, qui in gratium Judxorum Novum Testamentum ex 
versione Lutheri litteris Judaeo-Germanicis imprimi curaverat. 
Qu8d res ut ad gloriam Dei suscepta erat, sic ope illius libri multi 
ex Judsis, res nostras propius introspicientes, virtute verbi divini 
ad veram religionem conversi sunt. Verum quo minus plures id 
intelligant, adeoque convertantur, adest adhuc aliquod obstaculum, 
quod ip«orum Judsorum colloquiis debeo. Nimirum notum est, 
ipeas equidem inter nos Germanos habitare, et lingual nostra uti, 
sed admodum depravat^, multas obsoletas nobisque prorsus incog- 
nitas voces, imo et Hebraica satis multa admiscentes. jQuodsi ergo 
hunc librura majori utilitate gaudere velimus, necesse est, ut poli- 
tam illam vemaculi sermonis indolem, quk Divus Lutherus usus est, 
paulisper seponamus, et in hujusmodi stilum transformemua, 
qualeni illi legere et intelligere solent. Quamvis igitur nos ser* 
monis Germanici puritatem exprimere valeamus, tamen in gratiara 
rudioris Judsorum populi sermonem Germanico-barbarum prae« 
ferre necesse habemus. 

1. Sfri irap€i€(opouifTo iv t^ hioucona r. k. a. The 

general term 8*aKov€lv and haKovia are often, in the 



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188 ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CQAP. VI« 

New Testament, applied to the collection, manage- 
ment, and distribution of the sums collected for the 
relief of the poor; as in Heb, 6, 10, Rom. 15, 25. 
naqoL^eoipiiv signifies to overlook^ neglect. Now the 
more Clussicaf term is irapo^av ; though, among the 
examples produced by Wet^tein from those authors, 
there is one from Xenoph. Mem. ult. ^ropad^o^iy is 
used ; koH xpis rob^ dtXXou^ Tra^ntdecD^cov eftourov. So 
also Diodor. Sic. 34. Ex. p. 687- on b Mapios — wro 
ToSp (rrpaTTiyaiv ^rapeOecop^Tro, raxeivoTaroy wv raiv Tpctf*- 

pclro. See also Valcknaer. 

Kuinoel is of opinion that this complaint regarded 
the curators or guardians of the poor (Jews born, 
and in number exceeding the Hellenists), who were 
already elected by the suffrage of the congregation, 
and appointed to their office by the Apostles. ** The 
common hypothesis (continues Kuinoel) is, that the 
Apostles did not use any certain men for the distri-^ 
bution of charitable contributions, but sometimes 
one, sometimes another of the Hebrews. The opi- 
nion of Mosheim, however, (in his Comment, de 
rebus Christ, ante Const, p. 139 & 118.) is, that 
there were already certain persons appointed by the 
Apostles to take care of the poor, and relieve their 
necessity out of the common funds of the society ; 
but that they tvere all Hebrews, and now to be 
elected by the congregation ; and that to them were 
added seven men of the Hellenists. Compare ver. 5, 

l.€v rfi hoLKovlct. " On these Deacons of the primi- 
tive Church, their origin and office, there has been 
no little dispute among the Theologians of our age, 
especially Camp., Vitringa, and Rhenferd, the for- 
mer de Syn. Vet. p. 920 seqq., the latter in his Dis- 
sertation de decem otiosis Synagogae p. 139 seqq. 
Vitringa maintains that this Ziaxovla rmv rgaTre^oiy 
Was extraordinary^ and confined to the Church at 
Jerusalem, in which alone that communion of goods 
existed ; and that therefore the Deacons mentioned 
by St. Paul in his £p. to Tim. and Philo are to be 



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ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 189 

distinguished from those of whom we here read. 
Rhenterd, however, accounts it a perpetual office 
every where to be received in the Church ; and he 
compares these Deacons with the Hebrew collectors 
cf alms^ not the O'^atn. To me (I confess) the 
opinion of Vitringa appears the best founded ; 
though it is not my present purpose to weigh the 
arguments of either. (Wolf.) 

2. ?r^o<ricaX€(rafii€VOf S^ oi SoiSeica r. tt. r. p. By the 
rXv^of ra>y /tadi]ra>v Lightfoot would understand those 
hundred and twenty Christians mentioned in 1, 15.; 
and he thinks that the seven men were elected from: 
those only; though the number of Christians at that 
time amounted to several thousands. But his argu- 
ments have been ably answered by Hammond and 
Whitby, the latter of whom has a most instructive 
annotation, to which I must refer my readers. So 
also the word was understood by Grotius, and 
probably by the ancient leathers ; for CEcumenius 
plainly so takes it. Grotius observes that, at that 
time, the government of the Church was such as 
Plato tells us existed at Athens ; namely, an ^^icrro- 
Kparia [ler eiioKia^ ^rXiJOows'.* Mosheim (de Christ, 
ante Const. 1190 and Kuinoel are of opinion that 
the whole xXijdoy of the Jerusalemite Christians was 
divided into seven parties^ ox families^ for which 
there were as many places of public worship ; and 
that hence also seven persons were elected for the 
purpose of taking care of the poor and of strangers, 
so that each/ami/^ should chuse one, and over each: 
of the families one of those seven should be placed. 
St. Luke does not, indeed, give 2l particular account 

* 1 believe it has never yet been observed, that this ie a very cIos6 
imitation of an elegant expression which occurs in Thucyd. S, 65. 
kylyytro re \6yf uev, hrifiOKparl^, ^ypf ^^» ^''^^ f^^ irputrov iiybpoi 
iipxh- Many other imitations, also, of this passage I have noted down^ 
which, however, I shall forbear, on the present occasion, to detail/ 
i«8er\'ing them for their proper place Fn my edition of Thucydides, 
where they will afford an ample field for illustration and emendation^ 



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190 ACTS or THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 

of this office, but only touches on the chief heads of 
early Ecclesiastical history, leaving his readers a 
most ample field for enlargement, reflection, and 
conjecture on what is by him so succinctly narrated. 

2. otjK ap€irTO¥ itrnif. This is rendered in some 
Versions non placet ; which sense is adopted by Bp. 
Pearce and others. But by this close adherence to 
the primitive signification the real sense is sacrificed.. 
" Pleasing'' is here not an apposite idea. The 
Vulg., followed by Beza, Casaubon, Grotius, and 
others, more accurately represent the sense by " non 
sequum esU^'just and right, decent. For by this the 
Alexandrian Jews expressed the Hebrew words 1113 
and 1\»^. See SchL Lex. on Vet. Test. By Xayos* 
is here meant in:t traction ; as in Job. 17> 20. j since 
that formed the principal part of the Apostolic office. 
Tindal translates, '* the toork of God ;*' in which 
version work is probably a typographical error for 
word. The expression ouic ag€<rr^v itrrw I would ren- 
der, *^ it is not seemly, decent.'' Chrysostom para- 
phrases it by airtnrw. 

2. icaToX^ixI/oyray, neglecting. A metaphor (as 
Heinrichs observes) taken from soldiers deserting 
their post. Aioucoveiv rpoare^ai^. All the earlier Com^ 
mentators unite in assigning to these words the sense 
serve tables. Doddridge renders, ** attend, see to 
the providing for the tables of the poor.*' But all 
the later Commentators interpret the words thus : 
" superintend the collection and distribution of the 
alms to be expended on the poor." This mode of 
explanation seems to have been adopted by Grotius; 
but was first developed by Krebs (whom see). It is 
certain that rpawe^a is sometimes used in the New 
Testament for a banquet; as Luke 19,23. (where 
see the note) : and since (as Krebs observes) hioucoveh 
is, in 2 Cor. 8, 4 & 19., used to denote ministering 
alms, and Siaicov/a the alms themselves in Acts 11, 
^9., it seems most agreeable to the context to so 
explain the present expression iioKomv TpctWJ<tl^ 



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ACTS or THE APOSTLBSy CHAP. ▼!. IQl 

This sense Krebs illustrates by a passage of Joseph. 
Ant. 12, 2, 3. ot Sc Xonro) a^o t^s* ^ao"iXiic^y rpaTre^tj^ 

After all, however, I see no reason why the words 
should not admit of both interpretations being uni- 
ted ; nay, indeed, they seem to require it. This, 
method, too, is adopted by CEcumcnius. 

3,4. €iri<nce^our6€ — ovSpay €§ ujuuov iiaprupwiiivoo^ 
hrroL. *Exi<ric6TTo/xai signifies properly to look at; 
but has here a sort of significatio prcegnans^ and 
denotes to look at for choice^ to bok out ; as it is 
well rendered in our common Version. I know no 
example of the elliptical phrase ; but of the com^ 
plete one Munthe adduces one, at least, from Diodor. 
Sic. 29^ D. oSro^ €7rMrice>)/a|ui6yof ras kiravTcov vofto- 
fieo-iay , €^€'k€^aTo rk KpoLTitrra, 

3. MapTi>goujX€vou$', of good repute. So Acts 10, 
22. fjMpTxipovfjievo^ tiro oXoo rot; eQpou^* On this sense 
see the note on Luke 4, 22. Pricaeus cites Josephs 
15, 13. icaXoyad/oe ftaprupocfft^vo^. Doddridge renders, 
" men of attested cnaracter.** But this is, perhaps, 
adhering too closely to the primitive sense. Into 
this error he seems to have been led by an injudi- 
cious observation of Grotius, ^^ that this shews the 
form of the Church ; namely, that for election to 
any ministry it was necessary to have the testimo- 
nials of those with whom the candidate had lived.'' 
All founded in mere fancy, and in pressing too much 
on the etymological sense. On the reason for the 
number seven the Commentators trifle egregiously. 
Lightfoot, Mede, and Dodwell, think there is an 
allusion to the seven Angels in the Apocalypse, or 
the seven nations who had murmured. The opinion 
of Kuinoel is, that there is a reference to the num- 
ber of families of which the Church at Jerusalem 
then consisted. This, however, rests merely on a 
precarious conjecture of Mosheim. The simplest 
and most rational opinion seems to be that of nein- 
richs, namely, " that it was chosen as being a fa- 
vourite and sacred number with the Jews.** 



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192 ACTS OF THE A70STLB8, CRAP. VI.' 

3. v\7ip€i9 Ilycojxarof iy/oti Ka) fl"d^W In the in* 
terpretation of this expression Commentators are 
much divided in opinion. The earlier ones take it 
to denote the faculty of working miracles ; the re- 
cent ones no more than ardour, enthusiasm^ and a 
desire for the propagation of the Gospel. But this 
latter mode of interpretation extremely lowers and 
enfeebles the sense. To steer a middle course seems 
here the most judicious step. The expression must, 
at leasts denote reception of all the higher gifts of 
the Holy Spirit, and not only that of occasionally 
working miracles ; and must include the faculty of 
knowing the truth, as it is in Jesus, and having will 
and power to propagate it by words, and exemplify 
it by actions. On this subject the reader may pro- 
fitably consult the annotations of Hammond and 
Whitby \ though the latter has been deeply indebted 
to the former, as, indeed, is frequently the case. 

As to the term <ro^ia, it seems to have nothing to 
do with knowledge of the Scriptures (though it is by 
Grotius so explained); still less impartiality (ac- 
cording to Heinrichs); but merely indicates that 
other kind of knowledge, which was equally neces* 
aary with the spiritual to the performance of the 
oflSce in question ; namely, prudence, judgment, 
knowledge of the world, and acquaintance with 
business. 

3. oiSy Kara<rn^(ro[jL€V ^tt) rrj^ PCf^af rawn^, " whom 
we may appoint^* or, as the best MSS. and Versions 
read Karourrri<roif^Vi " whom we will appoint.** This 
latter reading is adopted by Griesbach, by most 
Editors, and admitted into the text. By xp^la is not 
meant^ as some Commentators explain, fiecessity^ 
but business^ and that necessary and important. Of 
this signification numerous examples are adduced by 
Eisner, Kypke, and Wetstein. So 1 Mace. 10, 37. 
K(traarr6Ayi<r€roLi ixi ;|^peicoy roS 3aa-iX€co^. It appears 
that the Diaconal office was adopted by the early 
Christians from the custom of the Jewish Synagogue, 
in which there were three almoners, or treasurers^ 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, VI. 193 

of the poor's chest, called Q'^JTD, Shepherds^ who 
took care of the poor, especially strangers, and dis- 
tributed money every seventh day. So Maimon. 
(cited by Wets.) Collectores sunt viri noti et fidi, 
sapientes et prudentes, Bava Bathra. fol. 9. Cibr 
colliguntur per tres, et per tres distribuuntur, quia 
coliectio et distributio eorum sequales sunt. See 
also Lightfoot and Vitringa de Synag. 629 & 620. 
On these deacons consult the long and masterly an- 
notation of Whitby, into whose discussion I must for- 
bear entering, in order to be able to introduce some 
valuable illustrations of this subject from Mr. 
Hughes's Dissertation, prefixed to his edition of 
Chrysostom. de Sacerdot. (as translated by Mr. Bulk- 
ley): 

Arguing, that the order of deacons, instituted in 
Acts the 6th, was not a secular and temporary, but a 
permanent and spiritual office. (1*) Because it was 
required that they who should be chosen to it should 
be men full of the Holy Spirit, i. e. endowed with 
its excellent gifts, and very conversant in the Old 
Testament, especially the Prophecies, that they 
might be> qualified, as occasion offered, to dispute 
with the Jews, as Stephen did. Does not this imply 
an office more excellent than what relates merely to 
ceconomy ? Could the gifts of the Spirit, and a ple- 
nary knowledge of revelation, be necessary for the 
distribution of money ? An upright mind, and ap- 

? roved integrity, are sufficient qualifications for this, 
^'he deacons were appointed to serve tables, and de- 
rived from this design their name. But the tables of 
the disciples, as the Bishop of Chester observes, were 
sacred and common in the service of the Eucharist. 
It is very probable, that the deacons assisted the 
Apostles in the distribution of the consecrated elor 
ments, (2.) They were ordained, like presbyters and 
bishops, by the laying on of hands. "This solemh 
rite could never have been used for the destination of 
any one to a temporary and civil office.** (Hughes*) 
Schoettgen observes, that there were in the prim^ 

VOL. IV, o 



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186 ACTS OF THE AP08TLES| CHAP. YI. 

birth and residence in the Holy Land, and especially 
the holy city, and because the foreign Jews could 
not so accurately observe the Jewish rites as those 
living in Jerusalem or Palestine ; and finally because 
they used the holy language* See the note on Acts 
2, 4. n. 71.) 

Hence also the Christian converts, Jews who 
spoke Hebrew^ (such as are here mentioned,) held 
themselves far superior to those formed of the Jews 
who spoke Greek. Finally, the above Commentators 
appeal to Acts 11, 19 & 20. from which they think 
it appears that by the 'ExxijvitrTal are meant Grecian 
proselytes. But to this it may be replied, that the 
true reading there is 'ExXi^vay (as we have shown in 
the note on that passage). (Wets. & Kuin.) 

The last' detailed hypothesis seems to be, upon 
the whole, the best founded ; though both the first 
and second have been maintained with considerable 
learning and acuteness. I admit, however, with 
Markland, that they were Jews (see Acts 11, 19 & 
20.) ; though no more is certainly known of them, 
or the reason of their name, any more than of the 
Synagogue of the Libertines (XijSepTiWv, in which all 
the copies agree), ver. 9., as is clear (he observes) 
from the different opinions and conjectures of Com- 
inentators : an infallible mark that the passage is not 
understood. 

The^r^^ mentioned hypothesis is ably supported 
by Schoettgen, who, though he has (I think) failed 
in his principal purpose, has brought forward some 
instructive remarks on the Hellenistic style of the 
Old and New Testament, which I consider it incum-' 
bent on me to lay before my younger readers, espe- 
cially as I have reason to believe that they are little 
known, from having been introduced, as it were, 
proeter propositum, and in the middle of a commen- 
tary. 

Si quis ex me quaerat^ an credam> Novum Testamentum stilo Hel- 
lenistico seriptum esse, huic respondeo, me hoc credere, et per 
totum hoc opus demonstiatum ire 3 eed ita tamen> ut hsc sobri^ et 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 187 

cum sumro^ erga Deum reverent i& statuanfur. Nimirum Graecitas 
N. T. non est tam pura, tarn limata, tarn concinna, qualis in Demoe* 
thene, Isucrate, aui aliis priscorum temporum scriptoribiis occurrit, 
sed omnia bebraismis scatent, id quod sane contra leporem sermonU 
Attici est. Venim, quod probb notandum, culpa hujus rei non 
redundat in SpiiilURi Sanctum, divinas hasce litteras inspirantem. 
Js enim auctor est omnium linguarum, et, si voluisset, aut sapientise 
ipsius commodum fuisset, sane stilum Demosthenes et Isocrates 
millenos super^ntem Apostolis inspirare potuisset, ita quideni, ut 
Attici illi oratores prs sublimi'tate et puritate sermonis in N.T. 
videri possent barl^ri. Vcrum Spiritus S. duas pracipu^ causas 
habuit, quod banc linguam Hellenisticam retinuerit. 

1. Prima est, quia necesse erat eo sermonis gcnere uti, quod 
auditoresintelligerent. Evangelium pnedicandum erat primo Ju- 
deeis, postea Gentilibus. Utrique callebant linguam grecam, sed 
tamen rum insigni differentid. Priores eam mult is Hebraismis 
contaminaverant, sed tamen pbrases permuUas babebant ex V. T. 
petit as. Praeterea vero verani religionem majoribus traditam hue 
Usque conservaverant. Posteriores Grsecitatem quidem puriorem 
babebant , sed tamen etiam aliquantum dech^nantem, nibil autem 
vens religionis possidebant. Hinc Dei sapient ia, insuper babita 
puritatis pnerogitiva, Judsis polius condescendit, quia Judeei 
eandem religionem retinebant, mutatis tamen mutandis, gentiles 
vero novum plane cultum addiscere debebant. Ad Judseos vero sic 
loqui et scribere cogebantur Apostoli, ut ab ipsis intelligerentur, 
quemadmodum ipse Servator in concionibus suis lingua Hebraii:a 
non pura, sed corrupt a et depravala, locutus est, non, quod ipse 
Hebraeam linguam pur^ ioqui non potuerit, sed quia auditoribus 
condescendere voluit, ut ab iisdem intelligeretur. Remexemplo 
illustrabimun. Non ita pridem Franco furti ad Viadrum fato sud 
functus est Reverendus Vir, Christ ianus Milllerus, Verbi divini ibi- 
dem Minister, qui in gratium Judsorum Novum Testamentum ex 
versione Lutheri litteris Judseo-Germanicis imprimi curaverat. 
Quse res ut ad gloriam Dei suscepta erat, sic ope illius libri multi 
ex Judseis, res nostras propius introspicientes, virtute verbi divini 
ad veram religionem conversi sunt. Verum quo minus plures id 
intetligant, adeoque convertantur, adest adhuc aliquod obstaculum, 
quod ip«orum Judseorum colloquiis debeo. Nimirum notum est, 
ipeas equidem inter nos Germanos habitare, et lingu& nostril uti. 
Bed admodum depravat^, raullas obsoletas nobisque prorsus incog- 
nitas voces, imo et Hebraica satis multa admiscentes. Quodsi ergo 
hunc libnim majori utilitate gaudere velimus, necesse est, ut poli- 
tam illam vernaculi sermonis indolem, quk Divus Lutberus usus est, 
paulisper aeponamus, et in hujusmoidi stilum transformemus, 
qualem illi legere et intelligere solent. Quamvis igitur nos ser- 
monis Germanici puritatem exprimere valeamus, tamen in gratiam 
rudioris Judaeorum populi sermonem Germanico-barbarum prae- 
ferre necesse habemus. 

1. S^Ti irap€^a}poiJin'o €v tyj huiKovla t. /c. d. The 

general term SiaKoyeTv and haKwia are often, in the 



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188 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 

New Testament, applied to the collection, manage- 
ment, and distribution of the sums collected for the 
relief of the poor; as in Heb. 6, 10. Rom. 15, 25, 
Jlagadcoi^iv signifies to overlook^ neglect. Now the 
more Classical term is xapogav ; though, among the 
examples produced by Wetstein from those authors, 
there is one from Xenoph. Mem. ult. Tropad^copciv is 
used ; Koti xpo^ Touy aXXoo^ xa^adccojcuv ifJMtrrov. So 
also Diodor. Sic. S*. Ex. p. 687- crri o Mapioy — uro 
rtSy trrparriyaiv '7rap€^€(op€7TOy ra'Treivoraro^ (&¥ rmy irp^tr^ 
fieuTcSy rfj 8o^ — €v Ta7^ €ly So^av Trpoayoyyat^ vap^ewr 
p€iTo. See also Valcknaer. 

Kuinoel is of opinion that this complaint regarded 
the curators or guardians of the poor (Jews born, 
and in number exceeding the Hellenists), who were 
already elected by the suffrage of the congregation, 
and appointed to their office by the Apostles. ** The 
common hypothesis (continues Kuinoel) is, that the 
Apostles did not use any certain men for the distri- 
bution of charitable contributions, but sometimes 
One, sometimes another of the Hebrews. The opi- 
nion of Mosheim, however, (in his Comment, de 
rebus Christ, ante Const, p. 139 & 118.) is, that 
there were already certain persons appointed by the 
Apostles to take care of the poor, and relieve their 
necessity out of the common funds of the society; 
but that they were all Hebrews, and now to be 
elected by the congregation ; and that to them were 
added seven men of the Hellenists. Compare ver. 5. 

1. €9 TYj hoKovia. ** On these Deacons of the primi- 
tive Church, their origin and office, there has been 
no little dispute among the Theologians of our age, 
especially Camp., Vitringa, and Rhenferd, the for- 
mer de Syn. Vet. p. 920 seqq., the latter in his Dis- 
sertation de decem otiosis Synagogae p. 139 seqq. 
Vitringa maintains that this haxovla rwp r^awe^wv 
was extraordinary^ and confined to the Church at 
Jerusalem, in which alone that communion of goods 
existed ; and that therefore the Deacons mentioned 
by St. Paul in his Ep. to Tim. and Philo are to be 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 189 

distinguished from those of whom we here read. 
Rhenferd, however, accounts it a perpetual office 
every where to be received in the Church ; and he 
compares these Deacons with the Hebrew collectors 
cf almsy not the Catn. To me (I confess) the 
opinion of Vitringa appears the best founded ; 
though it is not my present pui-pose to weigh the 
arguments of either. (Wolf.) 

2. 7rp^<rKa7i€(rafA€vok hi o! haihcKa r. tt. t. ft. By the 
tX^os* rcov /tad>)ra!v Lightfoot would understand those 
hundred and twenty Christians mentioned in 1, 15.; 
and he thinks that the seven men were elected from- 
those only; though the number of Christians at that 
time amounted to several thousands. But his argu- 
ments have been ably answered by Hammond and 
Whitby, the latter of whom has a most instructive 
annotation, to which I must refer my readers. So 
also the word was understood by Grotius, and 
probably by the ancient Fathers ; for CEcumenius 
plainly so takes it. Grotius observes that, at that 
time, the government of the Church was such as 
Plato tells us existed at Athens ; namely, an apio-ro- 
Kparia (jlct aJSoic/ay TrXifdouy.* Mosheim (de Christ, 
ante Const. 1190 and Kuinoel are of opinion that 
the whole ^rX^doy of the Jerusalemite Christians was 
divided into seven parties, ov families, for which 
there were as many places of public worship ; and 
that hence also seven persons were elected for the 
purpose of taking care of the poor and of strangers, 
so that each/am//^ should chuse one, and over each: 
of the families one of those seven should be placed. 
St. Luke does not, indeed, give a particular account 

* 1 believe it has never yet been observed, that this is a very close 
imitation of an elegant expression which occurs in Thucyd. 2, 65. 
kylyytro re \6yf uev, hrjfioKparl^, eypf ^^, viro tov wpwrov iiyipos 
iLpxh' Many Other imitations, also, of this passage I have noted down« 
which, however, I shall forbear, on the present occasion, to detail/ 
i«8erving them for their proper place in my edition of Thucydides, 
wheie they will afford an am})Ie field for illustration and emendation.* 



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190 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 

of this oflSce, but only touches on the chief heads of 
early Ecclesiastical history, leaving his readers a 
most ample field for enlargement, reflection, and 
conjecture on what is by him so succinctly narrated. 

2. otjK ap€<rTov ia-riv. This is rendered in some 
Versions non placet ; which sense is adopted by Bp. 
Pearce and others. But by this close adherence to 
the primitive signification the real sense is sacrificed.. 
** Pleasing'' is here not an apposite idea. The 
Vulg., followed by Beza, Casaubon, Grotius, and 
others, more accurately represent the sense by ** non 
squum esU**just and rights decent. For by this the 
Alexandrian Jews expressed the Hebrew words lltD 
and IttJ^. See Schl. Lex. on Vet. Test. By Xoyoy 
is here meant in^t tract ion ; as in Job. 17> 20. ; since 
that formed the principal part of the Apostolic oflBce. 
Tindal translates, ** the tuork of God ;" in which 
version work is probably a typographical error for 
word. The expression oujc agco-riv etrrw I would ren- 
der, " it is not seemlj/j decent.'' Chrysostom para- 
phrases it by aroxov. 

2. icaraXe/xf/ayray, neglecting. A metaphor (as 
Heinrichs observes) taken from soldiers deserting 
their post. Aioucoveiv rpajre^atf. All the earlier Com-^ 
mentators unite in assigning to these words the sense 
serve tables. Doddridge renders, ** attend, see to 
the providing for tlie tables of the poor." But all 
the later Commentators interpret the words thus : 
" superintend the collection and distribution of the 
alms to be expended on the poor/' This mode of 
explanation seems to have been adopted by Grotius j 
but was first developed by Krebs (whom see). It is 
certain that rpaTe^a is sometimes used in the New 
Testament for a banquet ; as Luke 19, 23. (where 
see the note) : and since (as Krebs observes) houcoveip 
is, in 2 Cor. 8, 4 & 19., used to denote ministering 
almSf and SiaKowa the alms themselves in Acts U, 
?9., it seems most agreeable to the context to so 
explain the present expression Siaicoy€iv rpoLxi^m^. 



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ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLB8, CHAP« TI. 191 

This sense Krebs itluiitrates by a passage of Joseph. 
Ant. 12, 2, 3. ol $€ Xonro) a^ r^9 j3ao-iXiic^9 rpairf^rj^ 
ico|uti^ofA€Mi ret Xor^. 

After all, however, I see no reason why the words 
siiouid not admit of both interpretations being uni- 
ted; nay, indeed, they seem to require it. This, 
method, too, is adopted by CEcumcnius. 

3,4. eTitrice^/oMrfle — aySpay 6§ tifjicSif (JLOLprupaofjU^w^ 
4:rTa. 'ETio-iccTTopxi signifies properly to took at ; 
but has here a sort of significatio praegnanSy and 
denotes to look at for choice^ to took out ; as it is 
well rendered in our common Version. I know no 
example of the ettipticat phrase ; but of the coin^ 
plete one Munthe adduces one, at least, from Diodor. 
Sic. 295 D. oSrof iwurK€^a[ji^vo9 Tot9 oLTavrmv vojxo- 

3. Maprupoujutivou^, of good repute. So Acts 10, 
22. jxaprtipoujxeyoy wro oXow to3 cdvou^. On this sense 
see the note on Luke 4, 22. Pricaeus cites Joseph* 
15, 13. icaXoyafl/a [i^aorvpoufuevof. Doddridge renders, 
" men of attested cnaracter." But this is, perhaps, 
adhering too closely to the primitive sense. Into 
this error he seems to have been led by an injudi- 
cious observation of Grotius, ** that this shews the 
form of the Church ; namely, that for election to 
any ministry it was necessary to have the testimo- 
nials of those with whom the candidate had lived.'* 
All founded in mere fancy, and in pressing too much 
on the etymological sense. On the reason for the 
number seven the Commentators trifle egregiously. 
Lightfoot, Mede, and Dodwell, think there is an 
allusion to the seven Angels in the Apocalypse, or 
the seven nations who had murmured. The opinion 
of Kuinoel is, that there is a reference to the num- 
ber of /amities of which the Church at Jerusalem 
then consisted. This, however, rests merely on a 
precarious conjecture of Mosheim. The simplest 
and most rational opinion seems to be that of Uein- 
richs, namely, ** that it was chosen as being a fa- 
vourite and sacred number with the Jews.** 



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192 ACTS OF THE Al'OSTLBS, CRAP. Vi.' 

3. «rXi)p€i9 nr€U|xaTOf &ylov Ka) o'd^W^ In the in*-' 
terpretation of this expression Commentators are 
much divided in opinion. The earlier ones take it 
to denote the faculty of working miracles ; the re- 
cent ones no more than ardour, enthusiasm^ and a 
desire for the propagation of the Gospel. But this 
latter mode of interpretation extremely lowers and 
enfeebles the sense. To steer a middle course seems 
here the most judicious step. The expression must, 
at leastf denote reception of all the higher gifts of 
the Holy Spirit, and not only that of occasionally 
working miracles; and must include the faculty of 
knowing the truth, as it is in Jesus, and having will 
and power to propagate it by words, and exemplify 
it by actions. On this subject the reader may pro- 
fitably consult the annotations of Hammond and 
Whitby -^ though the latter has been deeply indebted 
to the former, as, indeed, is frequently tne case. 

As to the term <ro^«a, it seems to have nothing to 
do with knowledge of' the Scriptures (though, it is by 
Grotius so explained) ; still less impartiality (ac*^ 
cording to Heinrichs); but merely indicates that 
other kind of knowledge, which was equally neces* 
aary with the spiritual to the performance of the 
office in question ; namely, prudence, judgment, 
knowledge of the world, and acquaintance with 
business. 

3. ots KaTa<rn^<roiJL€V ^tt) r^f pfffiaf rawn^, " whom 
we may appointy* or, as the best MSS. and Versions 
read Kara<m)Vojui€y, ** whom we will appoint.'* This 
latter reading is adopted by Griesbach, by most 
Editx)rs, and admitted into the text. By ;(^/a is not 
meant^ as some Commentators explain, necessity^ 
but business^ and that necessary and important. Of 
this signification numerous examples are adduced by 
Eisner, Kvpke, and Wetstein. So 1 Mace. 10, SJ. 
KarourToi^<r€rai ix) j(p€iw)f toS 3ao-iX€a)f. It appears 
that the Diaconal office was adopted by the early 
Christians from the custom of the Jewish Synagogue, 
in which there were three almoners^ or treasurers^ 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 103 

of the poor*s chest, called Q'^JTD, Shepherds^ who 
took care of the poor, especially strangers, and dis- 
tributed money every seventh day* So Maimon. 
(cited by Wets,) Collectores sunt viri noti et fidi, 
sapientes et prudentes. Bava Bathra. fol. 9. Cibr 
colliguntur per tres, et per tres distribuuntur, quia 
collectio et distributio eorum sequales sunt. See 
also Lightfoot and Vitringa de Synag. 629 & 620. 
On these deacons consult the long and masterly an- 
notation of Whitby, into whose discussion I must for- 
bear entering, in order to be able to introduce some 
valuable illustrations of this subject from Mr. 
Hughes's Dissertation, prefixed to his edition of 
Chrysostom. de Sacerdot. (as translated by Mr. Bulk- 
ley): 

Arguing, that the order of deacons, instituted in 
Acts the 6th, was not a secular and temporary, but a 
permanent and spiritual office. (1.) Because it was 
required that they who should be chosen to it should 
be men full of the Holy Spirit, i. e. endowed with 
its excellent gifts, and very conversant in the Old 
Testament, especially the Prophecies, that they 
might be qualified, as occasion offered, to dispute 
with the Jews, as Stephen did. Does not this imply 
an office more excellent than what relates merely to 
ceconomy ? Could the gifts of the Spirit, and a ple- 
nary knowledge of revelation, be necessary for the 
distribution of money ? An upright mind, and ap- 
proved integrity, are sufficient qualifications for this. 
The deacons were appointed to serve tables, and de- 
rived from this design their name. But the tables of 
the disciples, as the Bishop of Chester observes, were 
sacred and common in the service of the Eucharist. 
It is very probable, that the deacons assisted the 
Apostles in the distribution of the consecrated elor 
ments. (2.) They were ordained, like presbyters and 
bishops, by the laying on of hands. "This solemh 
rite could never have been used for the destination of 
any one to a temporary and civil office,** (Hughes.) 

Schoettgen observes, that there were in the primi^ 

VOL. IV. o 

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194 ACTS OF THE APOSTLKS| CHAP. VI- 

tive church two sorts of deacons^ On the power of 
the congregation in the af&ir in question see the ex- 
cellent note of Dr. Hammond. 

It is strange, considering that the expression is 
icaTflwr^Voft€v, whom we will appoint^ that the Pres- 
byterian Commentators, and, among the rest, Dr. 
I)oddridge, should venture to explain it of what was 
to be the joint act of themselves and the whole 
Church. Such an interpretation could never surely 
have been thought of by any but such as were re- 
solved to find their own opinions in the New Testa- 
ment. His sneer, too, at the canons of the Church 
might have been well spared. He thinks that the 
three grand canon-Sy of doing all with decency, in 
charity, and to edification, would have been suffi- 
cient, and, if rightly weighed, would be found to 
vacate a great part of the rest. But the good Doc- 
tor will forgive us for supposing that the antient 
Fathers understood what was for the good of the 

Primitive Church far better than himself, or any 
'heologian of the present age ; not to say, that were 
the canons reduced to the three he mentions, a very 
great number of others must be formed, for their 
better explanation, and application. An illustration 
of the true spirit of sectarism is supplied by the cu- 
rious fact furnished by Bp. Pearce, namely, that in 
some English Bibles printed a few years before 1660 
the we is altered to y«, with what intent is obvious, 
unless it were a mere error, which is not probable. 

On ^rgotf-ica^TcgcTv, to give oneself vp to^ see the note 
on 1, 14. npo(r€u;fi9 is by RosenmuUer taken in an ex- 
tended sense to denote religious meditation, or divine 
' worship in general ; as in 1 Cor. 7, 5. and he refers 
to Luke 6, la. But he surely must mean to include 
prayers. 

We are not, however, to understand by this that 
the Apostles abandoned all care of the duties which 
they had transferred to the deacons, but exercised 
that kind of inspection over them which would, by 
a small sacrifice of time, secure the due performance 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLE9, CHAP. VI. 195 

of these duties. ** They did not (says Origen C. 
Cels.) decline that office as lowly and irksome^ but 
for the purpose of attending to more necessary af- 
fairs.*' 

5. r^p€(r€y o Xoyoy ivaiinov Travroy. This is altogether 
an Hellenistic phrase, no where found in the Classi- 
cal writers, but formed on the model of the Hebrew 
••rsa. " So Deut. 1, 23. 2 Sam. 3, 36. The Greeks 
would have said rip^tr^v waLvri r£ tttJ^^i. (De Dieu 
and Valckn.) 

5. ttXiJotj 7ri(rT€a)9 mH TlpeufiaTt^s ayiou. Uiimf is by 
the recent Commentators rendered jWe//7y, truth; 
as in Tit. 2, 10. 1 Tim. 4, 12. And this is counte- 
nanced by the two following quotations in Wetstein : 
Inxeriptio quae communem torum servavit casta ma- 
riti, et fidei plend pietatis nobilis. Cic. de Sen. ex 
Ennio. Ille vir hand magna in re, sed fidei plenus. 
But to this mode of interpretation I cannot assent ; 
since, when associated with ku) ^rvetJ/xaroy, it contri- 
butes to make up a formula such as occurs just after, 
and frequently elsewhere. See Schleus. Lex. and 
Schmidts Concord. 

5. NiKoXaov ST. *A. From this Nicolaus, Lightfoot, 
Grotius, and others, have thought the sect of AVco- 
laitans derived its origin. But the name Nicolaus, 
in the Apoc, is not the name of a sect^ but a ficti- 
tious and symbolical one; as Balaamltes in Apoc. 2, 
14. The same are, at ver. 15, called oi legarouvr^y rriv 
SiSa;^v NucoXaiToIv. So that, according to St. John's 
custom of joining Hebrew names with Greek ones, 
the Hebrew noun BaXoap. answers to the Greek Ni- 
KoXaof. The words are compounded of wkov 7^1 
and Xooy DV, meaning those who outwit and deceive 
the people. See Heuman Sjec. 2, 391. and Janus's 
Dissertation De Nicolaitis ex Hcereticorum Catalogo 
expungendis, in Ikenius's Thes. 2, 1016. seqq. and 
Eich horn's Commentary on the Apocalypse. 

Since Nicolaus is called a proselyte of Antioch, 
Salmasius and others have inferred that the rest of 
the persons here mentioned were also proselytes, but 

o2 



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196 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 

of Jerusalem, Oentiles not having yet been admitted 
into the Christian Church, which then consisted of 
real Jews and Hellenists, i.e. proselytes. But, as 
we observed in ver. 1. by the Hellenists are to be 
understood Jews and proselytes born out of Pales- 
tine, and speaking Greek ; nor does there appear any 
reason why it should be inferred that, because Nico* 
laus was a proselyte, the rest should have been so 
likewise ; nay, it should »eem that Nicolaus is rather 
distinguished from them by this name; whence it 
would appear that the rest were Jews born. More- 
over, since all the names of the persons here men- 
tioned are Greek, and some disputes had arisen from 
the Hellenistic widows being neglected, we may with 
confidence adopt the well-founded opinion of Mo- 
aheim, Michaelis, Moras, and Heinrichs [as formerly 
of Camerarius and Grotius], that all of them were 
Hellenists, and not appointed curators and guardians 
of all the poor Christians, but only of the poor Helle- 
nistic widows. See the note on ver. 1 & 2. (Kuin.) 
where see the further observations of Mosheim on 
this not uninteresting subject 

6. Tpo{r€t/§4jui€Voi eiri^rjKav aurtH^ ray j(Hpa$. As 
Koi '7rqo(rej^afk€voi is to be referred to the Apostles, 
the kol) has the force of the pronoun relative ; as in 
Mark 2, 15. 

6. 'Err^dij/cav auroTy Tot,9 X^^P^^* Selden and Wolf 
rightly deduce the origin of laying on hands from the 
age of Moses, adverting both to the seven Seniores^ 
on whom Moses laid his hands (Num. 27» 18.)> and 
to Moses laying his hands on Joshua (so that the 
custom did not arise from that of putting hands on 
the victims). Hence the same was preserved in the 
Jewish Church, which they call CT HD'^DD. See 
Vitring* de Syn. 836 & 841. who has there shown 
how it was thence introduced into the Christian 
Church by the Apostles. Kuinoel observes, that 
among the Hebrews, he who prayed for good of any 
kind upon another used to lay his hands upon his 
head, in order to shew ^€tKTiK£^,Jbr whom the bene- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLEd, CHAP. VI. 197 

fits were asked in prayer. See Gen. 18, 14. Matt. 
9, 18. Mark 16, 18. Imposition of hands was more- 
over a rite of institution to a new office (see 
Numb. 27, 18. 2 Sam. IS, 19.)f by which rite was 
designated, as it were, by symbol, the conferring of 
the office and dignity. See 1 Tim. 5, 22. 

7. icai Xoyo^ to5 06o3 rjS^aue — 6 *I. <r. Kal is by 
Kuinoei rendered and thus. A mode of interpreta- 
tion, however, too arbitrary. It has merely the nar- 
rative, or transitive, sense, and (then) ; though there 
is no reason to doubt but that the increase may be 
attributed to the wise plans of the Apostles. 

7- IloXuy T€ o;fXo$' rwv UpioiV uTrr^auwf. Since it 
would appear wonderful that any considerable num- 
ber of the priests should embrace the Christian faith, 
considering the bitter hostility they must expect 
from their unbelieving brethren, and the consequent 
expulsion from the sacerdotal office; hence many 
Critics have set themselves to devise means for re- 
moving the difficulty, either by conjectural emenda- 
tion, or by employing certain exegetical machines. 
Some would read for iV^W, 'louSoicov. But this read- 
ing, though found in a few MSS., seems a mere 
error. Besides, the sense hence arising would be 
utterly useless, after what preceded : and with ple- 
onasms of this kind the sacred writers are not charge- 
able. Casaubon, Beza, and Valcknaer, would con- 
jecture TroXwr T€ ovXoy Koii ToJv Upicov^ with the subau- 
dition of TiVcf. But this is very harsh, and not 
agreeable to the usage of the Sacred writers. Hein- 
sius, Eisner, Wolf, &der, Heumann, and Kuinoei, 
would take o;^Xoy, like the Latin turba^ of the rabble^ 
as it were, of the inferior priests^ as opposed to the 
leaders of the twenty-four classes. But this signifi- 
cation always requires the article; as in the very 
passage of Mark 12, 37* to which Kuinoei appeals. 
Besides, the difficulty would thus be rather increascfd 
tlian diminished; since this expression could not 
denote many of the plebeian priests, but only (as in 
the passage of Mark) the great bulk of the priests, 



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198 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VI. 

i. e. nearly all. The interpretation of Heinrichs, 
who takes it of the priests' servant s^ &c. is quite 
arbitrary, and deserving of no attention. 

The common reading and interpretation, after 
all, must be retained, which indeed present no real 
difficulty, if we reflect that the expression toXu^ 
o;^Xof must not be too much pressed, but taken in a 
popular sense, and only understood of a considerable 
number. Thus Chrysostom (who, it is plain, had 
our common reading) explains rodrcov toXXo), &c. 
That the whole number was very great, we may 
suppose ; since, as De Dieu observes, we learn from 
Ezra 3, 36 — 39. that the number even of those who 
returned from the captivity was 4289. So Jos. c. 
Apion 2, ?• licet enim sint tribus IV. Sacerdotum, 
et horum tribuum singulae habeant hominum plus 
quam V. M. That a considerable number should 
believe is not strange, considering the miracles they 
had witnessed both in Jesus and the Apostles, and 
the truth of the resurrection established even on the 
testimony of the soldiers on guard. 

8. TX-iiprfis Tia'T€W9 Ka) hwfafjL€a)9. Some MSS. and 
early Versions read ;fapiroy, which is preferred by 
Grotius, Mill, Wetstein, Bengel, Morus. Rosenni. 
and Kuinoel, and received into the text by Gries- 
bach. Those critics tell us that the scribes (or ra- 
ther the correctors) changed ;fapiTo$' into TiVrcoif, 
in conformity to the reading at ver. 5. and because 
they thought it more suitable to iuyafu€w9. This, 
however, is not very convincing. The number, too, 
of the MSS. is very small, and those in general 
copies of MSS. which have been tampered with. 
Nor is the authority of the Versions, in a doubtful 
case like the present, of much consequence ; where- 
as the number of MSS. has great weight. Vater 
has done well in restoring the old reading. If ^ipi- 
ro9 be the true reading, it must signify the Divine 
favour; as in Acts 18, 27. Rom. 5, 21. 6, 1. and 
elsewhere : ^ signification very suitable to the words 
following. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 199 

9. avearrria'av Sc Tiv€9 — Stc^ovo), i.e." From the vari- 
ous synagogues of Jews bom out of Palestine/' some 
actuated by anger and envy on account of the aban- 
donment of the antient faith by so celebrated a per- 
son as Stephen, sought converse with him, and en- 
deavoured to entangle him in argument, puzzle him 
with all kinds of subtle questions, and press him 
with the various artifices of Jewish disputants. But 
being vanquished by him, and reduced to silence, 
they, burning with shame and anger, suborned some 
persons who should accuse him of speaking contu- 
meliously against God and Moses. Hence he was 
apprehended and brought before the Sanhedrim. 

Xuvaywy^ denotes a public edifice, where the 
Jews used to meet for the purposes of prayer, and 
to hear the Scriptures explained. In every large 
city there were many synagogues, and at Jerusalem 
(if we may believe the Rabbis) four hundred and 
eighty. See Lightfoot on this passage, and Vitringa 
de Syn. p. 28 & 256., Deyling, in his Obs. P. 2. p. 
339., Heumann and Klotz maintain that the Liber- 
tint, Cyrenaif and the rest here named, had one and 
the same synagogue ; since we read €k r^y a-vvaywyr^g. 
But it is utterly improbable that so many thousaud 
Jews as would meet together from those regions 
should have used only one synagogue. Besides, it 
is obvious that, from the words preceding^ a verb or 
noun must often be repeated. See Glass, Phil. S. 
632. 

In the interpretation oi Ai^eprmi the Commenta- 
tors are much at variance. Now since the word de- 
notes, not nature (i. e. country), but state and con- 
dition, and since Libertini occurs in the middle of 
these names of nations, and since Joseph. Ant* 12, 1. 
&. C. Anion 2, 4. has told us that many Jews were 
removea by Ptolemy from their country, and placed 
in the cities of Lybia, Beza, Le Clerc, Gothofred, 
Valcknaer, and others, have, on the authority of 
CEcumenius, conjectured Aii3u^T/t/a>v, i. e. sprung 
from Lybia. To this opinion Wetstein also seems 



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200 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VI. 

to incline ; since he cites examples of that word frbm 
Joseph. Ant. 16, 10., Catullus 60., iElian, A. H. 14, 
14. & 17, 41., Stephan 5. in voc. KGra, and Macro- 
bius. Sat. 1, 17. But all the MSS. and antient Ver- 
sions agree in the common reading. Hence others 
understand by the Xi^orivoi Jews inhabitants and 
citizens of Libertus, in Africa proper, or Carthage, 
either a town or a district. But that there was any 
3uch town cannot be proved.* The most probable 
opinion, and that adopted by most Commentators 
from the time of Chrysostom, is, that they were Jews 
whom the Romans had taken in war, and conveyed 
to Rome, but afterwards freed; at whose expense 
this synagogue had been built, which might have 
been properly called the Synagogue of the Romans. 

* Yet Bp. Pearce observes: "We find Suidaa, in his Lexicon, 
saying upon the words Ai/ieprlyot, that it is ovofxa rov iOyovs, the 
name of a people ) and in Gest. Collationis Carihagini hahita inter 
CatholicoB et Donatistas, published with Optatus*8 works, Paris. 
1679, (No. 301, and p. 67,) we have these words, Victor Episcopue 
Eccleaue Catholica Libertinensis dixit, Uniias est t//ic; publicam 
non laiet conscientiam. Unity is there; all the world knows U, 
From these two passages it appears that there was in Libya a town 
or district called Libertina, whose inhabitants bore the name of 
Aifkpr'iyoi, Libertines, when Christianity prevailed there. They 
had an Episcopal See among them, and the above-mentioned Vic- 
tor was their Bishop at the Council of Carthage in the reign of the 
Roman Emperor Honorius. And from hence it seems probable 
that the town or district, and the people, existed in tte days 
of which Luke is here speaking. They were Jews (no doubt), 
and came up as the Cyrenian and Alexandrian Jews did, to brinff 
their offerings to Jerusalem, and to worship God in the temple 
there. Cunceus, in his Rep. Heb.2,«3. says, that the Jews who 
lived in Alexandria and Libya, and all other Jews who lived out of 
the Holy L^nd, except those of Babylon and iU neighbourhood 
were held in great contempt by the Jews who inhabited Jerusalem' 
and Judea; partly on account of their quitting their proper co\m- 
try. and partly on account of their using the Greek language and 
bemg quite ignorant of the Jewish. For these reasons it seems 
probable, that the Libertines, Cyrenians, and Alexandrians, had a 
separate synagogue, (as perhaps the Cilicians and those of Asia 
had,) the Jews of Jerusalem not suffering them to be present in 
their synagogues, or <hey not choosing to peiform their pubKc ser- 
vice in ^npgogues. wliere a language was made use of, which thev 
did not understand. ^ 

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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 201 

Ai^privnt is therefore a name of Roman origin, and 
to be explained by reference to Roman customs. 
[See Facciolati's Lexicon. Edit.] This opinion, 
too, Js confirmed by the circumstance that st/na^ 
gogue does not occur in the middle of the nations, 
but stands Jirsty and has to it added r^9 \eyofUyri9: 
whence it clearly appears that At^eprlpoi is not a 
name of region or country. Besides, there were, it 
seems, many Libertini of the Jewish religion at 
Rome. So Tacit. AnaL 2, 85. (speaking of the age 
of Tiberius). Actum et de sacris jEgyptiis Judai- 
cisque pellendis, factumque patrum consultum, ut 
quatuor millia Libertini generis, ea superstitione in- 
fecta, queis idonea stas, in insulam Sardiniam ve- 
herentur coercendis illis latrociniis, et si ob gravita- 
tem coeli interiissent, vile damnum, caeteri Italia ce- 
derent, nisi certam ante diem profanos ritus exuis- 
sent. So Suet. Tib. 36. & Phiio, p. 1014. ww9 oSy Atc- 
Seyero njv Wpay xo5 Tij3€p€ai9 ^roTOjxou jx^yaXTjv -rij^ 
VwfJLri^ a^roTOjxiJv, r^v ouk rlyvo€t KaT€^o[JL€V7iV Ka) oikou* 
fjJvriv TTpos *Io(iSa/aiy. 'Pcojxaloi 8^ ^(rav o! TrXe/ou^ ay€- 
7i€tj^€p(oQ€PT€9. Ai;fftaXa)ro» yoLp aj(^€VT€s €19 *IraX/ay, 
xnro rwv KTr^trafievtov ^XcuflcpoJdijerav ouSei/ rwv wdrpicop 
irapoL')(OL^a^ai ^ioa^evre^. 

9. KwpijmiW, i. e. Jews of Cyrene. See the note 
on 2, 10. Matt. 27, 37. Krebs here observes (ap- 
pealing to Joseph. Ant. 14, 7> 2. 16, 6, 1.) that Jews 
inhabited all the cities of the Cyrenean territory, 
and enjoyed the same civil rights as the natives of 
the country. 

9. ' A\€^avip€(»Vj i. e. Jews of Alexandrian origin. 
So Joseph. Ant. 19? 5, 2. roiy iu 'Ax^fovS^/a 'loo- 
Saiouf kol) * A.'K€^oLvlp€i^ Xeyo/xo^owy. That a great mul- 
titude of Jews had their abode there we learn from 
Philo, 971 c. oTi oiic flbro8€ou<ri fiupioScov €Karlp vfyt 
^ AT^e^oLi^peioLV kol) t^v j(ei^0LV louSoioi KaroiKoZure^f otto 
ToOy xgiy Ai^u*)V KaTai3a9jxo5 ftcp^pi rafy opicov AlBianrla^. 
The city was divided into five parts, or wards, two 
of which were entirely occupied by Jews, who had 
besides scattered habitations in the other quarters. 



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202 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 

See Philo, 973 a. That they enjoyed the freedom of 
the city, we learn from Joseph. Ant. 12, 1, 1. 19, 5, 
2.: and that they had their own prefect, or gover- 
nor, who was styled the ^flva^;^^, appears from Jo- 
seph. Ant 14, 7, 2. (Krebs and Kuin.) The word 
€dvaj;C^9 reminds me of the Lacedemonian ^euayo), 
mentioned in Thucyd. 2, 75. The Ato, which oc- 
curs just after, signifies descended Jrom (like the 
Welch ap). See the note on Matt. \5, 1. On <rti^i3- 
r€iv see the note on Mark 8, 11. It is observed by 
Doddridge, that as the most considerable synagogues 
in Jerusalem had each a kind of academy or college 
of young students belonging to it, instructed under 
some celebrated Rabbi, it is no wonder such nurse- 
ries should afford disputants like those spoken of 
here. 

10. Kcd ovK 1<r)(yoif a/tfTitrrr^voLt rr^ <ro^ia, #cal t. it. m. i. 
So^/amust, by the force of the context and of' the 
subject matter, denote divine whdom^ namely (what 
chiefly constituted Jewish learning), a thorough 
knowledge of the Scriptures, and of the Jewish Law 
and sacred history ; as is clearly apparent from the 
discourse of Stephen, recorded in the next chapter. 
By xvcwjxa is meant the divine power which sup- 
ported him and evinced its efficacy in him. See the 
note on Matt. 10, 20. Mark 13, 11. They could 
not, we' are told, resist the weight of his arguments, 
or the force and power of his oratory. Kuinoel 
thinks that there is in auria-rr^vat a metaphor derived 
from pugilism. This, however, may be doubted. 
(See Krebs on Gal. 2, 11. and the note on Luke 
21, 15.) Pricaeus cites two very similar passages ; 
namely. Sap. 7> SO. a-o^ia^ oi #caTiT;^u€»y Kouctav. 
jEmilius Probus^ in Vit. Alcib. Tanta erat commen- 
datio oris ut nemo ei dicendo posset resistere. 

1 1 . T0T6 oW^aXov oLvlpas — 0€ov. T^roiSaXX^iy pro- 
perly signifies to put under, and, (by a metaphor 
taken from the dams of animals,) denotes to introduce 
another and suppositious child to any mother. More- 
over, from the force of the uVi, under ^ it signifies to 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 203 

suggest a hint, advise, &c. ; and also Attftmittere, 
subornare, to set on an accuser in an underhand way. 
So Aristid. p. 618. (cited by Eisner) iripov^ Siaicovouf 
WTo3aXXo|*€voi T^y (rt>ftj3ouX^^ (o^ aXijfloi^ crKiafiaWiP 
oofayKa^owTi. Many other examples are produceci by 
Eisner, Wetstein, and Loesner. 

11. pij/tara 3Xa(r^K)fta 619 MoHiV^y, " impious, abu- 
sive, and contumelious speeches." This constituted 
a capi-tal offence, since it involved contempt of the 
Temple and Religion, (see Dey ling's Obs. 2, 43, 3.) 
which was thought to imply contempt of the Deity, 
by whom the Law had been promulgated, and by 
whose presence the Temple was thought to be pe- 
culiarly favoured. On 3Xa(r0>)jxa ^I^ Mmuaylv Wet- 
stein cites Joseph. Bell. 2, 8, 9. de Essenis. «3af 
§6 jtteyierTov wap^ auroTs* i^era rhv ^eop to ovofta to5 vojtto* 
S^Tou, ifov ^Xao-^JTjjLtijenr) T»y €19 toStov, icoXa^€(rdai davarco. 

12 — 14. <rwv€ic/y73<rai/ tow Xaiv, " excited the people 
to commotion." The words <rtiyfciv€« and truy^em 
are, like the Latin words commovere, concitare, 
and sometimes misceo (as in Phaedr. 1, 2, 2. civitatem 
miscere), useil of stirring up any one to anger, 
sedition, or any other of the violent passions, by 
confounding the moral perceptions. 

12. ^VierravTfy, *^ coming unexpectedly upon him." 
See the note on 4, 1. This word must be referred, 
not to the suborners, &c., but to the Xaoy, the irpefr- 
^repoiy and the ypajxjut.ar€rs». Kal is not unfre- 
quently, in Scripture, used for a pronoun relative ; 
and of this I have remarked examples in the purest 
canon of Attic style, Thucydides. On apwoL^av see 
the note on Joh. 6, 15. 

12 — 14. ^yayov ^ly to (ruvi^piov. ''Aytiv is a term 
appropriate to those who are brought before judges, 
or led to prison or execution. (See Matt. 10, 18.) 

iS. e6"Tij<ravTe [lA^ropoLg \f/€uSeTs', " set up false wit- 
nesses/' It has been much discussed in what sense 
these persons are said to be false witnesses. Many 
Commentators, as Grotius, Michaelis, and Rosen- 
muUer, think that it was because they mingled false- 



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204 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 

hood with truth, and wished it to be believed that 
what Stephen had said was spoken in abomination 
and contempt of the Temple and the Law. But the 
true reason for the appellation is that brought for- 
ward by Chrysostom and CEcumenius, and which 
occurred to Kuinoel ; namely, that they had re- 
ported the words of Stephen, perverting them to a 
sense different from that intended by the speaker. 
*' For Tobserves Kuinoel) Stephen had not said that 
Jesus the Messiah would destroy the Temple ; since 
not even Jesus himself had ever spoken to that 
effect. See the note on Matt. 26, 61. and Matt. 24. 
Stephen had not said that Jesus would abrogate the 
rites prescribed by Moses (ra ed^). Jesus had, in- 
deed, taught that the true worshippers of God would 
worship Him in spirit and in truth (Joh. 4, 23 & 24.) ; 
whence it might be easily inferred that the favour of 
God did not depend upon external rites j but that 
their observance was to be altogether neglected by 
Christ's followers, and would cease, not even the 
Apostles themselves, at the time now in question, 
believed. See Acts 10, 14. seqq. 11, 2. seqq. 15, 
20 & 21. The Jews, indeed, held the opinion that 
a Divine Legate, a Prophet, (and therefore the 
Messiah,) had power to promulgate laws respecting 
the external worship of God, to permit some, inter- 
dict or abrogate others (see the note on Matt. 21, 
12. Joh. 1, 25. Deut. 18, 18.) ; but that the Mes- 
siah would abrogate all the rites of Moses they by no 
means believed. Now if we compare the words of 
Stephen, in 7, 48. seqq. & 51. seqq., with those of 
Jesus, in Joh. 4, 23. seqq. and Matt. 23, 35. seqq., 
it is manifest that Stephen, in his discourses with 
those Jews who in ver. 9. are professedly named, 
had brought forward some more enlightened notions 
on the worship of God, and had, among other admo- 
nitions, told them that God was to be worshipped 
rather with the heart, and by right actions, than by 
sacrifices and external rites, and that the ruin of 
their state, and the destruction of their boasted 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 205 

Temple, impended over the Jews, unless thev should 
repent and acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah. 
They, therefore, hy perverting the words and mean- 
ing of Stephen, were false witnesses.'' 

There is, however, no reason to suppose that 
Stephen distinctly understood the mystery of the 
abrogation of the Mosaic Law, which the Apostles 
do not seem immediately to have understood ; and 
it is much less probable that he openly taught what 
Paul himself so many years after insinuated with so 
much caution. (Doddridge.) 

13. av^p{07ro9 ouTos. An appellative of contempt; 
as in 21,28. Luke 15, 30., and frequently elsewhere. 
Ow xaocrai p. 0. XaXoiv. AaXcuv is for XaXeiv ; since 
(as Valcknaer observes) all verbs by which any conti^ 
nuation^ or the contrary, is signified, are by the 
Greeks thus joined to participles^ and not Infinitives. 
See the examples adduced by Valcknaer and Wet* 
stein. Chrysostom remarks on the exaggeration 
contained in this expression, which hinted that this 
was Stephen's continual employment. 

By ayioo t&jtou some Commentators understand 
the city. But assuredly it must mean the Temple; 
for Jerusalem is never called &yio9 toVos*, but dyia 
iro\i9 ; whereas by the former the Temple is often 
designated ; as in Acts 21, 28. 25, 8. So also Esdr. 
9, 8. Ps. 24, 3. Is. 60, 13. Tdurou is spoken Seiicri- 
KW9 ; for in the Temple were held the sittings of the 
Sanhedrim. See Wolf on Matt. 27, 3. By voftoy 
is meant the rites prescribed by the Mosaic Law. 
(Kuin.) 'Axxa|ei. If Stephen used the expression, 
it was by a sort of euphemism for abrogate ; as in 
Heb. 1, 12. Chrysostom adds in his paraphrase icai 

15. Kal aT6y«VavT€$ €19 auroif. On the verb Atci^^Jciv 
see Luke 22, 56. Some few Commentators, as Heu- 
mann, Whitby, Benson, and Doddridge, are of opi- 
nion that Stephen's face was made to shine super*- 
naturally by a visible glory, as did that of Moses. 
(Ex. 34, 29.) The greater nutnber, however, as 



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206 ACTS OF THE AP08TLBS, CHAP. VI. VII. 

Grotius, Brennius, L'Enfatit, Pricaeus, Erasmus^ Mi- 
chaelis, Bp. Pearce, Rosenmuller, ami Kuinoel, in* 
terpret it as a prcn'erbial expression, indicating au- 
gust majesty and divine grace, such aa migljt inspire 
reverence and awe ; and they appeal to Esthr. 5, 2. 
2 Sam. 14, I?. 19, 2?. Gen. 33, 10. I am inclined 
to prefer the latter interpretation, since there is 
nothing said by St. Luke to lead us to suppose that 
this was a supernatural glory like that of Moses ; 
and, as to the passage of Exod. 34, 29m the air and 
manner of it differs materially from that of the 
present. At the same time, I admit that the august 
majesty and angelic innocence which shone forth in 
the countenance of this great protomartyr, can only 
be ascribed to the power of the Holy Spirit; and 
therefore the case of Moses may, not improperly, be 
compared with it. And this, indeed, is done by 
Chrysostom. Pricaeus appositely cites Prudent, 
(speaking of Laurentius about to suffer martyrdom) 
lili OS decore splenduit, Fulgorque circumfusus est« 
And Wetstein has quoted several Rabbinical pas- 
sages containing the same phrase ; as also Schoett- 
gen, who remarks: *^ Indigitatur autem summa 
xX7]9o^o^ia, quae Stephanus instructus coram judice 
apparuit. 

CHAP. VII. 

Now follows the apologetic oration of Stephen ; 
on the plan and intent of which Commentators are 
by no means agreed ; and, considering that the 
oration was abruptly broken off, it is no wonder that 
we should be left in the dark as to the mode in which 
the speaker would have worked up the conclusion ; 
for that Stephen was proceeding to speak further, 
is plain from the circumstance that tne multitude 
rushed upon him, stopping their ears. In detailing 
the sentiments of Theologians on the plan and 
nature of the discourse, I shall not notice the rash 
and ill-founded opinions of many critics, from Le 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP» VII. S07 

Clerc down to Heinrichs, who presume to censure it 
as little to tlie purpose, and containing some histo- 
rical errors. The latter charge will be best refuted 
by considering the matter in detail, and of the /'//•- 
mer the reader will be best enabled to judge after 
examining the following body ofinterpretation which 
1 have formed with the utmost care. 

Grotius. Hammond, Rosenmuller, and others, 
think that since Stephen had been accused of two 
things, namely, of having predicted the destruction 
of the Jewish Temple and state, he here meant to 
show that there was nothing unjust in this; and 
that his purpose in reviewing all their ancient history 
up to his own times was, to hint that the favour of 
God was never confined to any one place, neither to 
the Tabernacle, nor to the Temple ; and 2dly, that 
the Jews, if they carefully weighed their own deeds 
and those of this nation, would see how little reason 
they had to claim preference before foreigners. 
Now such a defence would not advert to the points 
of crimination in question. 

Into the speculations of Eckerman, Krause, and 
Heinrichs (which may be seen in Kuinoel), I shall 
forbear to enter, in order to be able to introduce the 
following very valuable illustrations, brought for- 
ward by Schoettgen, on the plan of this discourse. 

** In order to the understanding of this discourse, 
its scope and purpose must first be rightly settled, 
lest, while we err in that, we increase the difficulty 
of comprehending the details. Stephen was accused 
before the Sanhedrim (and, as appears from 6, 13., 
calumniousltf) of uttering blasphemous speeches 
against God, the Temple, and the Mosaic Lawj 
because he had said that all these were to be abro- 
gated by Jesus of Nazareth ; thereby intending (as 
was represented) to introduce a new religion, and 
change and annul that of their fathers. This cri- 
mination he means to refute, and show that he 
neither speaks nor teaches blasphemy, nor any thing 
that is at variance with true religion, but what is 



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308 ACTS OF TII£ APOSTLES^ CHAP. VII, 

most agreeable thereto ; and that his expressions are 
not to be so construed as if he rejected all worship, 
it merely being their purpose to show that worship 
may be pleasing in the sight of God even without 
any visible Temple, or the external pomp of Levi- 
tical ceremonies, on whose will it depends whether 
He will ordain it to be celebrated in one or other of 
those modes. The majors therefore, of his adver- 
saries is restricted ; he shows that the proof is weak ; 
and he would have satisfactorily evinced the minor 
to be false^ had he not been prevented by the fury 
of the Jews. 

The arguments which he employs to establish his 
opinion are deduced from authority, and from ancient 
history. He shows, by the examples of the Pa- 
triarchs, with whom God had been formerly con- 
versant, that the Supreme Being was present with 
them, had. imparted to them his blessings; and ful-^ 
filled his promises, before the Temple was erected ; 
adducing the example of Abraham, from ver. 9. to 
8., then introducing the Patriarch's posterity, 8 — ^ 
IS.j from whence to ver. 15., where he especially 
adverts to the migration into Egypt, ver. 14., and, 
at ver. 19., the departure from that country. Then, 
at ver. 20. seqq., he introduces Moses, the great 
Prophet, whose nativity, early fortunes, measures 
for the liberation of the Israelites, the liberation 
itself, and bis prophecy of the Messiah, he details 
with so much the more minuteness, in order to pave 
the way for convicting them of ingratitude, which had 
already been evinced towards Moses (ver. 35 & 890f 
and had been punished by God's instilling into them 
a perverse mind, prone to idolatry, some of whose 
species he now details. And thus he shews that 
God was, at length, induced to grant them an ex- 
ternal place of worship, symbols, and rites, first in 
the tabernacle (ver. 44.), then in the Temple g£ 
Jerusalem, (ver. 46.) Nor does he omit the rest of 
the Prophets, who, he briefly tells them (with a 
remarkable Traflor of indignation and anger) were. 



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ACTS OP THE APOSTI^S, CHAP. VII. SOQ 

for their sound doctrines respecting the true worship 
of God, persecuted and even put to death. On 
some points of the biography of the life of each Ste- 
phen treats, in order to manifest his adherence to the 
antient faith, and show that he does not introduce 
any new dogmas through ignorance of sacred his- 
tory, but that he rests on such a firm foundation as 
may serve to prove that he has sufficient cause for 
his profession of faith in Christ. 

Here, however, he had scarcely begun to make 
the application^ when his auditors hetrpUrro (ver. 
54); and thus abruptly brought the discourse to a 

Sremature conclusion, which otherwise, (had it not 
een interrupted,) our zealous Christian confessor 
would doubtless have brought to a most convincing 
and energetic conclusion. Hence it is that the con- 
summate prudence of the discourse is not sufficiently 
clear to the generality of readers ; insomuch, that 
many have not hesitated to affirm that it is so utterly 
devoid of sense, that nothing certain as to its ten* 
dency or object can be collected. The course of the 
argumentation appears to be as follows. 

He who at his first selecting the people of Israel 
testified that He could be worshipped without a Tem^ 
pie of Jerusalem and ritual ceremonies, did,even when 
the Temple and Tabernacle had been erected, still 
further testify his pleasure in internal worship, al- 
though this doctrine had been much objected to and 
contradicted. To say of Him, that He would, after 
the advent of the Messiah, do away those shadowy 
and images of things introduced by himself is not 
blasphemous. 

Now the Jormer argument is true; and so is the 
latter, namely, ** that I have not spoken any thing 
blasphemous ; nay, rather to you belongs the crime 
so peculiar to you, from antient times, namely, that 
of stiff-necked obstinacy and perversity. This you 
ought to utterly forsake, rendering obedience to 
^our Redeemer and Messiah, and in him alone seek- 
Mg your salvation.'' (Muller ap. Schoettg.) 

VOL. IV. p 



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f 10 ACTS OF THB APOSTLES^ CHAP. VII. 

The prefatory remarks of Kuinoel^ though partly 
derired from the above illustrations, will be found 
deserving of attention, and I have therefore thought 
it my duty to lay them before my readers. 

t^ They had accused Stephen of blasphemy, be^ 
cause he had said that Jesus would destroy the Tem- 
ple and abolish the rites ordained by Moses. To 
these criminations Stephen so answers as to briefly 
review their sacred history, selecting and glancing 
at such points as might favour his cause. This method 
was adcq[>ted, to gratify the self-complacency of his 
auditors* engage their attention, and make a stronger 
impression on their minds. Hence he mingles some 
historical circumstances connected, though some-* 
what remotely, with the case in point. Stephen, 
however, did not mean (as Krauser, Nicolai, and 
Valthusen tell us,) to shew that the Mosaic law would 
be abrogated, and the Temple destroyed ; nor did he 
expressly intend to teach that Jesus was to be re-* 
garded as the Messiah, and that he had himself, 
from reflection and deliberation, gone over to the 
Christian faith (for those were matters which had, 
properly speaking, no relation to the case in dis- 
pute): but he meant to demonstrate, that though 
the rites prescribed by Moses had God* for their au» 
thor, yet the Jews were not approved to Grod solely 
by ritual observances: that their Temple might m 
destroyed, and would be destroyed, (as it had before 
been),*unless they should repent and reform. (See Jer. 
7, 12 seqq.) He doubtless meant, withal, to take oc^^ 
casion to shew that Jesus was to be regarded by the 
Sanhedrim as the Messiah, and that his doctrine was 
to be. embraced; for, in mentioning Moses, he has 
brought forward that passage of Deut 18, 15. which 
Peter also, in 3, 22., has explained of the Messiah. He 
was, however, prevented from bringing his discourse 
to a conclusion ; for, just as he was upon the point 
of applying this narration of the fortunes of the Is- 
raelitish nation to his own case, he was suddenly 
dragged away to punishment. Though if he had been 



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ACTS OF THE 4FOflrrLKl^ CHAP. VII. dll 

permitted to cavpfete the thread of his discourse, 
ne would (I imagine), in the other part, have shewn 
how ill-founded was the confidence in which the 
Jews relied on circumcision, and the other ritual ob- 
servances of Temple service ; since, in the first place, 
Abraham, before he had been circumcised, was ap- 
proved by God, and received evident tokens of the 
Divine favour j whereas many of the circumcised 
had not approved themselves in the sight of God : 
2dly, since God had, long before the building of the 
Temple, conferred many and signal blessings on the 
Israeiitish nation; nay, did not even permit David 
to build the Temple, nor, in any way, take measures 
for its erection ; and the Temple of Solomon had 
been destroyed. Hence Stephen would have argued, 
that he had not spoken contumeliously of Moses and 
the Almighty, when he maintained that the Divine 
favour did not depend upon circumcision and the 
Temple worship ; and that the Temple might be de- 
stroyed, nay, tuould be destroyed, as it had formerly 
been, for tne wickedness and impiety of the people, 
unless they should repent, and not, after the evil ex- 
ample of their forefathers, who had rejected Moses^ 
persist in rdecting Jesus the Messiah announced by 
Moses. (Kuin.) 

As to the authenticity of the above discourse, it 
is not (as some conjecture) the mere invention of St. 
Luke (like the orations in many of the antient Greek 
and Latin historians).* It was probably formeil from 
persons who took down the speech in writing, whe- 
ther St. Luke himself, or others, including, perhaps, 
St. Paul ; in which there is no doubt but that our 
author, as a careful investigator of truth (see his Gos- 
pel, 1, 1). Had it been his own^ and formed with 

* Here, however^ I must except Thuofdides, rooet of whose om* 
tioQs appear to have been carefully foriued from documents whidi 
recorded, as nearly as possible, the actual words of the speaker, es- 
pecially in the orations of Pericles. The same may be said of some 
found in Herodotus. The subject is highly interesting, and on it I 
^hall treat at large on a more suitable occasion. 

P 2 



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204 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 

hood with truth, and wished it to be believed that 
what Stephen had said was spoken in abomination 
and contempt of the Temple and the Law. But the 
true reason for the appellation is that brought for* 
ward by Chrysostom and CEcumenius, and which 
occurred to Kuinoel ; namely, that they had re- 
ported the words of Stephen, perverting them to a 
sense different from that intended by the speaker. 
** For Cobserves Kuinoel) Stephen had not said that 
Jesus the Messiah would destroy the Temple ; since 
not even Jesus himself had ever spoken to that 
effect. See the note on Matt. 26, 61. and Matt. 24. 
Stephen had not said that Jesus would abrogate the 
rites prescribed by Moses (ra edij). Jesus had, in- 
deed, taught that the true worshippers of God would 
worship Him in spirit and in truth (Joh. 4, 23 & ^454.) ; 
whence it might be easily inferred that the favour of 
God did not depend upon external rites ; but that 
their observance was to be altogether neglected by 
Christ's followers, and would cease, not even the 
Apostles themselves, at the time now in question, 
believed. See Acts 10, 14. seqq. 11, 2. seqq. 15, 
20 & 21. The Jews, indeed, held the opinion that 
a Divine Legate, a Prophet, (and therefore the 
Messiah,) had power to promulgate laws respecting 
the external worship of God, to permit some, inter- 
dict or abrogate others (see the note on Matt. 21, 
12. Joh. 1, 25. Deut. 18, 18.) ; but that the Mes- 
siah would abrogate all the rites of Moses they by no 
means believed. Now if we compare the words of 
Stephen, in 7> 48. seqq. & 51. seqq., with those of 
Jesus, in Joh. 4, 23. seqq. and Matt. 23, 35. seqq., 
it is manifest that Stephen, in his discourses with 
those Jews who in ver. 9. are professedly named, 
had brought forward some more enlightened notions 
on the worship of God, and had, among other admo- 
nitions, told them that God was to be worshipped 
rather with the heart, and by right actions, than by 
sacrifices and external rites, and that the ruin of 
their state, and the destruction of their boasted 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. 205 

Temple, impended over the Jews, unless thev should 
repent and acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah. 
They, therefore, hy perverting the words and mean- 
ing of Stephen, were false witnesses.'' 

There is, however, no reason to suppose that 
Stephen distinctly understood the mystery of the 
abrogation of the Mosaic Law, which the Apostles 
do not seem immediately to have understood ; and 
it is much less probable that he openly taught what 
Paul himself so many years after insinuated with so 
much caution. (Doddridge.) 

13. auBptoToy 0UT09. An appellative of contempt; 
as in 21,28. Luke 15, 30., and frequently elsewhere. 
Ow xaCerat p. 0. XaXdiy. AaXcov is for XaXeiv ; since 
(as Valcknaer observes) all verbs by which any conti- 
nuationy or the contrary, is signified, are by the 
Greeks thus joined to participles^ and not Infinitives. 
See the examples adduced by Valcknaer and Wet- 
stein. Chrysostom remarks on the exaggeration 
contained in this expression, which hinted that this 
was Stephen's continual employment. 

By d/iou r^ou some Commentators understand 
the citi/. But assuredly it must mean the Temple; 
for Jerusalem is never called &yio9 toVos^, but dy^a 
?roX»y ; whereas by the former the Temple is often 
designated ; as in Acts 21, 28. 25, 8. So also Esdr. 
9, 8. Ps. 24, 3. Is. 60, 13, Tdurou is spoken S^wcri- 
k£9 ; for in the Temple were held the sittings of the 
Sanhedrim. See Wolf on Matt. 27, 3. By v({jfto9 
is meant the rites prescribed by the Mosaic Law. 
(Kuin.) *Axxa|€i. If Stephen used the expression, 
it was by a sort of euphemism for abrogate ; as in 
Heb. 1, 12. Chi7sostom adds in his paraphrase icai 
avT€i(ra^€i erepa. 

15. Koi arevltravres €19 aurh. On the verb ^rci^i^civ 
see Luke 22, 56. Some few Commentators, as Heu- 
mann, Whitby, Benson, and Doddridge, are of opi- 
nion that Stephen's face was made to shine super*- 
naturally hy a visible glory, as did that of Moses. 
(Ex. 34, 290 The greater number, however, as 



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206 ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. VI. VII. 

Grotius, Brennius, L*Enfant, Pricaeus, Erasmus, Mi- 
chaelis, Bp. Pearce, Rosenmuller, ami Kuinoel, in* 
terpret tt as a prcn'erbial expressTon, indicating au- 
gust majesty and divine grace, such as might inspire 
reverence and awe ; and they appeal to Esth. 5, 2. 
2 Sam. 14, 1?. 19, 27- Gen. 33, 10. I am inclined 
to prefer the latter interpretation, since there is 
nothing said by St. Luke to lead us to suppose that 
this was a supernatural glory h'ke that of Moses ; 
and, as to the passage of Exod. 34, 29m the air and 
manner of it differs materially from that of the 
present. At the same time, I admit that the august 
majesty and angelic innocence which shone forth in 
the countenance of this great protomartyr, can only 
be ascribed to the power of the Holy Spirit; and 
therefore the case of Moses may, not improperly, be 
compared with it. And this, indeed, is done by 
Chrysostom. Pricaeus appositely cites Prudent, 
(speaking of Laurentius about to suffer martyrdom) 
Illi OS decore splenduit, Fulgorque circumfusus est. 
And Wetstein has quoted several Rabbinical pas- 
sages containing the same phrase ; as also Schoett- 
gen, who remarks: " Indigitatur autem summa 
xXijoo^opio, quae Stephanus instructus coram judice 
apparuit. 

CHAP. VII. 

Now follows the apologetic oration of Stephen ; 
on the plan and intent of which Commentators are 
by no means agreed ; and, considering that the 
oration was abruptly broken off, it is no wonder that 
we should be left in the dark as to the mode in which 
the speaker would have worked up the conclusion ; 
for that Stephen was proceeding to speak further, 
is plain from the circumstance that tne multitude 
rushed upon him, stopping their ears. In detailing 
the sentiments of Theologians on the plan and 
nature of the discourse, 1 shall not notice the rash 
and ill-founded opinions of many critics, from Le 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP» VII. S07 

Clerc down to Heinrichs, who presume to censure it 
as little to the prurpose, and containing some histo- 
rical errors. The latttr charge will be best refuted 
by considering the matter in detail, and of the /?>/•- 
wer the reader will be best enabled to judge after 
examining the following body of interpretation which 
I have formed with the utmost care. 

Grotius, Hammond, Rosenmuiler, and others, 
think that since Stephen had been accused of two 
things, namely, of having predicted the destruction 
of the Jewish Temple and state, he here meant to 
show that there was nothing unjust in this; and 
that his purpose in reviewing all their ancient history 
up to his own times was, to hint that the favour of 
God was never confined to any one place^ neither to 
the Tabernacle, nor to the Temple ; and Silly, that 
the Jews, if they carefully weighed their own deeds 
and those of this nation, would see how little reason 
they had to claim preference before foreigners. 
Now such a defence would not advert to the points 
of crimination in question. 

Into the speculations of Eckerman, Krause, and 
Heinrichs (which may be seen in Kuinoel), I shall 
forbear to enter, in order to be able to introduce the 
following very valuable illustrations, brought for- 
ward by Schoettgen, on the plan of this discourse. 

" In order to the understanding of this discourse, 
its scope and purpose must first be rightly settled, 
lest, while we err in that, we increase the difficulty 
of comprehending the details. Stephen was accused 
before the Sanhedrim (and, as appears from 6, 13., 
calumniouslff) of uttering blasphemous speeches 
against God, the Temple, and the Mosaic Lawj 
because he had said that all these were to be abro- 
gated by Jesus of Nazareth ; thereby intending (as 
was represented) to introduce a new religion, and 
change and annul that of their fathers. This cri- 
mination he means to refute, and show that he 
neither speaks nor teaches blasphemy, nor any thing 
that is at variance with true religion, but what is 



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208 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VII. 

most agreeable thereto ; and that his expressions are 
not to be so construed as if he rejected all worship, 
it merely being their purpose to show that worship 
may be pleasing in the sight of God even without 
any visible Temple, or the external pomp of Levi- 
tical ceremonies, on whose will it depends whether 
He will ordain it to be celebrated in one or other of 
those modes. The wwi/or, therefore, of his adver- 
saries is restricted ; he shows that the proof is weak ; 
and he would have satisfactorily evinced the minor 
to be false, had he not been prevented by the fury 
of the Jews. 

The arguments which he employs to establish his 
opinion are deduced from authority, and from ancient 
history. He shows, by the examples of the Pa- 
triarchs, with whom God had been formerly con- 
versant, that the Supreme Being was present with 
them, had ^imparted to them his blessings; and ful-* 
filled his promises, before the Temple was erected ; 
adducing the example of Abraham, from ver. 9. to 
8., then introducing the Patriarch's posterity, 8 — ^ 
13.j from whence to ver. 15., where he especially 
adverts to the migration into Egypt, ver. 14., and, 
at ver. 19*, the departure from that country. Then, 
at ver. 20. seqq., he introduces Moses, the great 
Prophet, whose nativity, early fortunes, measures 
for the liberation of the Israelites, the liberation 
itself, and his prophecy of the Messiah, he details 
with so much tne more minuteness, in order to pave 
the way for convicting them of ingratitude, which had 
already been evinced towards Moses (ver. 35 & 89.)» 
and had been punished by God's instilling into them 
a perverse mind, prone to idolatry, some of whose 
species he now details* And thus he shews that 
God was, at length, induced to grant them an ex*- 
ternal place of worship, symbols, and rites, first in 
the tabernacle (ver. 44.), then in the Temple of 
Jerusalem, (ver. 46.) Nor does he omit the rest of 
the Prophets, who, he briefljr tells them (with a 
remarkable ?rador of indignation and anger) were, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. S09 

for their sound doctrines respecting the true worship 
of God, persecuted and even put to death. On 
some points of the biography of the life of each Ste- 
phen treats, in order to manifest his adherence to the 
antient faith, and show that he does not introduce 
any new dogmas through ignorance of sacred his- 
tory, but that he rests on such a firm foundation as 
may serve to prove that he has sufficient cause for 
his profession of faith in Christ. 

Here, however, he had scarcely begun to make 
the appiication, when his auditors heirpiovro (ver. 
54); and thus abruptly brought the discourse to a 
premature conclusion, which otherwise, (had it not 
been interrupted,) our zealous Christian confessor 
would doubtless have brought to a most convincing 
and energetic conclusion. Hence it is that the con- 
summate prudence of the discourse is not sufficiently 
clear to the generality of readers ; insomuch, that 
many have not hesitated to affirm that it is so utterly 
devoid of sense, that nothing certain as to its ten- 
dency or object can be collected. The course of the 
argumentation appears to be as follows. 

He who at his first selecting the people of Israel 
testified that He could be worshipped without a Tem^ 
pie ofJerttsalem and ritual ceremonies, did,even when 
the Temple and Tabernacle had been erected, still 
further testify his pleasure in internal worship, al- 
though this doctrine had been much objected to and 
contradicted. To say of Him, that He would, after 
the advent of the Messiah, do away those shadowy 
and images of things introduced by himself is not 
blasphemous. 

Now the former argument is true; and so is the 
latter^ namely, *^ that I have not spoken any thing 
blasphemous ; nay, rather to you belongs the crime 
so peculiar to you, from antient times, namely, that 
of stiff-necked obstinacy and perversity. This you 
ought to utterly forsake, rendering obedience to 
your Redeemer and Messiah, and in him alone seek- 
\ng your salvation.'' (MuUer ap. Schoettg.) 

VOL. IV. p 



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910 ACTS OF THE AP06TLES, CHAP. VII« 

The prefatory remarks of Kmnoel^ though partly 
derived from the above illustrations, will be found 
deserving of attention, and I have therefore thought 
H my duty to lay them before my readers. 

t* They had accused Stephen of blasphemy, be* 
cause he had said that Jesus would destroy the Tem- 
ple and abolish the rites ordained by Moses. To 
these criminations Stephen so answers as to briefly 
review their sacred history^ selecting and glancing 
at such points as might favour his cause. This method 
was adopted, to gratify the self*complacency of his 
auditors, engage their attention, and make a stronger 
impression on their minds. Hence he mingles some 
historical circumstances connected, though some- 
what remotely, with the case in point. Stephen, 
however, did not mean (as Krauser, Nicolai, and 
Valthusen tell us,) to shew that the Mosaic law would 
be abrogated, and the Temple destroyed ; nor did he 
expressly intend to teach that Jesus was to be re^ 
garded as the Messiah, and that he had himself, 
from reflection and deliberation, gone over to the 
Christian faith (for those were matters which had, 
properly speaking, no relation to the case in dis- 
pute): but he meant to demonstrate, that though 
the rites prescribed by Moses had God' for their au» 
thor, yet the Jews were not approved to God solely 
by ritual observances: that their Temple m^ht M 
destroved, and tvoald be destroyed, (as it had before 
been), unless they should repent and reform. (See Jer. 
7» l^ seqq.) He doubtless meant, withal, to take oc« 
casion to shew that Jesus was to be regarded by the 
Sanhedrim as the Messiah, and that his doctrine was 
to be embraced ; for, in mentioning Moses, he has 
brought forward that passage of Deut 18, 15. which 
Peter also, in 3, 2S., has explained of the Messiah* He 
was, however, prevented from bringing his discourse 
to a conclusion ; for, just as he was upon the point 
of applying this narration of the fortunes of the Is- 
raelitish nation to his own case, he was suddenly 
dragged away to punishment. Though if he had been 



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ICTS OF THE AFOflTLEl^ CHAP. VII. SI I 



Eennitted f9 cvvplete the thread of his discourse, 
e would (I imagine), in the other part, have shewn 
how ill-founded was the confidence in which the 
Jews relied on circumcision, and the other ritual ob- 
servances of Temple service ; since, in the first places 
Abraham, before he had been circumcised, was ap- 
proved by God, and received evident tokens of the 
Uivine favour; whereas many of the circumcised 
had not approved themselves in the sight of God : 
2dly, since God had, long before the building of the 
Temple, conferred many and signal blessing on the 
Israelitish nation; nay, did not even permit David 
to build the Temple, nor, in any way, take measures 
fcNT its erection ; and the Temple of Solomon had 
been destroyed. Hence Stephen would have argued, 
that he had not spoken contumeliously of Moses and 
the Almighty, when he maintained that the Divine 
favour did not depend upon circumcision and the 
Temple worship ; and that the Temple might be de- 
stroyed, nay, uwtdd be destroyed, as it had formerly 
been, for the wickedness and impiety of the people, 
unless they should repent, and not, after the evil ex- 
ample of their forefathers, who had rejected Moses^ 
persist in r^ecting Jesus the Messiah announced by 
Moses. (Kuin.) 

As to the authenticity of the above discourse, it 
is not (as some conjecture) the mere invention of St. 
Luke (like the orations in many of the antient Greek 
and Latin historians).* It was probably formeil from 
persons who took down the speech in writing, whe- 
ther St. Luke himself^ or others, including, perhaps, 
St. Paul ; in which there is no doubt but that our 
author, as a careful investigator of truth (see his Gos* 
pel, 1, 1). Had it been his own^ and formed with 

* Here, however, J must except Thuofdides, most of whoee om- 
tioos appear to have been careftiliy foroicsd from docuaients whidi 
recorded, as nearly as possible, the actual words of the speaker, et- 
peciallv in tlie orations of Pericles. The same way be said of some 
Ibund in Herodotus. The subject is highly interesting, and on it I 
dhall treat at large on a more suitable occasion. 

P 2 



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919 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ <CHAP. VII. 

Study ^nd deliberation, it would doubtless have been 
more elaborate and eloquent. As it is, it carries on 
the very face of it every mark of genuineness. But 
proceed we to an examination or the matter itself^ 
which will be found to justify ail our allegations. 

Verse 1. el apa raura otirw^ (sub. (aura), namely, 
as the witnesses have said ? This seems to have been 
a formula, not only forensic, but popular. See the 
examples adduced by Wetstein. lilarkland objects 
to €1 a^a raura ourco^, and would read either el raSra 
oSrcD^ ej(ei or apa raSra ourw^ ix'^^* ^^^^ there is no 
occasion for any change, since this is merely a mix- 
ture of the direct and indirect modes of address. 

2. ''Avipe^ aS€X<poi. See the note on 1, 11. By 
these Words Stephen addresses tiie bystanding peo- 
ple, just as by warepes tlie members of the Sanhedrim. 
Thus by Patres conscripti the Romans addressed 
the Senators. 'O ©w t^? So^y some interpret 
" splendore et majestate insignis.'* I prefer " most 
worthy of glory and honour.'* See Ps. 348, 29. 1- 
96, 7 8c8» Ap. 4, 11. This, it must be observed, is 
meant to refute the crimination of blasphemy against 
God. On X'°^PP^ ^^^ Cellarius and Schl. Lex. ''fi^di], 
namely, at Ur of the Ctialdeans. See Gen. 11, 31.* 

* That this Ur was the country of Abraham is probable, since 
those going fi-om the Ur ot* Amniian (which was between Nisibis 
and the Tigris) by the direct road to Palestine, had to pass Charse 
or Charran. Besides, Abraham and his followers were Nomades. 
Now, no country could be better adapted to the life of Nomades 
than were the solitudes of North Mesopotamia, in which was situ- 
ated the Ur of Ammianus, whose soil is so dry and sterile that it 
does not admit of being ploughed, but is only fit for grazing. (See 
Kosenmuller on Gen.) (Kuin.) To remove the slight discrepancy 
which may seem to exist between this passage and those of Genesis, 
it has been decided by the most learned Commentators, including 
Kuinoel, that Stephen here follows the tradition of the Jews, that 
God appeared twice to Abraham ; first, when living in Chaldee ; 
secondly, when resident at Charran, and commanded him to leave 
bis habitation. So Philo de Abraham, t 2. p. 11. ed. Mang, Afia 
Tf KeXtvtrdfiyai fieTavleraro — to fiev icpCtTOv kiro rfis XaXialtiy 
yfis evialfioyos \tipas — eU t^v Xafipaioy yfjy' iireira oh fiaKpay 
iarepQy, Koi Axo ravTffs cli* irepay roiroy. & p. 1?, 8. Swuts b* (tiy 
fiefiai^aj^ rily <^nr€iaay oij/iy kv biayoi^ irayUncepoy, ^a\y ovr^ o 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VII. QlS^ 

Of this city mention is made by Ammianus, Marcell. 
25, 8. Et via sex dierum emensa, cum ne gramina 
quidem invenirentur, solatia necessitatis extrenose : 
dux Mesopotamiae Cassianus, et tribunus Mauricius 
pridem ad hoc missus. 

3. e|6X9f cK T^y 7^9, &c. Nearly the same words 
occur in Gen. 12, 1. (Sept). AeSpo is a particle of 
exhortation, like Aye. The complete formula 8«Jg6 
6X06 occurs in Aristoph. Thesm. 324f. But ellipses 
in verbs of coming and going are frequent. Prica^us 
cites a similar passage from a fragment of Petronius: 
Linque tuas sedes, alienaque litora quaere, O juvenis, 
major reiiim tibi nascitur ordo. 

4. Kaic6?96v, iJL^rdi rl axodavoy rlv warepa awrou, 
" then, after the death of his father,'* &c. But from 
Gen. 11, ^6icS2. 12,4. it appears that Terah, Abra- 
ham^s father, lived sixty years after the latter migrated 
into the land of Canaan. For Abraham was born in 
the seventieth year of Terah's age (see Gen. 11, 26); 
made the migration when seventy-five years old (see 
Gen. 12, 4), and, if we add to these seventy yearSy 
he migrated in the hundred and forty-fifth year of 
Terah's age; and since Terah lived two hundred and 
five years (see Gen. 11,32), there remain seventy^ 
during which Terah lived after the departure of 
Abraham. To remove this difficulty, the Commen- 
tators have pursued various courses. KnatchbuU, 
Capellus, and others, think that the Hebrew text of 
Gen. 11, 32. is to be emended from the Samaritan 
version ; and thus the number ccv is to be changed 
into cxLv. But the number seems to have been a/- 
tered in the Samaritan MS. in order to correspond 
with chronology ; and that the Samaritans have, in 
other places, interpolated the text, has been ascer- 
tained. See the note on Job. 4, 20. and Michaelis 
Comm. de Chronologic Mosis post Diluvium, in- 
serted in the Comment. Gott. I762 — 8. Some Com- 
mentators there are who regard it as a slip of the 

itpos \6yos ii€Tav6L(nrfii — hia rovro r^v irputrfiy airoiKiay &t^ rfjs 
XaXialiay y9* els rfjp Xa^albtv Xiyerat woiel^Bat, 



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1il4 ACTS OF THE APOSTLEd, CHAP. YII. 

memory. I shall omit other far-fetched and arbr* 
trarv explications (which may be seen in De Dieu, 
Wolf, and Heuman, on this passage), and now pro- 
ceed to detail what I regard as the true solution oi 
the difficulty ; namely, that brought forward by Mi- 
chaelis, Krauser, Morus, RosenmuUer, and others, 
who maintain that Stephen here also followed the . 
tradition of the Jews, that Abraham, after the death 
(i. e. the moral and allegorical death) of his father, 
migrated into the land of Canaan. So Philo de Migr, 
Abrah. p. 463, 47* otJJ^a toiW toJj^ evrerv^Kiranf roif 

8€ aur^ To3 xarp^ft ^iceiSe Ktjjc raurtjy lurtufio'raroLi^ off 
St/oTy 7fir\ riyrwv AxoX6i>|/iy ir67roi^<rdai. For the Jews, 
in order to clear Abraham from the charge of neg^ 
lecting his father in his old age, maintained that the 
death of Terah Moses has related hf anticipation, 
because, from being a worshipper of God, he now 
became an idolater (see Josh. 24, S. Judith 5, 6 & 7): 
and thus, since alt sinners are, as the Apostle says, 
dead while they live, Terah might be accounted dead, 
on the migration of Abraham into Canaan.^ (Kuin.) 
See some remarkable passages adduced from the 
Rabbinical writers by Lightioot in his Hor. Heb., 
Wetstein, and Michaelis. Kuinoel also refers to 
Hieron. Opp. t. 4. p. 94. M^roifc/^cii^ is rarely used 
m a transitive sense ^ as here, and infra, ver. 43. 

S. Koi WK ^$aMC€y ourcD. It has been rightly ob« 
served that €^k€¥ is to he rendered dederat, and ot^ 
16 put for www. (See the note on Joh. 7, 8.) The 
$ense, then, of the passage may be thus expressed : 
'* And had not yet given him any possession in this 
land, not a foot of it, and yet he promised the pos^^ 

' * 6p. Lloyd, however, in his Chronological Index to the Bible, 
It of opinion, that what is said of Gen. 11, 36, of Tenth's being b^ 
irenty years old, relates only to the birth of Haran ; and that TenJi 
was one hundred and thirty years old when he begat Abraham. If 
so, then Abraham was seventy-five years old, and Terah (who died 
pit t^vo hundred and five) might have been dead when Abraham left 
Charran. (Bp. Pearce.) 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII« dl5 

session of it to him, namely to his postefiitf^ although 
he had as yet no offspring.** Now Abraham is com^ 
mended because he had faith in the Divine promise, 
that his posterity should c^cupy Palestine, &c. Kxij* 
jwofiia, like the Hebr. HTHa, properly denotes the 
thing heiredy or acquired hy heirship. (See Matt. 21, 
38. and Mark 12, 70 But it is also used of any pes* 
sessiofij especially that of Canaan, granted by God 
to the Israelites. Here it signifies possession, landed 
property ; as in Josh. 13, 23 & 28. (Kuin.) 

5. OuSc /3^fAa ToSoV, " not even a foot of land." A 
proverbial expression, by \?hich is signified none at 
all; as in Deut. 2, 5. Gen. 8, 1. examples of which 
are adduced by Wetstein from Liban. Or. 312 d. 

ToS}. Cic. ad Attic. 13, 2. Quomodo nunc est, pe^ 
dem ubi ponat in suo, non habet. So Agapet. C. 
16. (cited by Pricaeus): kol\ bI piv (xXotitrwi) Kurd^ 

WW (TT^irmt rk veT^fiara. 

5. Ely Kar6ur)((E(nvy subaud oJ-rijy* for a>(rT€ if«r^;^€ii> 
aurr^v. Nor is this a Hellenistical use. I remember 
to have met with the same idiom in Thucydides. 
I^ra<r;^€ff-ir, which, in the Sept. answers to the Heb. 
n7P0 and TWnAy indicates '^occupancy^ possessions'^ 
So Joseph. Ant. 9, 1, 2. oi Ti)y ine aorou SoOeSroy yiji> 
is Kmraa"X€S'i}t a^^cdou va^ia-tf airoiis. And KaT€^ 
X^^iff in the sense of inhabit , occurs in Joseph. Ant. 
1, 11, 4. «,7»2. Philo, 1014 c. Koi here meant 
nempe, scilicet. 

6. icrai TO arrepfui. The passage is quoted from 
the Sept. version of Gen. 15, 13; but from memory. 
Compare the Hebrew and Greek. By x^poiicoy the 
Alexandrian Jews expressed the Hebrew *ia, a 
stranger i and vot^oucetv occiu^ in Isocr. Paneg. C. 
43. Kojcouv, ill-treaty afflict. The verb is used in 
this sense by the best Greek writers, from whom ex- 
amples are adduced by Wetstein. 1 add iEschyl. 
P. V. 1012. It very frequently occurs in Thu- 
cydides. 



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216 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VII, 

6. r€rpoLKi^ia^ four hundred. Or rather (as it 
seems from Joseph. 2, 15^ 2.) four hundred and 
thirty. But Stephen uses a round number; which 
is often found in historians, and is still more admis- 
sible in an oration like this. Thus Josephus him^If, 
Ant 9, 1. and Bell. 5, 9, 4. limits it to four hun- 
dred. (See Krebs on this passage.) Many Commen- 
tators, however, as Hammond, De Dieu, and Wolf, 
maintain that the Israelites only abode in Egypt 
two hundred and Jif teen years; and thus the space 
of four hundred, or four hundred and thirty years, 
must be reckoned not only up to the end of the 
Egyptian bondage, but also to the peregrination of 
the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in Egypt. 
This opinion rests chiefly on a passage of Gal. 3, Vjf. 
where mention is made of the promise given to 
Abraham, and where the Law is said to have been 
promulgated four hundred and thirty years after. 
An appeal is also made to the Samaritan text of 
Ex. 12, 40. and the Sept. Version. In the former 
we have : 

In the latter : ij Ze icaroiVci}(ri^ r£it uiaJy *la'^(Kj[K i^f icarcp- 
KTitrav €v yy\ Aiyt^rrco icaJ tV rri Xavaai^ (in the Alexan- 
drine MSS. there is added, aJro) icai oi warepe? ai- 
Toov) €Tri rerpoKoa-ia t^ioicovto. [Hence there have 
been those who propose to alter the Hebrew text 
after the Samaritan or Septuagint. But, as Deyling 
observes, this would be cutting, not untying, the 
knot. Edit.] Finally, they quote Joseph. Ant. 2, 
15, 2. where he mentions two hundred and fifteen 
years as the space of time during which the Israel- 
ites continued in Egypt. But to these arguments 
it has been opposed, 1st, that as to the passage of 
Galatians, since no fuller commitation of the years 
before Jacob's departure into Egypt existed in the 
Old Testament, and it was not St. PauPs intention 
to adjust this chronological difficulty ; he therefore 
used the common and generally received period 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 217 

of time between Abraham and Moses, little solicit- 
ous whether it might be more agreeable to chrono- 
logical computations to refer the beginnings of those 
years to the times of Abraham or to those of Jacob. 
(See Kopke supra.) 2dly, that the argument drawn 
from the consent of the Samaritan text with the 
Sept. is not of much weight; since either the Sept. 
acted the part of paraphrasts, and inserted a gloss 
into their text, which came from thence into our 
Samaritan MSS., or the Sept. translated from a Sa- 
maritan MS. (as Hassenkamp has endeavoured to 
prove in an express Dissertation): and moreover, in 
matters of chronology, the Samaritan text and the 
Sept. are not to be much relied on, since (as Mi- 
chaelis observes) the more recent scribes used to 
V alter the text according to a particular system. 
Sdly, that if the four hundred be referred also to the 
peregrination of the Patriarchs, the word Koi Sou- 
Xeuerouiri ottJrotip K<ti Koucwtrownv will not be apposite. 
4thly, that if the abode of the Israelites in Egypt be 
maintained to have comprehended only two hun- 
dred and fifteen years, one does not easily see how, 
in so short a time, they could have increased to so 
considerable a number.^ 5thly, that the passage 
of Joseph. Ant. 2, 15, 2. was corrupted by the 
scribes, who had been accustomed to the Greek 
Bible, and was emended according to the chrono- 
logy of the Sept.; which has been done in other 
places, as we learn from Emesti^ in his Exerc. 
rlav. 1. 

Hence, to any unprejudiced person, it will easily 
appear that the opinion of those Commentators is to 
be preferred who think that the Israelites abode in 
Egypt two hundred and forty-three years ; in proof 
of which see Koppe*s Dissert, published in 1777- 
(Ktiin.) 

7* K^wS, I will punish: a sense frequent in the 

* And yet the rate of increase in population ascertained to have 
taken place in some parts of North America would seem to fuUy 
justify it. 



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SI 8 ACTS t>F THJK AP06TLE8, CHAP. VIL. 

Old and New Testamoit. AaT^cuo-oiMri mi h rcS 
rar<p rotmo, i. e. in Palestine^ where Abraham then 
was« Tifir%9^ it must be observed, is often used of 
countries. (See the note on Job. 14» 2.) So Xen. 
An. 4, 4, 2. i r^o^ oSrop ^Apfi€pia cKoXciro i} x^f 
hrwipm. To which we may add Herodot. 3, 14^ 2. 
and Isocr. Evag. 9, 12. These words, however, are 
not found in Gen. 15, IS 8eqc|. Krebs and others 
observe that we have them tn substance in Gen. 
15, 18. But some Commentators, more justly, su{>^ 
pose them to be taken from Exod. 3, 12. For it 
was a custom with the Jewish Doctors, (followed also 
bv the writers of the New Testament,) when they 
cited any oracle of the Old Testament, to add some 
words elsewhere employed on the same subject, and 
those sometimes a little changed, and this in order 
to amplify the thing. (See Surenhus. on the quota^ 
tions.) Now this Stephen has here done. Besides, 
he does not say that tne words were spoken to Abre^ 
ham, but simply £*XaX9](r£ ^ oSroif o 0€&f . (Kuin.) 

8. e&0i0ev ouirw SioOi^icigy ire^irof/i^^. Aiodi^ is used 
generally of any constitution or * disposition ;** and 
hence oi a covenant or compact , which is founded on 
promises and conditions. Thus it may, like the 
Hebr. tV^iSL, denote promises (see the note on Acta 
3, 25.) and laws^ or precepts. (See Ex. 19> 5. Hos. 
6, 8.) Now the sense covenant is utterly unsuitable 
to the passage, since circumcision cannot be called 
a covenant y but circumcision might be said to be a 
sign of a covenant, i. e. something which attests it, 
and by which it may be known that we have a cove- 
nant with any one. Thus circumcision is, in Gen. 
17, 11. said to be a sign of a covenant, and, in IS., 
simply a covenant, i. e. a sign of the covenant by 
which Abraham and his posterity were bound to the 
worship of the true God, or by which it was known 
that God had given promises which he would keep 
and observe. This signification, however, of hiaAriKti 
is rather uncommon, and it seems better to give it 
here the sense of mawda/e, law, &c.; and £hus the 



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ACTS OF TUB APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 919 

words may simply be rendered : ** He gave to him a 
precept of circumcision,*' or ^* he prescribed to him 
the rite of circumcision/' (Kuin.) Grotius renders 
the Koti thus: ''Post eximia promissa*'' But, in 
truth, jco) may mean and (then). OSrtos Kuinoel 
considers as pleonastic, and only noting consequence. 
It rather signifies and so; as on:en both in the Clas- 
sical writers and the Scriptures. Harpiapxf^^f pa- 
triarchs; so called as being heads of ^rarpiol, or 
tribes. Thus Hesychius explains varpta by ^t/X^. 

9. ^i]Xa»<rayr€f 'Ioiot^^, envying. So 17, 15. 1 Cor. 
13, 4. 1} oyam) ou fijXoi. Sir. 9, 11. ptij JijXaenjy 8o|ai^ 
AfMLprcoXwi. The word answers to the Hebr. M3p in 
Gen. SO, 1. 27, 10. Sir. 9, 11. Here we may ob^ 
serve that the ratio metaphorce is the same in the 
Hebr. M3p (from whence kvouo, to gnaw) and the 
Greek ^doi^^co, i. e. to pine away; which is applicable 
to all the more ardent affections, especially envy 
and Jealousy. Markland points the passage thus : 
^7\7\xo(ravr€s riv 'loxn^ip, ^ireSovro fawroi^] €i^ Afyurrof, 
and observes that here there is an ellipsis of the 
participle icofti(r6ij€rdjX€voj>, or A;^<ro|xarw sold Joseph 
to be carried into Egypt^ which is frequently to be 
met with in the best Greek writers, as Herodotus, 
Aristophanes, Euripides, &c. Kuinoel refers to 
Glass, Phil. S. 185. and adduces from Valcknaer 
and Eisner the following examples. Horn. Od« 15, 
S86. ijS' mlpwirav TouS* ayS^^ irp^^ &i»fiuxd\ And 443. 
mnko ear €i^ Kt/r^v |€/ya> Soerocv iam&TWfn. Herod; 
2, 5o. 2 Mace. 4, 32. j^a-aifMLra riifa — ir€7rpoucto£ ch 
T€ Tt!^y Koii Ta9 Kt>KXtt> ir&K€i9. So also Xen. Ephes. 
5. oiroSiStcrflai €iy 'Iraxixf. On which see Hemst* 
Misc. Obs. 6, 343. Herodot. 2, 56, 10. Ai0uy) Torp^- 
^ai : where Valcknaer would read h AijStnjv, and ob- 
serves that the phrase is frequent in that historian. 
He also cites Herodot. 8, 105. iraiSay c^oiXcc h Xap- 
$ir r€ 9cAyE(i>env. Demosth. p. 708, 23. irpaAeh ek 
AcuKo&t. Other examples are adduced by Eisner 
from Lysias and Demosthenes, in all which the verb 
IS what the grammarians call a vox pirasgnans. 



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320 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. Vil. 

9. fca) ^f 06iy jX6T airoS. Here kol), like the Hebr. 
\ signifies but^ or yei. The formula ft€r adroS is 
frequently used of help^ deliverance, &c. See Krebs 
and Loesner in loc. 'E^e/Xero, delivered out ufi a 
signification frequent in the Sept., and which some- 
times is found in the Classical writers. So Demostb.. 

10. Koi €hioK€v aiuTii X^P^^ ^^ (To^iav, The most 
learned Commentators, as Camerarius, Grotius, 
Loesner, Valcknaer, Rosenmuller, and Kuinoel, are 
agreed that here we have the figure hendiadis, by 
which ;tapiv Koi tro^lav is for yapiv iro^/iay, *'gave him 
favour in the sight of Pharaoh by his wisdom." Now 
this aro^ia (wisdom) not only respects his interpreta- 
tion of the dreams, but his subsequent prudent ad- 
vice to the king. See Gen. 41, 33 seqq.* 

10. Koi KaT€(rTri(r€if. Here Koi is for the relative 
who. A frequent Hebraism, or rather a relick of 
the simple phraseology of antient times. Oltco^i as 
used of a king's house, signifies auh, palace. 

11 — 13. x^pTouriMLTa is properly applied to pro- 
vender or food for cattle ; but here it is usea of 
food for man j as is x^^ra^ca frequently in the New 
Testament, and sometimes in the Greek writers, 
especially the later ones. Of yoprcurikls in this sense 
an example is produced from Anaxandrides ap. Pol- 
lux by Valcknaer. 

12. (Tira, corn. The student will observe this 
use of the plural for the singular, and of the neuter 
for the masculine termination. Eustathius (cited by 
Wets.) observes that the neuter form denotes loaves^ 
bread. IIpcDroy is for ir^ir€pov. '£v t£ Zeoripmy subaud 
XP^vif. By this is not meant (as l(uinoeI explains), 
"on the famine appearing a second time,** but "at 
the second time of their going.*' 

13. aveyvapitrdrj *l(0(r^^ r. a. By this word the 
Sept* render the Heb. VTliin. The Vulg. Erasmus, 
Beza, and others, assign to ave/. the sense recognised. 

* It 18 truly observed by Philo, that in him e^^Xafiipe KoXoyadlag 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 221 

But as Joseph recognised and made himself known 
to his brethren, not they to him, I agree with De 
Dieu and Kuinoel, that the sense of the Heb. is 
better rendered by the Syriac and Arabic " Joseph 
made hinnself known to his brethren." The conju- 
gation Hithpael answers to the reflected verbs of our 
modern languages. 

14. a7ro<rT6iXaff 8e 'lawr^^ jiter^icaTveo-aro. 'ATrcwreXXco, 
like the Latin mitto, often, as here, signifies to send 
messengers, or letters, &c. 'Ev 4^;^a?y ^08ojx>jicovra- 
«-€yr6, subaud (ruyio'rajut^vijv, consisting of seventy-five. 
So Deut. 10, 22. cv cjBSofjMjicovTa ^-xais KaT€^(ra^ oi 
varkpes <rot> €\s a. In reconciling this passage with 
the parallel one of Gen. 46, 27. the Commentators 
are put to great streights, and devise various me- 
thods of removing the difficulty. As to the conjec- 
tures hazarded, they merit little attention, since they 
are supported by no authority, and violate propriety 
of language. For (as says Markland) in the conjec- 
ture €0SojutiJ^oyra rravres for t€vt€, the language re- 
quires robs TToyraff, not Travre^; nor is ^avrcos any 
better, which never signifies in alt, when speaking 
of number. See also Krebs. Most Commentators 
are of opinion that Stephen (an Hellenist accus- 
tomed to the Sept. Version) followed different modes 
of computation to those pursued by Moses. Those 
interpreters, however, differ among themselves as to 
the persons who made up that number. (See Wolf 
and Bowyer.) Coluvius, Buddeus, Krebs, Loesner, 
Rosenmuller, and others, are of opinion that Moses, 
who has only made mention of seventy, means those 
who went into Egypt with Jacob : whereas, Stephen 
and the Sept. interpreters, who have named seventy- 
Jive persons, have spoken of those who were invited 
into Egypt by Joseph, and that those amounted to 
seventy-five, reckoning the vnves of Jacob (namely, 
Rachel, Biihah, and Silpah), and the sons of Judah 
(Ger and Onan) : that those sons, indeed, if Judah 
died before the departure into Egypt, as did Rachel 
(see Gen. 35, 19.) ; though of that Joseph was igno- 



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MS . ACTS or TUB APOSTLES^ CHAP. Til. 

rant. But (as Kuinoel observes) beswkt Mmekel, 
the rest of the wives cf Jacob, namely, Leah (which 
one those kterpreters do not reckon in the number 
cf those invited by Joseph), Bilhah^ and Silpah were 
dead (see Gen. 49, 31. 43, ?• **» 19. 46, 5.); and 
of that, undoubtedly, Joseph was not ignorant. See 
Gen, 43, 7. 44, 19. ** Besides (continues Kuinoel) in 
Gen. 46, 26. all the persons named are said to have 
come out of the loms <^ Jacob ; which cannot apply 
to his wives; and, moreover, it is there expressly 
said, that the wives of Jacob were not to be included 
in the number.'* Kuinoel then proceeds to observe 
that the most probable solution is that adopted by 
Hammond, Capellus, Wetstein, Michaelis, Kreuse, 
RosenmuUer, and others, who remark that the Sept. 
(whom Stephen followed) numbered amongst the 
posterity of Jacob the five sons of Manassah and 
Ephraim, bom in Egypt ; and that these were omit- 
ted by Moses because they were born after Jacob*s 
departure, but by the 70 at Gen. 46, SO., are ex* 
pressly added from Paral. 7, 14. Nor need it be 
objected to this mode of removing the diflSculty, 
that those five grandsons of Jacob did not go down 
with their father into Egypt ; for if that objection 
were of any weight, neither would the total of the 
Hebrew reckoning amount to severity ;. since in the 
catalogue there are numbered also Joseph, Ma* 
nassah, and Ephraim, of whom the first did not 
depart with Jacob into Egypt, and the two others 
were horn there. Therefore, to use the words of 
Hammond, " the number, whether seventy or se- 
venty-five, belongs not precisely to those that come 
into Egypt, but to the progeny of Jacob there, of 
which because a greater part came down with him 
thither, therefore the greater part giving the deno- 
mination to the whole, it is said that so many went 
down with him, though some of that number were 
born there, who consequently were then in the loins 
of their parents (according to the sacred style, and 
by a figure frequent there) as Levi is said, by th^ 



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ACTS OF TBB AP08TIJ£i> CHAF. TII« 329 

author to the Hebrews^ to have paid tythes to Mel- 
chisedech, though he were not bom till many years 
after that Abraham did so ; or as in the enumeration 
of Leah's prc^eny in this very chapter of Gen. 5, IS* 
where having reckoned both her children and chil- 
dren's children to three generations, of which only 
six sons and a daughter were born in Padan-Aram^ 
or Mesopotamia, and all the rest in Canaan, he yet 
adds, ^' These be the sons of Leah which she rare 
unto Jacob in Padan-Aram, with his daughter Dinah> 
all the souls of his sons and his daughters were thirty 
and three." 

^^ That there were (observes Kuinoel) in the age 
of Stephen various calculations of the number of 
those who went with Jacob into Egypt (and conse* 
sequently that we are not to suppose any inaccuracy 
with regard to this in Scripture), is moreover evi-^ 
dent from a passage in Philo de migr. Abrah. p. 
419 B. where he touches on this matter in the course 
of an allegory, and mentions both numbers." 

Dr. Whitby says, he sees no reason why the He- 
brew, the Sept., and St. Stephen may not ail be right. 
But though he details this latter mode of solution, 
yet he evidently inclines to the former. Markland 
observes, that there are so many things in Scripture 
related with different circumstances, that he sees no 
reason why Moses's seventy and Stephen's seventy* 
five, may not both be true. ^^ If, indeed, (continues 
he,) Moses had said, * But there never were more 
of Jacob's family in Egypt than seventy,' there must 
have been a mistake somewhere or other. The Sep- 
tuagint (or whoever first made the alteration) were 
to blame if they put down seventy-five instead of 
what they found in Moses's seventy ; because though 
the thing were never so true and certain, yet they 
ought not to have acted the part of Hutorians^ but 
of Interpreters^ 

The question is, indeed, a very perplexed and 
dubious one ; though, like most such, it is of little 



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SS4 ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 

importance. I am inclined to adopt the solution of 
Hammond and others. 

16. lurer^Qr^av — 'A0paaft, &c. Here again we 
encounter what appears to be a contradiction. For, 
in the first place, Jacob and the twelve Patriarchs 
are said to have been buried at Sichem. Bat Jacob 
(as we learn from Gen. 49, 30. and Joseph. Ant. 2, 
8, 7*) was buried in* the cave of Machpelah, near 
Hebron. His bones, indeed, the Israelites are said 
to have brought with them out of Egypt, and buried 
at Sicham (see Gen. 50, 25. Josh. 24, 32.) ; but of 
the place where the rest of the Patriarchs were 
buried nothing is said in Scripture. 2. Abraham is 
here said to have bought the sepulchre with a sum of 
money from the sons of Emmon, father of Sicham. 
Yet it was not Jbraham but Jacob that bought of 
the sons of Emmon afield at Sichem for cultivation, 
at the price of an hundred kesits, i. e. (on the autho- 
rity of the Greek and other ancient interpreters) an 
hundred lambs. (See Gen. 33, 19) Abraham had, 
indeed, bought of Ephron a field and cave (for the 
purpose of burial) near Hebron, for four hundred 
shekels. These difficulties may, however, be satis- 
factorily solved, if fji6Te9>j<ray and credijerav be referred 
only to the words oJ 7rar€p€9 t^imSv, and 'ASjoAjx be 
cancelled as spurious. The passage may then be 
thus rendered : " they were removed to Sichem, 
and were buried in a sepulchre which had been 
bought for a sum of money from the sons of Emmor, 
father of Sichem." Now it was a common tradition 
of the Jews, not only that the bones of Joseph, but 
also of his eleven brethren, were buried at Sichem ; 
as appears from the Rabbinical passages cited by 
Lightfoot and VVetstein. And so Jerome, in his 
Ep. 86. But Josephus, Ant. 2, 8, 2. says that the 
Patriarchs were buried at Hebron. The tradition, 
therefore, was twofold, and different. And since we 
learn from Scripture that at Hebron were buried 
Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Jacob, and (accord- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIl. 225 • 

ing to report Adam and Eve, especially, too, asno- 
thing is said in Scripture of the burial-place of the 
brethren^ so arose the tradition that the brethren 
also of Joseph were also buried there. 

At oJi^eraro Beza, Bochart, and Pierce subaud la- 
Kcofi, from the context (compare ver. 15) ; and they 
think that 'A0|ao^ft was foisted in. So also Baver, 
Wassenburg, Valcknaer, and Tittman, who refer the 
word, (with great probability,) to the glosses. It is 
unquestionable, that sometimes all the MSS. unite in 
a false reading (see the note on Mark 15, 25) ; and 
the introduction of the present one may easily be 
accounted for. 

16. oiwjVaro is to be taken impersonally [by a 
subaudition of n^. Edit.], and rendered, *• which 
was bought.*' At rift^y apyupiVj subaud otvTi ; as in 
Matt. 10, 29. As to a^piov, (the Hebrew for which, 
is mo'^tDp,) its signification is uncertain. Rosenmullei' 
and Michaelis think we cannot well understand it of 
coined money, since its antiquity reaches not so far 
back. Michaelis is of opinion that it was an antient 
silver weight unknown to us. The Sept. render it 
iKccrh oftycSy, which Bochart, Hammond, and others> 
understand of a coin stamped with the image of a 
lamb. (Kuin.) 

But if the antiquity of coining be really not so 
anlient (though here I desiderate authorities in 
proof), this conjecture (which seems to have been 
suggested by the etymology of the Latin pecunia) 
must be abandoned. I am, however, inclined to 
think that for oftyoiy the true reading is jxvcoy. The 
ou seems to have originated from the ov ; such as hai^ 
happened in a thousand other cases. To this con- 
jecture, however, (in which, I find, 1 have been antU 
cipated)^ see what is objected by Schleusner, in his 
Lex. Vet. Test, in v. a/xvoy, who adopts the conjec- 
ture of Hammond. 

17» 18. Ka^m 8i yiyyia-ev o ;tpoW t. i. Kafloiy here 
signified (i^ter thaty when; as in 1 Cor. 5, 7. 2 Mace. 
1,31. HoJim $e w-ufi^^ tol t^^ dueias, &c. Xfo¥os 

VOL. IV. a 



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226 ACTS or THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIU 

rJJr cTotyy^XiW, by a sort of popular ellipsis, signified 
the time for the fiilfilinent of the prediction (^y 
being put fori^v) which had promised to Abraham a 
very numerous offspring, a deliverance of them from 
their oppressors, and the possession of the land of 
Canaan ; all which is here alluded to. 

18. av^emj, was created. For a^oATrrivai, like the 
Hebr. CDp, is used of advancement to any dignity^ 
especially royal. So Exod. 1, 8. 2 Kings 23, 25. 
By ir€f>f^9 &a(n7<€u9 is meant not only another hingj 
but of another family, or dynasty; as we find from 
Joseph. Ant. 2, 9, 1- 

18. otiK ffi€t rh 'loMTTjc^. Many Commentators ren- 
der, hnew not. But that the new king should not 
know Joseph and his actions is very improbable, in a 
country where historical events were carefully re- 
corded by the priests ; nay the very appearance of the 
Israelites would effectually perpetuate the memory 
of Joseph. Kuinoel explains the words thus: 
** Cared not for, had no regard to Joseph or his me- 
rits (and indeed we have a similar idiom in our 
own language, namely, neither know nor care); for 
examples of which signification he refers to I Thess. 
4, 4. 5, 12. and to Abresch. on iEschylus. I prefer, 
however, with others, to render ji^ei "was ill-dis-» 
posed towards :" a sense found in Matt. 25, 13. and 
many places of the New Testament. He was (in 
fact) /// disposed towards the Israelites, whose rapid 
increase of population made them appear formidable 
to the King ; and hence he could not be otherwise 
disposed towards Joseph, who had been the means 
of introducing them into Eg}'pt. 

19- ouTof, Karouro^io-apeyof — Trarepa^ ij/tcuv. Kara- 
ro^/o-aerOai, which in the Sept. at Ex. 1, 10. Eccl. 7, 
17, Ps. 105, 29. answers to the Hebr. DSnnrr, de- 
notes properly to subdue by artifice, circumvent^ de- 
ceive. So Joseph. Ant. 6, 11, 4. (speaking of Mi- 
chael deceiving Saul, and by stratagem delivering 
David from his snares), says : jtt^x^ojxevou rou xarpo^ 
9^tj7r^¥ on <rw(r€i€ fxhf rdV €)(dpov aJroS, KaroLO'o^ltrairo &* 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Vll. 227 

ovroy. Judith, 5, 11. Ka) eTravco-nj afjTo7y 6 3aa'iX6u^ 
Aiywrou, Koi Karea-o^la-avro aJrowy €v Troyco Koi €V ?rXiV- 
A«», KotH erosr^iMM'ety aurot^, ica2 edevro avroup e!^ SotiXou^. 
& 10, 21. Other examples may be seen in Kypke, 
Krebs, Wetstein, Munthe, and Loesner. But the 
true force of the word is best expressed by Pricaeus, 
in the following paraphrase : " By oblique arts and 
crafty counsel he plotted our destruction, by im- 
posing upon us (^ogria W^aora/cTa, heavier burthens 
than we were able to bear, that we might, without 
open force, be reduced to extinction." So Ezechiel 
the Tragedian, cited by Clem. Alex. AoXov Ka(f iJjxrSr 
iroXiy i[jLri^avri(raro ^cunT^^hs 4>agao' and Philo, on this 
very subject : ngv \(r')(yv ouirtSy ispatqeiv iwivolcLis apoa-i* 
dopyoiff fjutTjp^avaro, and not onl^ by imposing severe 
labours, that they should be thereby deterred from 
matrimony, or abandon their children,* and be 
themselves worn out by excessive fatigues. 

19. ToG TToieTv €Kd€Ta ra ^pt(pri athwu^ subaud ^v^/ca. 
Iloifiv €Kd€Ta is for iicTid^va^y which is a word appro* 
priated to the exposure and abandonment of infants. 
So Eurip. Ion. 18. fxi^vcyice 0g6^of Eiy t aurov avrcot 
^'^KoucTi^r^av oJy flayoujtAfyoy. Philo, 604 B. (cited by 
Loesner) : SfSaxpvjxeyoi rov waTBa iicn64a(ri Tregi ray 
JySay roS ^orajxou. Thus these words are to be re- 
ferred to the Israelites exposing their own in/ants, 
sot (as some explain) to the Egyptians ordering such 
exposure. 

19* Els' TO jtt^ ^aoyoveiirdai (scil. ri 3j€^), that 
they might not be preserved alive^ to experience the 
miserable fate of their parents. The word ^oioyom- 
<r9at occurs in Gen. 6, 19. Judith 8, 19. 1 Kings 20, 
SI. and elsewhere. 

20. €v ii Kaigco eyeyyijdi) Moio^y, Koi ^v curretos rcS 
06tt>. *Aa-T€Tof, irom the dative 3,irr€i of outtu, signi- 

'^ Thus, aB we learn from traTellers, the female North American 
Indians, on the same principle, often deliberately destroy or abandon 
their /«na/c infants, in order to save them from the miserable fete 
which attends the weaker sex among those and all other barbarous 
tribes. 

q2 



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*28 ACTS^ OF THE APOSFLEf, CHAP. Vlf. 

fie8, like the Latin ttrbanusy ctty4ihe, elegant^ polUe^ 
at opposed to rfyjoiicoy. See Etym. Mag. Now, since 
the inhabitants of towns are supposed to excel those 
of the country, not only in politeness and wit, but 
in grace and personal beauty^ so the word came to 
mean handsome^ * as here, and in Judith 11, 23. koX 
fuv aa-reioL el ^ €v tco etSci trot}. See Suidas and He- 
sychius, as also Fiscli. Prol. de Vet. Lex- 223. Thus 
Philo 604 A. speaking of Moses, says: yei^wjOoy •u^ 
i vais €udwy o>}/iy^Vf^i3V€V cwrreioTepay ^ Kar Mmrr^)f. In 
the parallel passage of Exod. Symmachus has, in the 

Elace of wrrew, koCKo^. This report of Moses's beauty 
ad even reached the heathens; as appears from Jus- 
tin. 1. 36, 2. (cited by Wets.) : Filius ejus Moses fuit, 
quern praeter paterns scientiae haereditatem forma 
etiam pulchritudo commendabat. 

20. T^ 0€£. This is ill rendered gratus Deo by 
the Vulgate and some other Interpreters, who have 
not perceived the force of the Hellenistic idiom, 
which was first distinctly pointed out by Glass, 
Valcknaer, and other Philologists, whose matter has 
been thus condensed by Kuinoel : 

" The Hebrews, inasmuch as the excellence of the 
Ood of nature and of all virtue is considered as 
supreme, used, in order to express the magnitude or 
pre-eminence of any thing, to adjoin to the positive, 
names of God, and even of the angels, which thus 
had the force of adjectives. So Ps. 36, 7. Mountains 
rf the Lord. Ps. 80, 4. Cedars rf the Lord. Cant. 
Sal. 8, 6, 7« flame of Ood, i. e. vehement and ardent. 
Apoc. 21, 11. ha^a 06oG, the highest splendour. Sap« 
Id, 20. Tp6(p'ii ayyeMsMit, •^ angelic, excellent food-'* 
(See Glass Phil. S. 44. and Nold's Concord. 810.) 

* It should seemj however, that the earlier Greek term &tn'€M$ 
(lid not entirely answer to our handsome, beautiful ; but rather to 
the Latin bellus, pretty (which may be paralleled by the word 
smart J 5 smce Ari»tot. Nlcoia. 1. 47. (cited by Wets.) observes: to 
KoKkos iv fieyakf aufiarC o\ uiKpck h* ^oreioi xal tnt/iiierpot^ tcaXai 
b' ov. With this pa$i«age Welstein appositely CQ0i|»are8 MarciiJ 
I, 9. Bellas homo et magnus vis iifem Cotta videii ; sed qm keUm 
homo est, Cotta, pusillus homo est. 



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ACTi OiF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VU* SSQ 

In th6 Greek writers we have not the name of God^ 
but the adjectives Qem^ Saijuioviof, oupduios, sometimes 
serving a similar purpose, and denoting personal 
beauty, as ^€ol^9 and fleo^/icijXoff. (See Eisner and 
Abresch on this passage). The Hebrews, too, are 
accustomed to indicate the excellence or complete 
perfection of any thing, by prefixing to the name of 
God the particle b (toL so that DW«7 or mn^ 
may be equivalent to "^^u^ ot ''^^VS, before God, in the 
sight of God, i. e. judice Defh Thus in Jonas 3, 11^ 
Ninevah is called O^rhiv? vhl^ "^^V, a city great ie- 
fore God, judice Deo, in the opinion of God. [and 
therefore really and emphatically so. Edit.] Tlius, 
too, in Gen. 10, 9. Nimrod is called a hunter great 
in the sight of God. (See the note on Luke 1, 6.) 
And Josephus, Ant. 2, 9, 7- calls Moses ^ralSa jxop^ 
&€iov, (Kuin.) which may, in English, be rendered 
divinelj/ beautiful. 

21. iKTeiivra Se uvtov k. r. X. As auroif occurs 
twice, eicrefleWa aurov may be regarded as accusatives 
absolute, or rather depending on some preposition as 
icara, quod attinet ad. Such repetitions are, how« 
ever, characteristic of the simple and popular style 
in all languages. * Avaipetabcn properly means " to 
take up from the ground," and is used of raising or 
drawing sailors from the sea, or taking up corpses 
for burial ; but sometimes, as here, of taking up 
.exposed children. In all these uses there is an 
adjunct notion of taking under one*s care, by the 
force, it should seem, of the middle voice : examples 
of which are given by Wetstein. The following one, 
adduced by Loesner, may suffice. Aristoph. Nub. 
V. .531. iraym — e^^dtj/ca, ttois^ 8* irdpa ri^ XoL^oZtr 

22. (VaiSetifli) McoiKr^y waerj o'o^iqt AlyuTrrlwVy Si- 
milar examples are adduced by Wetstein of 7rai8eu6(r- 
doti with the dative (an iv being understood); as 
Xen^ Paed. 1. irola rm 7rmh€ia Tratioj^^U. Isocrates 
Paneg. ku) toJp v€ayr€poi9 roiouro«y ^Oeo-i ^raiSeuovrcr. 
Plut. Apophtheg. Xracon. p. 216 d. Koi to7s ravrr^^ 



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230 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 

PricflBiis compares a similar passage of Liician Phi* 
lopseud, ©a'jjmao'ioy t^v a-o^/av, Ka\ rr^u raiSc/av 'X'So'ca 
Twv Alytwrr/cov ei^ciy, wliich is possibly imitated from 
the present passage. In what this wisdom consisted 
>'e may partly conceive from what Philo (cited by 
PricflBus) says of Moses, in his Life : *A^i9/xouy km 
Tecoi^erpiav^ T*jgv re pvdjxi/ciQVy Koi a^ftov*KTQy, ^a) [urpiHrfl 

ipyavwVf Ka) Xoyoiv toJv iv raly riyvats KOii 8jۤo8oi9 
TbViKoyripai9 AlyuTTioi oS Xoyio* waoehotraVj kou 7rpo9 6r« 
Ka) Sia rcov (rti|x0^Xa)v ^iXocro^iav, i)V ev roTip X€70|X€yoif 
ypaiJLiixuny eTiSeiKVuvro, &c. And again, the same 
writer bears testimony that he was not only learned 
in these sciences, but in thase of other nations. This 
knowledge, therefore, consisted of astrology, (in- 
cluding astronomy,) the interpretation of dreams, 
physic, magic (as it was called *), medicine, mathe- 
matics, &c. This wisdom was almost wholly in the 
hands of the Priests, who, as we learn from Diodor. 
Sic. 46 D. (cited by Munthe) were, in a manner, 
rulers of the King and royal family : irepi rwf [jLtyitr* 
ro>v ouroi 7rpo0oiiX6uojUL6yoi cruySiaT^ipot/iri no 3ao'i7v€i, 
Twv fihf (Tovepyot, ra>v $€ 6ien}y)]ra} Ka\ SiSocr/caXoi yiv<H 
jUL€yoi. See Herodot. 7s l64. and the other passages 
cited by Munthe. Kuinoel refers to Meiners on the 
causes of the Castes among the ancient Egyptians 
and Hindoos, in his Comment. Gott. Vol. 10. p. 184, 
«nd Walch's Obss. N. T. p. 65. seqq. Wolf refers to 
Adami Exerc. Exeg. 1, 95. Compare also Vitringa 
on Is. 19, p. 566. What a high rank the EgjrpUans 
then held for learning and science is moreover ap- 
parent from 1 Kings 4, SO. where the wisdom of 
Solomon, consummate as it was, is only compared to 
that of the Egyptians.^ 

* Namely, that part of the magical art which might innocently 
be pructiBed, which is all that we are warranted in ascribing to so 
faithful a servant of Jehovah. 

t On this subject, namely, the wisdom of the Egyptians, Wetstein 
has brought togelhei' an immense number of citations^ of which the 



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ACTS OP THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 231 

In thus describing the learned education of Moses, 
Stephen is supposed to have followed tradition : at 
least nothing to this purpose is said in Scripture* 
Doddridge justly observes, that all these extraordi* 
nary circumstances relating to the birth, preserva- 
tion, education, genius, and character of Moses, 
serve to aggravate the crime of Israel in rejecting 
him when he offered himself to them as a deliverer 
under so many advantages, and when Providence 
had so wonderfully interested itself in his favour. 
*^ It must have been (continues he) a self-denial 
which none but a lover of learning, and one who 
has made some progress in it, can understand, for a 
person of such a genius and education, in the prime 
of life, to leave the polite court of Egypt, and live as 
a retired shepherd in the Arabian desert." 

22. -iiv Se Suvaroy ev Xoyo«y Ka) €v f^yoiy. The for- 
mer of these qualifications seems inconsistent with 
what is said of Moses in the Old Testament, namely, 
that he had an impediment in his speech. See 
Exod, 4, 10. G, 12. And so Philo 6l5 b. who re- 
presents God as thus addressing Moses after he has 
refused the office laid upon him : fjit^^iv SciVtjr ^fiou 
yap erriveiKravro^ avdpcod^ererai wavra icai jttera^eXia ^rpo^ 
TO ^eXrloif, cJy fiTj^evo^ en efi^oSi^ovroy pcTv ^urpoyov ica\ 
XeTov olttI Ka^oL^as 'Tnf^s rh rtov XoyKriJ^wv vdfjLU. Hence 
soma have thought that this obstacle was removed 
by the preternatural assistance of heavenly grace. 

following arc the most important : Himerim, p. 6^. who calb Egypt 
the fitiTTjp T&v (ToijiStv \6y(ay. Alhen. p. 190. who says that Helen 
derived much learning from the vise men of Egypt » Aristides, S, 
6^. who calls the Egyptians the wisest of all men. And so they are 
called by Herodot. 2, 160. Macnib. Sat. 1, 16. ^gyptus, mater 
artium. See also Li/ctan'. Vit. Auct, 3. Valerius Max, S,t, Diog, 
LaffTi. Plat. 3. 6. Herotlot. 3, 84. Strabo I, 43 a. Apptan. B. C. 3. 
p. 854. Aristid. 3, 40. Macrob in Somn. Scip. l,*Z\. 

To these may be added, Jos. Ant. 2, 13. (cited by Wets.) where, 
speaking of Moses, whose rod was turned into a dragon, he says : k^ 
Xcuec (o fiaoiXevs) tovs lepeis rits nvrhs o^ets avr^ irapa<r')^eip opay, 
iifS AlyvTritav co^uv oyrwv Kat rriv yr^pi tOvtwv hintn-iipttiv : at ihiff 
prodigy Moses then addresses ihe King thus; o&5* avroi, J /?a9i« 
Xev, rffs Alyvirriwv tro^las Karai^vH, 



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^« ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 

But this idea is overturned by the fact that Aaron 
is said to have acted as spokesman for Moses. So 
Exod. 4^ 16. ^^ he shall be thy spokesman unto the 
people : and he shall be, even he shall be to thee 
instead of a mouth/' 

. Krebs, Loesner, Moras, Rosenmuller,.and Hein- 
ricbs take Swaro^ h Xoyoiff to be synonymous with 
Suvaroy or Sfiviy X^yciv, which is used of persua- 
0ive, and therefore powerful oratory. They quote 
Joseph. Ant. 3, 1, 4. where Moses is said to be 
rXiJdfi ofuXeTv TrifiayaiVaros" and the Swarif hf fpyoiy 
they refer to the miracles of Moses. Kuinoel, how- 
ever, thinks that one cannot here understand the 
miracles of Moses, nor his writings^ nor the power of 
speech granted him by God when He committed to 
him the office of leading the Israelites from i^pt ; 
since the context [as Doddridge has observed. Edit] 
plainly shows that Stephen spoke not of Moses as 
a leader if the Israelites, but of his manner of life 
in the court of Pharaoh. " The formula Swaris* ^ 
X^oiy (continues he) is to be understood of the force 
and efficacy of his oratory (see Krebs and the note 
on Luke 21, 19.) ; and the words may be thus para- 
phrased: *oratione et rebus gerendis poUebat, vi 
persuadendi animia flectendi praeditus erat, consilia 
optima dabat, et in rebus gerendis fortissimus erat.** 
Upon the whole, I must prefer this interpretation, 
which is nearly the same with that laid down by Dr. 
Hammond, who paraphrases thus : * He was a per- 
son of great abilities above other men, both for 
speaking (viz. in respect of eloquence and power of 
speech, though, for the manner of utterance, he had 
some stammering in his speech) and also for ma- 
naging his business. Very able both to give coun- 
sel, and to act any great affairs.' After the same 
manner, too, Doddridge explains it to mean such a 
weight and solidity in his counsels and speeches as 
may be very consistent with the want of a flowing 
elocution. See Archbishop Newcome. Chrysostom 
seems to refer the expression splely to learning, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. £38 

since he paraphrases thus : koI iraiSc/a ku) yoofifjLoa'ip. 
I suspect, howe\'er, an error, and would reaa arpoyjuta- 
tf-iv : the words are (as every critic knows) perpetually 
confounded. I wonder that none of the Commenta* 
tors should have thought of comparing a similar 
expression, of Thucyd. 1, 138. (speaking of Alci- 
biades) ^v yotp ^ejSaiw-ara 819 4^oa-«oy lo-pfuv SiiXoio-a^. 
and especially 1, 139. (speaking of Pericles) yjyetp 
re Kou 7rpaa-(r€i9 iovarairaros* Markland, too, cites a 
a similar one from Demosthenes. Whether the 
€pyoi9 refers (as some think) to Moses'5 succeasfal 
generalship in a war against the Ethiopians (nar- 
rated by Joseph. Ant. 2, 5.) is, to say the least, very 
uncertain. 

I do not remember to^have seen any expression of 
this kind in the Classical writers, and T suspect it is 
Hellenistical. With respect to they're/, it is not 
founded on any testimony of Scripture^ but solely, 
as it seems, on Jewish tradition ; since of this there 
are many vestiges yet remaining^ in the Rabbinical 
writings. See the passages adduced by Wetstein. 
On 0^6)3)] €19 rr^y icagS/ay (scil. SiaXoyio-jxo^) see the 
note on Luke 24, 38. 

23. €V»<ric6\|/a(r9ai properly signifies to look at, or 
upon ; 2dly, inviso^ visito (as we say, to go tasee any 
wiejj to visit ; and 3dly, to ^ee their situation, and> 
from the adjunct, relieve their wants. Hence it 
sometimes, as here, signifies, in a general way, to 
succour J assist J defend, &c. ; so also in Acts 15, 14. 
Heb. 2, 16. 

24, 25. a8iK6r<r9ai, to be beaten. By this word the 
Sept. have expressed the Heb. HDH in Is. 10, 20., 
but in a parallel passage (Exod. 2, 11.) by twt^iv. 
(Kuin.) It properly signifies to be injured or ag- 
grieved; as in Thucyd. 1, 6. 11, 20. 5, 38* See 
also Wetstein. 

24. ijjxuvaro. Subaud np aZ^KovfjJvfo or airS, 
*Ajxuv60-9ai, with an accusative, signifies to ward ajf, 
resist ; with a dative, to defend, Examples occur ir^ 



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334 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP* VJI. 

the best Classical writers ; especially Thucydides* 
*E«-on)0"€v eicS/ici^Tiy. An Hellenistic phrase for e^eit- 
K€i. KaroTroyoujuicva). Karaxovfco properly signifies 
to wear down (Kara) or out with labour, ill treat- 
tnent, affliction j * as in 2 Mace. 8, 2. €t1 tov utI 
warrmv icaraxoyoti|u.€yov Xaov. 

24. Trara^as rlv AiytiTTioy, smiting^ i. e. (as we find 
from the context) slaying the Egyptian. So the 
Heb. rOn and Traraerereiv in Matt. 26, 31. tov ^pwiK<ar 

Sfo^Sei^avTos'. That Moses intended to slay the 
Egyptian cannot be proved. His wrath, however, 
was justly excited by the ill treatment of one of his 
fellow countrymen, and the act was justifiable, on 
the ground that, living under a tyrant who afforded 
them no legal protection, they had thereby returned 
to a state of nature, and were at liberty to use its 
rights. Now Grotius on this passage and L. 11. de 
Jure B. & P. C. 20, 8. says that the law of nature 
gives this right to an innocent person, and whoever 
is defending him : so that Whitby seems to be mis- 
taken in supposing that it would not have been jus- 
tifiable except on the ground of Divine impulse. In 
the Pentateuch the action is neither praised nor 
•blamed. 

25. €voju.»^€ Se (T^jnevai — o-ui^icav, i. e. would have un^ 
dersfood. They might have known that the time drew 
near which God had predetermined in his promise to 
Abraham, in a prediction which might probably be 
delivered down by tradition, and which would be 

* Kuinoel says, it is especially used of those who labour under 
sickness; and be might have cited Diog. Laert. 5, 68. (ap. Wets.) 
creXevrijae y6(rf irooaypiicy Karaxovri^eU. 1 add Thucyd. 2, 5t. 
(speaking of those sick of the plague), ol ^mire^evyyres — jov to- 
yovftevor ^Krictoyrut where the ^choliast explains, njv ^^d^Kecay. 
] wonder none of the Editors should have seen that ri^y iitrdipciay 
ought to be altered to Tp aaOeyel^. The y and the iota adscriptum 
are perpetually confounood. U6yos is in the earlier Greek w riters 
used of pain (which probably is thence derived), sickueu. See the 
note on Apoc. 16, 10 6c 11. It here seems to mean worsled, ag' 
grieved, evil treated. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 233 

more like to be remembered under their oppression, 
as the Patriarchs had, in dependance upon it, di- 
rected that their bones should continue unburied in 
Egypt. And when they saw a person with so much 
dignity, authority, and influence, whom God had so 
wonderfully preserved, interposing in this generous 
and heroic manner, which plainly showed that he, 
in good earnest, intended at all hazards to do his 
utmost for their deliverance, it would have been 
highly reasonable for them to have taken occasion, 
from this action of his, to enter into some treaty 
with him relating to it. (Doddridge.) 

25. hihootnv trwTTipiav has the air of an Hellenistic 
phrase ; but an example of it is cited by Wetstein 
from Demosthenes pro Corona. 

26. T>) re eTTiowrrj i^i^fft, the morrow. So Glass, 
Crastlnus; iwmv. T. Mag. and Herodian say that 
i}jx€^a ought not to be added. But this is refuted by 
the examples from Herodotus, Appian, and Thucy- 
dides, cited by Wetstein. Yet it is probable that in 
the latter ages the substantive was almost always 
omitted^ just as we now omit day in to-morrow; 
though our ancestors expressed it. 

26. a>(J>9i3 aitro?^. There is here an occasion to 
read aXXoTy, with Valcknaer, since auroh is to be 
referred to the preceding aSeX^o^. The construc- 
tion has somewliat perplexed the Commentators: but 
it is best explained by Markland, who accounts it as 
a use of the plural for some, or a part of certain 
persons before spoken of; and he instances Joh. 6, 
49. Trarepes' wjxo)!/, ** some of your fathers," and other 
passages. Now the some must here, by the context, 
(see ver. 27.) and Exod. 2, 13. be understood ofitoo. 
Kuinoel observes that oirrea-Qai is used of those who 
superveniuntj come unexpectedly/, like 6^i<rTi}/xi. The 
jtta;^ojX6vois' might mean, and is by some explained^ 
disputing; but the words of Exod. oblige us to 
interpret it of blows ; as in Jam. 4, 1. 

26. (TuirrjKaa-ev aurouy eis ^ip^jojv. St>v67^auya> pro- 
perly signifies to compel to go anywhere, by encir-- 



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236 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CQAP. VII. 

ditig and hedging in a person, and urging him 6>r« 
ward, leaving him no other way. But it is Used, 
especially by the later Greek writers, of compulsion 
gtnerally; as in Plut. 716 b. (cited by Wets.) if ii£ 

s-wjr©?. 2 Mace. 4, 42. varras W w (pwyi^v o"wvi)Xa- 
/rexv. Sometimes, however, as here, it is used of 
compulsion metaphorically^ and, like ayayKa^€if, of 
moral compulsion^ strong persuasion^ and earnest re- 
monstrance (see Luke 14, 23. and Matt. 14, 22. and 
the notes). The sense is therefore this: **He strongly 
urged them to reconciliation." Neither is it neces- 
sary to understand **the attempt or will for the ac- 
tion ;" as is done by Grotius, Valcknaer, and Kuin. 

26. avSpey, aSeX^oJ €<rT€ u/tely. Pricaeus compares 
Fahian Papyr. in Sen. Controv. Quae tanta vos fert 
ira, ciim una stirps idemque sanguis sitis? And 
SimpliciuSy in cap. 3?. Epict. Ei icoiin^ f^^r^jp i} ToXiy, 
(uwjTply oZtra Koi Tarpiy, S^Xov ot« Kurct toGto aScX^ol 
Toig €W\y 01 TToT^lrah 

27- asroioraro auroy, thrust him back. So the So* 
domftes to Lot, "stand back." It may, however, 
be taken metaphorically for *'he rejected his inter- 
ference :'* and in this sense the word occurs in the 
best authors ; as, for instance, Thucydides. So infra 
ver. 39* oLTrcia-avro, scil. Mmtniy. 

This has the air of a proverbial expression, and re- 
ininds one of what the Sodomites said to Lot (19. 
9.)- *'this fellow came in to sojourn, and he will 
needs be a judge. To tlie present passage therie 
.seems an allusion in Luke 12, 14. ris f^e Karerrritr^ 
hnfttrrr^v i5 V^^i(rrr^)f €(p* tJjxay; So Appian, Tyan. 
Epist. 59. sub. init. €1 jxi^ v^pU^yos ^s*, ouic av ^y €¥ 
rtSi aX7\.oTpioi^ Trj aypxori S/icaiof, i. e. hKourTTjs. 

29. €v ToJ Xoya> touto), at this sayings or because of 
this saying. *Ev is for hk ; as in Alatt. 0, 7. Nor 
was his fear groundless ; for (as we learn from Exod. 
2, 15.) Pharaoh, as soon as he knew that Moses 
acted the patron and advocate of the Israelites^ 



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4CTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP* Yll. 887 

Bought bim out for punishment. Mcses^ed, because 
be perceived that the time for delivering the Israel* 
ites from the Egyptian bondage was not yet come* 
MaSiop was a district of Arabia ; on which see Roa» 
Schol. in Exod. (Kuin.) 

30, irciv rea-iTapaKopTa. See the note on ver. 23* 
*Ef rj) (f^|xa> roS opov^ XtfA^ &c. In Exod. 3, 1. this 
vision is said to have appeared to Moses near Horeb. 
But, in fact, there is no opposition ; since the moun* 
tain had a double top [like mount Parnassus. Edit.]; 
and of the two peaks one was called Horeb, the 
other Sinai. Thus Pietro de la Valla, in his second 
Epistle written at Cairo, says : ^^ Duo sunt montes 
uno in loco, Horeb et Sinai, qui ambo nascuntur, ut 
ita dicam, ex radice una, et dividuntur postea jugis, 
quo altius adscenditur. (Kuin.) 

SO. cy ^\oyi Trupiy ^aroti. A sort of Hebrew ple^ 
onasm for "in tne burning bush." Tlie Hebrew 
\lJNjTQ7a, ^Xq§ Tupiy, is equivalent to irtip c^Xoy^^ 
Wrh UJM, in Ps. 104, 4. where the Sept. has Trup ^')Jyov. 
See also 2 Thess. 1, 8. Hebr. 1, 7. (Kuin.) I pur- 
posely forbear to notice the speculations of receni 
Commentators on the nature of the burning bush, 
some of whom, endeavouring to account for it on 
natural principles, suppose it to have been a meteor^ 
Others think that the bush was touched by light- 
ning. But, supposing it were so, how are we to 
account for the bush*s not burning? Certainly this 
must have been altogether preternatural: and well 
it were if some who call themselves theologians 
would learn a lesson even from the Heathen sages, 
whom they profess so much to admire. Thus in 
Pind. Pyth. 10, 76. e/xo^ Se dau/uuiuria, 0«Sv r^e&Mh- 
tfoVy ou8€V xinre ^iverat efJi^ airio'roy. Arrian, Exp. 
Alex. 5, 1, 2.* Eurip. Bach. 181. ouXev <r<^$§df»^is4dt 

* Arrian. Ei^. Alex. B, l,%. ohK ^Kfn/iil HcTUtrHfy xp^ elvai rwy 
vn^ rov Ottov Ik ^raXoioi fjL€fivB€V/i(iyw, T^ Y&f> rei Kara ro cIkos 
btvrSivTi o%» irtirru, iiretiav to deiov ti$ Tpoa&j rf \6yf9 oh irdyrii 
Airi^a t^airtrai, ^' hoc tantum oens^erim, €a ^19 Ue-dns veteres 
fabulb siiis conscripsere^ non esse nimium curiot^ |)erve«tigvinda. 



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93B ACTS OF THE APOSTL£8, CHAP. Vin 

rowri ioufJiotriV. And 313. yuv ydip irirei r€ icotl ^povwP 
ouSfv <^^€?y. And 371. TO oro^ov 8* ou oro^Jia, To t€ 
^13 Om^Tot ^goy€iv' ^payvs aWv ^1 rouro) Se tiV av |X€- 
yoXa SicoKoiv rob irapovr otjj(\ ^€po« ; p^uMfMMM^ oZSr 
rpiiroi KOii Koico^ouXoiy Trotp cpj^c ^mrm. Such senti* 
ments as these were passing through the mind of 
Horace^ aad perhaps some of those very passages 
(especially those of Eurip. Bacch.) when he wrote 
the exquisite ode beginning with " Parcus Deorura 
cultor et infrequens Insanientis dum sapientice con- 
sultus erro. Indeed 1 have observed not a few imi- 
tations in Horace of the Bacch® of Euripides, (a 
drama whose excellence is little appreciated;) and 
also in Pindar, whom he not unfrequently imitates. 

31. 7rpoflr6p;fojX€Vot> SeauTouKaravoijo-ai. Subaud cdorre, 
or fly tI. KaTavoTJerai usually signifies to, as it were, 
think dowriy subdue in one's mind^ perceive, under* 
stand: but here, to examine. For (as Grotius ob- 
serves) verbs of the internal and external senses are 
often interchanged. Kuinoel, Krebs, and Loesner, 
adduce examples from Xen. Cyr. 2, 4, 3. & 2, 2, 28. 
Joseph. Ant. 5, 1,2. Indeed it is a signification of 
very frequent occurrence in the Greek writers. The . 
mtro^ in Karayo^orat, to examine, has the same force as 
in icara^Xera), and seems to allude to the stooping 
posture which usually accompanies the close exami- 
nation of any object. 

32. €¥TpoiM9 Sc y^voftevos*. It was the common opi- 
nion in those times (and indeed in all antient ones) 
that the sight of any deity or angel was unlucky, 
and ominous of evil. See the note on Matt. 28, 9- 
Luke .^, 8 & 9. John. 20, I7. Acts 5, 1. So Horn. 
II. u. 131. ;faX6ToJ Se 0€o) ^aiWo^ai kvapym* (Kuin.) 
One may compare with ivrpofui^ the similar word 
«V4Jo0iy, both which are conjoined in Hcbr. 12, 21.; 

Scripta enim quibus merito fides derogari posset, quando numinis 
aliciijus mentio accedit, fit ut non oninino incredibilia esse videan- 
tur.*' Pausan. 10, 4, 4. ra trapdho^a htrltrrovs eivai rStv iLrOp^Twy^ 
vh hr fii^ wapa roy avrwy yiprirai jiiov Oedftavip hrirvxtJy X6yov 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Vll. ^S& 

which are equivalent to our expression, **to be all 
in a tremour," or fear. 

33. x5(rov uToSijjtta— ay/a eo"r«v. In all ages, and 
among all nations, cleanliness in the celebration of 
sacred rites has been thought especially requisite r 
and, in order effectually to secure this, it was usual 
to direct that the shoes or sandals of the worshipper 
should be taken off previous to his entrance into a 
sacred edifice. And as MngSy being god's vicege- 
rent's, claimed much of the honour due to Him, so it 
was sometimes forbidden to approach them without 
a similar mark of respect. The custom was proba- 
bly one of remote antiquity, and prevalent even ad 
early as the time of Moses. Indeed we find it even 
yet in the East, where customs never change (see 
Archbishop Newcome); and as it was a strict in- 
junction of Pythagoras Qvav aThmol^Tov, Kcti rrph Ugi 
irpotrUvaif so it was doubtless borrowed by that phi- 
losopher, together with his other institutions, from 
Egypt, whither it had passed from Hindostan, &c. 
That the custom prevailed in the East, we learn 
from the Rabbinical writings, and that it passed in 
some degree into the ff^est we gather from the 
Roman authors ; examples from both of whom are 
given by Wetstein. * 

34, 35. iSoJv elSov, &c. planissime cognovi Valck- 
naer renders: '*I am thoroughly acquainted with.'* 

* The most important of these are the following : Ovid. Fasi, 
6, 347. Hue pede matronam vidi descendere nudo. Tzetzes, on 
Lycophron. 1141. Upeiat eyivovro — ovre tov iepov t^ifp^oyro, ei fjifj 
vvKTWp, Jjtray bk KCKapfxivaif fioyo)(lT(ayes, icai ayvwdberoi. Solinus, 
17. Mdem numinis prseterquam nudus vestigiie nullus licito ingre- 
ditur. Juvenal 6, 158. Observant ubi fiesta mero pede sabbata 
reges. Maximus de Proclo : viroXvtrafieyos ahT66i, & ijy ah-f^ vto- 
biifiara Spdtyrwy iKciyiMiy^ Tf^y Beoy ^cira^cro. Schemolh. R. 2. 937, 
Pirke Eliezer. 40. Hinc dicunt, quicumque stat in loco Sancto, de- 
bet exuere calceum suum. 

I am inclined to think there is an allusion to this custom in 
1 Kings 21, 27* '' Ahab fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and loeiU 
softly :'* and Is. 38, 15. "J shall go softly all my years in bitterness 
of soul.*' For those \%ho are unshod may emphatically be said to go 
•oflly. 



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240 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, VII. 

This idiom, by which there is added to the verb a 
cognate participle, is commonly termed a Hebraism, 
and is undoubtedly of Oriental origin. Compare 
£xod. 3, 7» Hebr. 6, 14. €iXoyc5v cuXoyifo'ai (r€, kou 

TX)}dJM»V TXijOoi^cS Se. 1 Mace. 5, 4f2. ^VOLfJL€P09 StMO]> 

^erai. Yet it has been strongly maintained by the 
defenders of the purity of the style of the New Tes- 
tament that this is good Greek ; and undoubtedly 
this point has been established by Pfochen, Stolberg, 
&c. to the discomfiture of Gataker and his associates. 
Among the examples brouglit forward are Herodot. 
4, 23. Kura^vycov icaTa(pJyY). Arrian, Hist. Ind. 4, 
15. eh rou^ juiv auras IZcov oT^a. I^ucian, Dial. Prob. 
& Mund. \iw0 eUov aXXo^, &c. cited by Wetstein. 
Kuinoel refers to Glass, Phil. Sacr. 277., Vorstius de 
Hebr. 61 1 seqq., Raphel on this passage, and Hem- 
steruchius on Lucian, 1, p. 300. Many more pas- 
sages are appealed to by the above critics, but few 
of them are to the puipose, and of the passages just 
referred to some question is raised respecting the 

Eurity of the reading in the one from Lucian. Be that, 
owever, as it may, it is not three or four, or half a do- 
zen passages, anxiously hunted out of the whole of the 
Greek Classics, that will prove any idiom to be agree- 
able to the usage of the best writers ; neither is it a 
few Atticisms found here and there in the New Tes- 
tament that will prove its stvle to be Classical. The 
idiom now in question is, I have no doubt, of Orien- 
tal origin, and the few examples which remain nuiy 
be reckoned among the other faint vestiges of the 
Oriental origin of the Greek language. As a proof 
of this, the best established examples of the idiom 
are found in the most antient writers, and in the 
Ionic and other antique dialects. Certainly many of 
the Scriptural examples of the idiom are such as no 
Greek Classical writer would ever have used; as 
Hebr. 6, 14. dXoycSv 6uXoy7)Vai «. And Habak. 2, 
4. where Aquila has ep;^ ojui^vo^ cXetiVerai, he shall 
surely come. Besides, most of them are to be traced 
up to some specific passage of the Hebrew of the 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 241 

Old Testament. After all, why the critics above 
adverted to should continue to hold any idioih 
formed from the most antient and venerable of all 
languages (and what they term the sacred one) in 
such abomination, I know not. And why (to use 
the words of Valcknaer) should complete purity of 
style be so contested for in a book where we look 
for majesty of things^ which needs not to be dressed 
out in all the ornaments of mere human composi- 
tions. 

34. rri¥ icoicaxriy. Of this word Wetstein cites an 
an example from Plutarch ; to which I add Thucyd. 
7, 4. & 82, 2, 43. 

34. Koi icarcjSTjv e^t'KMai otJrous*, "I am come 
down in order to deliver them." Here we must, as 
often, subaud £(rr€ or w rl. Kuinoel takes occasion 
to observe that the antients supposed the Deity acted 
much after the manner of men: which, however, 
may be doubted. Such expressions (uttered avdpo)- 
TTOTToBoS^) were often resorted to from necessity^ had 
their origin in human ignorance, and were used in 
deference to human weakness. Kuinoel cuts the 
idea down to "iis auxilium feram.'* Against such 
sort of criticism (which when applied to Classical 
authors is always tasteless, and in respect to the 
Sacred writers not unfrequently irreverent) it cannot 
be improper, nor perhaps unseasonable, for me to 
caution students. 

35. ToGrov Tov Moiver^v ov rlpvrltravro — rourov o 0€oy 
cypfoyra ku) T^vrpoor^v dtTrea-rfiXev. Aurgronji/, a re- 
aeemer, liberator, answers to the Hebr. 7Wa, in Ps. 
19, 15. It properly denotes one who redeems any 
one from captivity by paying the Xurpov, or price 
of his freedom. Here Doddridge observes, that as 
the terms of high respect in which Stephen, through 
the whole of his discourse, speaks of Moses, tended 
to show bow improbable it was that he should have 
spoken contemptibly of him, as the witnesses pre- 
tended ; so this circumstance of the Israelites hav- 
ing rejected him whom God had appointed to be a 

' VOL, IV. R 

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S42 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VII» 

ruler and /edeemer, intimated how possible it wa9 
that Jesus, whom they had lately rejected, might 
nevertheless be constituted a Saviour by the Divine 
determination. 

36. oSroy, t7/e, vir tile magnus. 'EpuOga SaXoo-oT), 
i. e. the Red Sea, or rather Erythraean Sea, or Ara- 
bian Gulph. So the Hebr. F)1D D**. It is by some 
thought to have derived its name from the weeds 
which abound in it, and tinge the water. Others 
however deny this. See the writers on Scripture 
Geography, Calmet, and others^ including Mr. 
Home's Introduction. 

38. y€vMai fjiera rivop denotes ** versari cum aliquo, 
to hold converse or communication with.*' But the 
present y€¥ear^m fA^rei to3 (iyycXou Koi (fxcrei) rwy irari" 
foiVy signifies to be an internuntiusj or mediating in- 
terpreter between God and the people, fter/n];. 
(Compare Gal. 3, 19.) By ij €KK7s.r/ria numy Com^ 
mentators, as Grotius and Heinsius^ understand the 
whole Israelitish assembly. But (as Krause observes) 
the article ry} shews that it denotes ^ome certain 
assembly ; and from the whole of the context it 
clearly appears that wc; are to understand the assem- 
bly congregated at Mount Sinai, on the promulga- 
tion of the Law. On ^frk ro5 ayycXoo see the note 
on ver. 53. (Kuin.) 

38. 0^ €S€^aro \iyia ^Sutol^ SoSvai r)|x7v. As the 
subject is plainly the promulgation of the l^aw, by 
Tiiyta ro5 O€ou (answering to the Hebr. '»tO"% HITDW 
7M in Ps. 139, 38 & 58. and Numb. 24, 4.) are meant 
any divine oracles. See the examples in Raphel^ 
Obs. Polyb. Now this^ in respe^rt of the context, 
is to be understood of promises and Divipe precepts. 
.They are moreover said to be ^a>yra, which jpi^cqtor, 
All^erti, and Heumann, explain delivered tdvd voce. 
But this signification is unauthorized. Others, ae 
Heinrichs, explain §^ut^, valid^ strong, efficacious^ 

Juoting He^r. 4, 2. vfhere the Apostle speaks of the 
divine threa|enings, which will assuredly have their 
event, and $oph. fjid. Tyr. 481. where by TFoufrm' 
^wyra are meant oracles of certain fulfilment. >}ow 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. YII* S43 

fiji' is, not unfrequently, used metaphorically of what 
JlourlsheSy exerts its force, &c. and Morus would 
explain ^aivroL '* efficaciotis for procuring rewards and 
blessings." But there is no need to resort to any 
such ambages. ZyJv is often, in the Sept. and New 
Testament, equivalent to JoiotoicTv ; as in 6, 51, where 
see the note, and Hebr. 10, 20. where oSoy faJcra is 
explained by Theophylact JoiwroioGcra, cly Jor^v ayouora. 
And in DeuL 32, 47. the Law is said to be ^a>i^, snl- 
vation. Therefore Xaj^ia J«5rra are prcecepta salu- 
berrima. (Kuin.) In this last mode of interpreta- 
tion I must acquiesce. It had been long ago brought 
forward by Drusius> j^za^ Vatabliis, and Grotiiis, 
(confirmed by the Vulgate, vivivicaj ; as also by 
rearce, Valcknaer, and Schleusner. Now xrfjriov 
denotes an oraculs^r response delivered in prose^ 
;^(rftiy one in ver^ae. So Thucyd* 2, 8. iroTCha jxlv 
Tyoyia €X€y€TO, xoXXol Se ^pr^fMiKayoi ji^w. The name 
Xoyia came at length to denote the Scriptures. So 
Procop. 153, 17. who mentions ra Xpi^TiavcSv Xoy«ou 
39. ouK rfie'Kyitrav inrfycoai yeveerflai, *' to whom, 
nevertheless, our forefathers would not yield obe- 
dience.'* This is observed by Stephen once and 
again ; and he insists upoixit largely, that they might 
see it was no new thing for Israel to rebel against 
God, by rejecting deliverers sent from him. (Dod^dr.) 
On the expression itrrpa^ifitrav rats KapZiais the Com- 
mentators are not quite agreed. The Vulg., Beza, 
Pise, Vatab., Hammond, Morus, Rosenmiuler, and 
others, interpret, " they were intent on returning 
into Egypt, their mind dwelt on returning thither." 
See Exo4. 16, 3. 17, 3. Others, as Grot., De Dieu, 
Pearce, Heinrichs, and Kuinoel, take the words in 
a figurative sense to denote " they meditated a return 
to Uie idolatries and sensual gratifications of Egypt" 
^ And this (observes Kuin.)» since mentioi^ is imme- 
diately made of idol worship.'' ** Now (continues 
Kuin.; at the Jime yrhen th^ Israelite^ sought of 
Aaron that be woMid make them a golden calf^ they 
did not meditate a return to Egypt, but meant to 



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244 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Vfl. 

go on their journey. Nor can it reasonably be ob- 
jected to this interpretation that we do not read in 
the Books of Moses that the Israelites worshipped 
idols in Egypt For Moses has not related all that 
happened to them there or in the desert, other cir- 
cumstances being recorded in other Books of the 
Old Testament. But that the Israelites had wor- 
shipped idols in Egypt, is clear from Ezek. ^, 7. 
8, 24. which passage exceedingly confirms the pre- 
sent interpretation. 

40. To/ijflTov iJfAiv d(oup oi TTOVjro^eutroyrai ij/xcov. By 
6€oi are meant images of Goas, and Grotius observes 
that the Egyptians (as we learn from Jambl. and 
other writers) held the opinion that there were 
various degrees of gods, and that by the inferior even 
the superior attrahi in simulachra [by which, I sup- 
pose, ne means were drawn to worship them. Ed. J : 
and therefore, he says, the plural is put here and m 
Exodus. But I assent to Kuinoel, that as we find 
Aaron made but om such image, and as in the He- 
brew we have D'^rnM, a word of plural form, but 
singular sense, so here we are to understand only 
one God, an image of a God. 

40. 01 Trgewropfuo-ovrai )]fuov. It seems to have been 
the custom among the Oriental nations of antiquity, 
for the images of the Gods to be borne before the 
people in jpurneys or military expeditions, or in 
going out to battle ; since they imagined that by so 
doing they should the more effectually enjoy their 
guidance, protection, and support. See Numb. 10, 
33. compared with Deut. 31, 8. 1 Sam. 4, 3. 2 Sam. 
3, 21. and Wesseling on Diodor. Sic. i^O, 65. (Hein- 
richs, Krause, & Kuin.) I know not what Markland 
means by saying, " There is something foolish and 
absurd in the very expression, make us Gods who 
6hall go before us. Stephen undoubtedly intended 
it as a sneer f — Davus sum, non OBdipus. 

40. yap Mcoii<r^9 oSroy — ti y€yof€¥ aJrco. Here 
we have an idiom common both to the 'Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin, nay, even the modern languages, 



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ACTS OF THE APOST^-ES, CHAP. VII. 245 

namely) an AnacolutJion (as says Beza) or (as Pis- 
cator. Grot., Wolf, and Kuinoel contendj an atitip- 
tosh or enaltage of case, by which the nominative 
absolute is put for the dative (toJ Mwiia-ct toJtoi otic 
V&ofifv rt y€yov6v*). It is, in translating, filled up 
by a quod at t met ad^* zs for," &c.* The idiom seems 
to be of Oriental origin. For, as Valcknaer ob- 
serves, the Eastern writers are accustomed to place 
nominatives absolute at the beginning of sentences. 
For examples see Glass Phil. p. 68., Bos Ellips., 
Wetstein, and Valcknaer. 

41. iiMcxoTToir^arav. This word is, by the Sept, (like 
many others) so formed as to express by one com- 
pound word two simple Heb. ones (namely hxf IttJy**). 
The nouns bS!f (city) and "^IttJ (bullock) are used 
promiscuously. (Grot. & Deyling Obss. p. 4, 425.) 
When Moses had departed, and the cloud was no 
longer discovered, unless, perhaps, on some peak of 
Mount Sinai, the Israelites thought that Moses was 
dead, and that God was no longer pleased to give 
them laws, but left them liberty to form some for 
themselves. (Le Clerc on Ex. 33, 1.) Now since 
they had seen that divinities were by the Egyptians 
worshipped under certain forms and imagesy they 
were induced to use a golden, or gilt, calf, or ox, for 
a symbol of the true God (compare Ex. 33, 5.) j 
wherein they transgressed the express command- 
ment of God, not to worship Him under any image. 
(See Exod. 20, 4.) Under the figure of Jpis (who 
was a bullock), we may observe, tne Egyptians wor* 
shipped OsiriSy who formerly was an Egyptian king, 
and was supposed to have invented or introduced 
Agriculture, horticulture, &g. That the ox, which^ 
among the ancients, was a symbol of agricultural la- 
bour, was, to the Egyptians, a symbol of OsirU, we 
learn from Plut. de Is. & Osin, p. 366. On the wor- 
ship of Osiris by the Egyptians Tibull. 1, 7j 27. says: 

* This is better than fliaking it, with Markland, a mereeHipti- 
t»l sentence, to be filled up thus : dvc othnijiev ri yiyoyty ahrf (Sc 



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246 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIl. 

Primus aratra tnanu sollerti fecit Osiris, Et teneram 
ferro sollicitavit humum,^ &c. See also Herodot. S, 
27. seqq. Plin. H. N. 8, 46. Selden de D. Syr. 
1, 4. bochart Hierog. P. 1. L. 2. C. 34. Jablonski 
Panth. Mgyt. 1. 1. p. 122 & 258. seqa. Braun Select. 
Sacr. 388. Devi, ubi supra, and Munthe in loc. 
(Kuin.) Bp. rearce, however, maintains that this 
was not in imitation of Apis, whom they had wor- 
shipped in Egypt. •* It may (continues he) be made 
to appear highly probable, that Apis was not known 
in Egypt so early as when the Israelites were there. 
See Sir Isaac Newton^s Chron. C. 2. on the Empire 
of Egypt. But however that was, we read in Exod. 
12. 12. & 18, 10, 11. and Numb. 33, 4. that the 
Israelites were brought up out of Egypt in opposi- 
don to the Egyptian gods, and with tneir destruc- 
tion : and therefore it seems very plain that the 
Israelites did not make this calf, which they said 
(Exod. 33, 4.), was the God which brought them vp 
out of the land of E^ypt, in imitation of any of the 
Egyptian gods, which, as they knew, their 6od had 
at that time destroyed.'* 

41. K(ti ivriyayov dJeriav t«o €lScoXa>. *Avay€iv sig- 
nifies properly to bring up, lay upon, and is, in the 
Hellenistic writers, used to denote laving the victim 
on the altar, which was always raised (hence /Soift^ 
and altare, which denote this). This form of speech 
seems derived from the Hebrew ; since we find 
rT?3>n to raise followed by rhuf offering in Judg. 
6, 26, 2 Paral. 39, 21. Hence it is found in Phifo 
and (as are many other words and phrases of Orien- 
tal origin) in Herodot. 2, 60. ; as also in Heliodon 
(10, p. 4.57.), himself an Alexandrian writer. But 
this will not prove it to be, properly speaking, a 
Classical phrase. 

41. Ka) eu^pamvro €V To?y €pyoi9 rwu X'^^i^^ atirtSpj 
i. e. " they celebrated sacrificial feasts to the idol, 
jind rendered to it the homage due to God only/* 
For €i^paiv€<r&aij which properly denotes to indulge 
oneself in hilarity, is applied specially to religious 



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ACTS OF TIfE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. %47 

fbastin^ and rejoicing. See the note on Luke 1^, 
2if. and compare Exod. 32, 6. where the words are 
descriptive of a feast day. 

4S. itrrpe^ he o Qel^^ Ka\ TrapehtoKeVf &c. Com- 
mentators are not quite agreed on the sense of 
i^T^e^j which De Dieu, Glass, Moms, Dindorf, 
Pearce, Rosenmuller, and others, closely connect 
with 7rap€ha}K€v^ and assign to it (by a sort of He- 
braism) the force of an adverb, as rursus. But to 
this it is justly objected that we do not read of the 
Israelites having hefnre worshipped the stars. There 
seems more reason (with others) to regard the ex- 
pression as elliptical. Krebs would supply yifoiit^rify 
and Loesner rpewrouy ; though he thinks that itrrpe^e 
may be put for itrrpa^y since verbs active have often 
a passive sense. He might have added a middle or 
reflective one ; in which case there is an ellipsis 
ox emrlf : and, indeed, verbs signifying to turn^ are, 
in almost all languages, used either in an active or 
neuter, passive or reflective sense. So that ifrrqe^ 
may be rendered, " turned himself.*' But the con- 
text and the circumstances of the case oblige us to 
understand this of turning away, aversion, &c. and 
therefore I assent to the interpretation of the Syr., 
Casaub., Beza, Pise, Grot, Hammond, Doddr., 
Wets., Krause, and Kuinoel, aversus est : thus be- 
coming (says Beza) from a kind Father, a righteous 
Judge. Now turning the fate frem is a common 
Hebraism denoting aversion. Therefore the words 
may be thus paraphrased: ^* turned himself from 
them, and suffered them to be polluted with idolatry 
and vice." 

42.* Tla^€h(»K€v atiTouy Xotrgco^iv r. ^. r. o. As 
a punishment, and in order (as Doddridge ob- 
serves) to visit one sin by letting them fall into 
another, the' Almighty permitted them to be moffe 
and more enslaved to superstition and idolatry; in- 
somuch that they worshipped the stars. Tlapeiati^v 
is well rendered in our English Version gave thim 
up.^ Here Kuin. observes (from Glass Phil. S. 284.) 



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f 48 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIK 

that the Hebrews and all the Eastern nations often 
used active verbs in respect of those who are not 
authors of any action, but only give occasion for the 
commission of it, at least do not hinder it. " Be- 
sides (continues Kuinoel) the Hebrews attribute 
whatever happens in the world, even though it be 
only by the permission of God, to His operation and 
agency. See Ez. 20, 2.5. Rom. 1, 24. where see 
Kopp. liap^hioKev has therefore been well explained 
by Chrysostom and Theophylact eTaere, suffered^ per- 
milted. Grotius observes that this is nut to be re- 
ferred to the time in which they were in the desert, 
but after that period. 

42. Srparia toG otipavou^ in the Sept. answers to 
the Heb. D'^ttJn M33 in 2 Paral. 33, 5. Jer. 19, 13. 
33^ 22. where the stars only are meant, and in 1 
Kings 22, 19., where it signifies angels. In the for- 
mer sense it is used by Philo : ex. gr. de Op. M. 
p. 27 86 38. (cited by Wets.) oT y€ lur^v 7rXayi3T€y, i y 
wri^io?ro9 (TTparia r^^ toJv ctTXavoIv. & 806 D. (cited 
by Loesner) avai3X6\{/a<ra €19 ai^epoL elSeu ^Xioy koA 
a-eTirjyriv ko} TrTiainjra^ Koi carT^av^ts atrrepas, ngv Upoxpcir-' 
rotnjv ougavov a-rpareiop. It is also found in Luke 2, 
,13. where seethe note. I add Arrian Exp. Alex. 
7f 20, 1 & 2. Xoyos* he icaWyei, on ^icot/^y ^Apa&OL^ huo 
fioyov niJ^v Oeou^, rlv Oipcufov t€ ico) riv A«oyt>a-otr rhf 
[uv Ottpavov T€ atiTov opoujui€voy, Koi ra ourrpa 6V ol i'/wra 
tA r€ aXXa ica) riv ^Xioi^, a^* otou (ueyioTri fol (poi'OTaTi] 
o^^X€ia is irauTa i?ic€i ra ouApaiweia. J^iivwrof Se, icara 
So^av TTis is *Iv8ouy trrparias* 1 

42. KaBws yiy^airrai iv fii^Titp rm w-^o^ijtcSv, i, e. the 
twelve minor prophets, which, it seems, were usually 
bound in one volume. (See Sir. 49, 10.) And yet 
that it was sometimes otherwise we may gather from 
Lyke 4, 1?, (Zieger, Pise, Pearce, & Kuin.) The 
passage, is from Amos 5, 25. 

42. Mif o-^ayia KcCi Qwrias vpotn^veyKari^ &c. The 
interrogation fiiQ (like the Heb. n.) is itself to be 
4aken negatively. For (as Rosenmuller truly ob- 
serves), in the passage of Amos, the H interrogative, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VII. 249 

when prefixed to an affirmative sentence, has the 
force of a strong negation. But from the Books of 
Moses it appears that the Israelites in the desert did 
offer sacrifices to God. (See Exod. 24, 4. seqq. 
Numb* 7, 9) To remove this difficulty, the Com- 
mentators have devised various modes of interpreta- 
tion (see Dath and Bauer in loc), most of them far- 
fetched, as well as that of Lightfoot, Sanctius, and 
Michaelis, who explain the words of sacrifices vo- 
luntarily offered up, or which were seldom or never 
brought to the tabernacle of Jehovah. Morus, Ro- 
senmuller, and Heinrichs, interpret thus : " was 
your worship bestowed on me at all times from the 
heart ? Nay (ical. see Glass Phil. S. 6()4.) ye turned 
aside to the worship of the stars also." So Cor. 9, 9. 
jxTQ rcov j3oaiv (scil. fAovov) fteyei r£ 0€a). And this 
seems to have been the mode adopted by Wetstein* 
who compares Menander ap. Athen. 4. p. 146 e. 
(OS duooTi 0€ 01 TOi;fco^u;^oi Koirag ^epopreS' (rra[i.vi\ oJp^l 
Tcov OeoJy €V€K oXX' iaurdoy to Xi^avwrlv euce^e^^ Ka) rh 
7ro7rav69 tout* Ixa^ev o fl^^y, €7rl ri irZp "Ayrav iirite^ev* oi 
he TTjv dT(p5v uKpav Ka\ r^v p^oXijv €T is ra ^poifiaTa rois 
^eoTy €7rAiyr€S aJroi t aAXa KaraTrivoufn. (Kuin.) 

I assent to the learned Commentator that this last 
detailed interpretation (which seems to have been 
devised from Whitby and Doddridge) deserves the 

* And" also by Whitby, who obMrves that the question is a strong 
negative, importine, that though they really did offer sacrifices as 
He had commanded, yet did He not accept, or look upon them as 
offered to Him ; similar to which is the* expression in Zach. 7, 5. 
And this is here denied (continues Whitby), 1st. Because God will 
accept of no worship as done unto him, which is not done imto him 
alone ; and when any other is worshipped with him, he looks upon 
himself as not worshipped at all. So ^ Kings 17, 33 & 34. 2dly, Be- 
cause God will not own any worship as performed to him, whilst 
men continue in their disobedience to his laws, and in their hearts 
depart from him, and incline to a worship he approves not of. Thus 
the Jews in Zachary are said not to font to Aim, because they would 
not hearken to, or obey his words, ver. 8. and he is said to have 
been angry with them in the wilderness forty years, because ih^ 
erred from him m their hearts, (ft. 95, 10), that is (as the Chaldee 
explains), they had their idols in their hearts ** Whitby. 



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S50 ACTS OF TIttt A1H>STLES, CHAP« VII. 

praise of simplicity and facility : but I agree vitii 
nim in preferring that which he has himself adopted ; 
though, upon the whole, the following^ compounded 
from that of Bp. Pearce andf Kuinoel, appears to be 
the simplest and truest. " Did ye indeed offer to 
me sacrifices for forty years in the wilderness ; (yes ;) 
and yet (ica) for koutoi) so little real was your piety, 
that (in conjunction with my worship) ye raised the 
tabernacle of Moloch.** 

The words of (Ecumenius 70 d. & 7I a. (partly 
derived from Chrysostom and other ancient Fathers) 
place in a strong light the exquisite contrivance of 

Tcpo^ SXrpf 
^ , , ico) chrtrtf 
Twr€ voA¥ X(/$iJ(r€<rflai, Ka\ rot cftij ica\ rw dwria^ oXXot- 

fn^ya (ppoveiv 8oic€ir€, errj T€<r<rapdKou7a our€ bwrias Tpo- 
fni¥€yK€v^ o5t€ voiv &v€<rT7j(r€if* aXX* otJSe Aat>)$, wie ns 
ixXXoiv' €v r£ lUa-tpy Ka) toi KaraicXt}po$oroujX€yi)^ ujxTv 
Tyy 7^9* aXXA ical oj T^o^^rai oiy jxi^ oira dyayicaia 
ToSra ftSrw Trepi adrcip airo^aivovrai. Moier^v $€ vuv tw^ 
iryjjjuuJtTi Jforflf Si6icSiic€7y, Sv &7rci(rarro Koi 01 xarep^f t/pSy 

f iar> iri^9 re AfjiM itneiKw Ka) hpifUw^ rijf Karriyopiav 
aJrcSv SioXuojxevTjv. 

43. ical av€Xa/3€T€ t^v ^lojin^v to5 MoXi;^. MoXo;^ 
answers to the Hebr. ^TG, a king, from ^^TD, to 
reign. Hence in the Sept. version of Amos 5, 26. 
05370, your Sovereign Lord^ i. e. your God, is ren- 
dered MoXo;i^.* The worshippers of idols called 

* It has been disputed by learned men which oHhe Goda or Kings 
the Israelites worshipped in the desert under the name of Moloch. 
And since Stephen has cited the passage of ^mos for the purpose of 
showing that the Israelites worshipped the stars^ it is natural to sup- 
pose some planet. Hence Grotius, Orusius, Michaelb, Gabler, and 
others, understand Saturn, because in Scripture human sacrifices, 
especially cif boys, are said to have been offered to him. See Levit. 
18, 21., « Kings, 16, 17., Jer. 32, 35. compared with 19, 5. Diodor. 
Sic. (20, 14.) Curt. (4, 3,23.) Justin. {\9, 1.) and Lactant. {} , 21.) 
relate that the T^rians and Carthaginians offered human sacrifices 
to Saturn. 



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ACTS OP THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Vll. SSl 

iheir Gods by the name |3aa-iX^9. So Horn. Aifotxr^sf* 
Compare jer. 47, 25. and Is. 8, 21. Thus in Is. 
44, 6. Jehovah is said to be the King of his people. 
By the name Moloch, therefore, or some inflexion 
of it, various Oriental nations named their Gods, 
especially him whom they believed to be supreme. 
1 he same ratio may be discerned in the name Baal^ 
or Bel (i. e. Lord) ; a generic term applied to all 
Gods, who were distinguished from each other by 
the addition of an epithet ; and the name Jehovah 
had this in common with idols. See Hos. 2, 15 Sc 
16., Petit, in his Var. Lect. c. 1., Spencer de L^. 
Heb. 468., Wits. Misc. 486., Deyling, Obss. P. 2. p. 
839., and Warnekros, in his Heb. Ant. p. 84. In the 
Scriptures Moloch is the hame given to the idol wor- 
shipped by the Ammonites (see 1 kings 11, 7.) and 
Moabites. (See 2 Kings S, 27.) He is by some 
called the idol, and sometimes Baal. See Jer. 32, 
35. compared with 19>5. Now Moloch was an image 
of hollow construction, with the face of a calf and 
the hands outstretched.* See Drus. ad h. 1. and 
Wits. Misc. 492. So Jarchi on Jer. 7, 31. Mok)ch 
est idolum ex aere. Ascendunt autem eunti inferius ; 
manus habet expensas ac quodammodo elatos. Dant 
puerum in ejus manus; comburitur et rugit. Sacri- 
flculi autem pulsant tympanis, ne pater audiat eju^ 

Others, on the contrary, as Spencer» Deyling, Braim, Witsiud^ 
Kraus, Moras, Roseninuller, Heinrichs, and others^ on the authority 
of Theophylact (who contends that by thb deity among the Ammo^ 
nites was represented the Sun), assign the name of Moloch to that 
luminary, who, as the chief of the planets^ was called King of heaven, 
and the Moon they called Queen of heaven. See Jer. 7> 18. 44, 35< 
[So Gen. 1, 16* ** And God made two great lights, the greater light 
to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night.** Edit] And 
this opinion is highly probable. For the Egyptians did worohip the 
Sun, and believed that the soul of Osirb had migrated into the Sun, 
and were by tl\ese worshipped wiih great religious veneration. See 
Euseb. in his Prxp. Evang. 1. 18> 5. and Spencer 806. Hence also 
the idol Moloch had the head of an ox. Prom Egypt the worship of 
the sun passed to the neighbouring nations. {Set Munthead h. 1.) 

^ So the Mexican idok described by Mr. Humbolt in his Anti^pu- 
ties of Mexico. 



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252 ACTS OF THE APOSLTES, CHAP. VII. 

latum fillip et ne incalescat ipsius misericordia. Xko^ 
y^, which answers to the Hebr. ]133D, denotes the 
case in which was contained the image of Moloch, 
formed of some light and portable material, and of 
very moderate size, so as to admit of being conveyed 
and set up, or hidden, as occasion might serve, with 
little fear of discovery from Moses or the ma- 
gistrates * See Mich. SuppK p. 1747> and Spencer 
804. 

*AyaXaft3ay€iv (like the Hebr. Mtt)3 in Amos) signi^ 
fies to raise, bear, carry on the shoulders ; as in reli- 

fious procession. (See Numb. 1, 50. and Joh. 31,6.) 
t appears too (as Spencer 802., and Rosenm. on 
Amos, have observed) that the antients sometimes 
carried about their Gods hidden ^ as tutelary genii, 
but at other times took them on their shoulders, and 
carried them about on beds or couches with much 
pomp and formality of procession. (See Serv. on 
Virg. Mn. 6, 68. and Braun Select Sacr. 4970 But 
the external sign of worship is here mentioned in 
the place of the worship itself, of which it was the 
sign. So that to bear the tabernacle of Moloch is 
equivalent to worshipping Moloch. The Israelites 
indeed are no where in the Pentateuch said to have 
worshipped Moloch, or Saturn. Hence some Com- 
mentators, as De Dieu, Doddridge, and others, who 
think it improbable that such idolatry could have 
been practised without the knowledge of Moses, 
maintain that we are to understand the words of 
mental idolatry^ dwelling in the mind as a taber- 
nacle of the body, which the Israelites carried about 
with them through the desert. See De Dieu, Wits, 

^ Schoettgen, adverting to the slight difierence which there exists 
between the Hebrew and Greek, thinks it may have arisen from a 
difference in placing the vowel points. '< And (continues he) as to 
any difference which we cannot reconcile, that may arise from the 
nlMcurity consequent on the rites of the antients not being fully un- 
derstood. Since therefore the Holy Spirit did not deign to bestow 
much care in describing them, we must be content to remain igno- 
rant of thero, as we are also of the nature or kind c^ worship paid 
to the idols mentioned in 9 Kings 17, 31.** 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Vll/ 253 

and Deyling. But there is no need to distort these 
words from their natural sense, or to resort to so far- 
fetched an interpretation, and one so foreign to the 
native simplicity of the words. 

The covers, or cases, above-mentioned, as also the 
idols, were (as Michaelis observes) very small j some- 
thing similar to those silver shrines, or models, of the 
temple of Diana at Ephesus, mentioned Acts 19f 24. 
(see Spencer 8I7.) ; so that both the case and the idol 
could conveniently be carried about, and moreover 
easily hidden. Besides, Moses has not recorded all 
that happened to the Israelites in the desert ; since 
circumstances which he has omitted are found in 
the other Books of Scripture. See 2 Tim. 3, 8. and 
compare the note supra on ver. 39. Neither, how- 
ever, was Moses without a suspicion that the Israel- 
ites paid such adoration to Moloch ; as may be col- 
lected from Lev. I7, I9. 18, 21. 20, 2 seqq. (Kuin.) 

Possibly in this sense erfojing may be understood in 
a passage of Diodor. Sic. 20, 65. (cited by Wets.) 
cwe^ rrjv lepav (r/ojyi^y avap^'vai wT^ricrlov ovtrav to5 

43. icai TO oMrrgov toS 06ou ujuuuv 'P^ft^o^v. For 'Pe/t- 
^ov the Hebr. has p**D, a word, on the authority of 
the Arabic, explained by Kimchi, Abercorn, and 
most Commentators, of the star of Saturn. Saturn 
indeed is, in the Arabic, called ]MV3, which De 
Dieu and Deyling take to denote properly that attri- 
bute of the Deity which communicates existence, 
duration, nature and aptitude to all things, from 
pD, to fit, dispose, generate, make to exist. From 
the notion of rectitude proceeds the Chaldee p'^D, 
Just. Now of all kings Saturn is said to have been 
the most- just, and the Saturnian times are cele- 
brated for peculiar simplicity and equity ; and that 
by the Synans Saturn was called pM3 we are told by 
Pococke, in his Spec. Hist. Ar. p. 3P0. The points 
were therefore wrongly placed by the Masorites, 
and we should read p^^S, as has been well observed 
by Michaelis, Suppl. ad Lex. Hebr. 1229. Now 



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254* ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 

Saturn was worshipped by the Phcenicians (sec Mi- 
cbaelis ubi supra), the antient Arabians (see Po- 
cocke, p. 140), and the antient Egyptians, whose 
superstition was followed by the Israelites. See 
Gattarer de Theogonia Egypt, p. 144. Comment 
Got ting. vol. 7* 

43. rl aa-rpw to5 0€o5 ufiuSy, i. e. " the image of 
Saturn, whom ye account as a God, and woiship 
under the image of a star.** See Spencer, p. 809 
seqq. On comparing the Hebr. and Sept. we per- 
cetye in the latter a transposition. It has however 
been found in some Hebrew MSS. and is preferred 
by Kennicott and Dahl. (Kuin.) The words rouy 
Tinrous are to be referred to Moao;^, who was carried 
about in a portable tabernacle, and 'Pij^oy, Saturn, 
whom the star represented. Now rusrou is often 
used of images of the gods^ as in Joseph. Ant. 1, 
19, 11. where it is employed of the little images 
stolen by Rachel from her father Laban ; and often 
elsewhere. Hence, also^ in Philo de Opif. p. 4 b. 
ruxoi and €2Sa>7ut are used promiscuously. And so 
Hesych. nj^ror €i*ccoy. See Kypke, Krebs, and Loes- 
ner. The words Trpwrur^v^iy oujrots are added by 
Stephen by way of explanation. (Kuin.) 

43. K€Li [ji^erotKtoS oimls' €V€K€tva Ba0i/7uoyof . Ka) here 
Unifies and (so)^ itaque^ therefore. See the note 
on Mark 3, 23. Joh. 6, 67. 7f 22. 5, 30. In order 
to complete the sense, we must supply some such 
words as the following, because of your sins, and 
those of your Jbrefathers. MerowcicS, " I will trans- 
plant, remove.*' The word is used of removal or 
banishment to another country. It occurs in the 
Old Testament ; as in 1 Chron. 5, 26. 8, 6. Hos. 10, 
^., and occasionally in the Classical writers. But in 
thes^ it generally signifies no more than emigration^ 
(>r voluntary change of residence; as in Thucyd. 1, 

is a compound expression^ standing in the place of a 
preposition. In it there is an ellipsis ot tU^^ on 
i^l^ch depends the gemtive following. So Xen«, 



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ACTS OF THB APOSTLES^ CHAP. VIK ^5 

Anab. 5, 4, 3. It is, in the Classical writers, usually 
preceded by an article in any case, which also re* 
quires the subaudition of lUpo^ in some case agree^ 
ing with it; though sometimes, as in the present 
passage, the article is omitted. So Xen. Hist. 5, 1, 
10. av60aivov roG *HpaicX€iot; €xeic€iva. This is not Ijn- 
frequently the case in the later writers ; especially 
Arrian, Appiau, Polybius, and Diodorus Siculus. 
And thus it becomes entirely a preposition. I am 
not aware that the Classical writers ever take the 
yet greater liberty of omitting both the article and 
the genitivCy and thus converting it into a mere par^ 
ticiplcy equivalent to owx further^ henceforward; as 
in 1 Mace. 9, 30. Ez. 39, 22. Mich. 4, 5. In the 
Hebr. and Sept. we have, for Babylon^ Damascus^ 
which some account a slip of memory. Others (as 
Kuinoel) consider it as a deliberate alteration, for 
the sake of greater effect; which seems, indeed, 
more probable : but I am inclined to think that such 
may have been the reading of some Hebrew and 
Greek Copies in the age of Stephen. And so CEcu* 
menius (71 D.) : o Xrk^avog htiK€iva Ba^uXcoyes* ^<rlv, 
omi^KoxAf^(ra9 rr^ 'E^oaicov ^kSoVci. At least it comes to 
the same thing ; for Damascus, being on the borders 
of Syria and Palestinie, those that were removed to 
Babylon were indeed removed b&uond thmascus. 
And (to conclude in the words of Bp. Pearce) a^ 
they were carried so far as into Media (see 2 King^ 
17, 6.) which country lay not only beyond Damascus, 
but beyond even Babylon, Stephen, who knew that 
to be the fact, might justly say, as he does here, 
beyond Babylon; thereby fixing the place of their 
captivity more explicitly than the Prophet did, who 
spoke before the event had taken place. 

44. Havii^g thus far dwelt on the ingratitude of 
the Israelites towards God and Moses, and their 
impiety and idolatry, Stephen now treats of the 
pl^e of true Ayorsbip rendered unto God ; and to 
the taberniicle of Moloch, before mentioned^ he now 
opposes T^y <ria2i^s^ rou fiaprupiov. 



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^6 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 

The sum of this part of Stephen's discourse, m 
which he recalls to the minds of his auditors (ver. 
44 — 47.) things well known to them, is as follows : 
"The tabernacle was built by Moses, at the command 
of God, and before it all our forefathers, up to the 
time of David, worshipped. David was desirous of 
building a temple to God, which might be a firm 
and stable editice for Divine worship, and which 
could not be transferred to different places, as the 
tabernacle had been. But although David had ob* 
tained the favour of God, yet it was not the Divine 
pleasure that the Temple should be built by him^ 
but by his son Solomon. And thus the place des- 
tined to sacrifices and Divine worship was changed. 
Therefore the worship of God is not by Him so bound 
to one place, that it cannot be transferred to any 
other : nay, this Temple, of which you so boast, may 
be destroyed, as was Solomon's.'' 

44. *H (Tiaivri row pxprupiow. By this word the 
Greek Translators of the Old Testament express 
TjnD 7mM, i. e. " the tabernacle destined to religious 
meetings, and from which God used to issue his ora- 
cles." See Exod. 29, 42 & 43. and compare 25, 22. 
and Numb. 7, 89. It comes from IJT^, to meet. But 
the Sept. derived it from 113^, to testify^ teach \ 
by o-iojinj row iJMprtjpiot} meant the tent where God 
teacheth his people : for both itaprup^iv and jxaprwg»oy 
often denote teaching. (Kuin.) ; from Hammond, 
whose annotation the student may, with advantage, 
consult. 

44. KaOcoy Si€Ta^aro — ov ea>pa/c6i, (so built) as He 
who had conversed with Moses (i. e. God) had com- 
manded him to build it after the example shown to 
him." See Exod. 25. compared with Hebr. 8, 5. 
(Kuin.) CEcumenius explains: <r#ci3v»} row irpas^ay- 

45. ^i' *cot) cl^yayov SiaSe^a|X€yoi ol irarip^s t^im^v. 
Aia8€y6(rdai signifies to receive any thing as delivered 
(Sia) by the hands of any one, or to receive any thing 
as left or bequeathed. It takes an accusative of the 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIl. 257 

thing or of the pertoh, either expressed or under- 
stood.; and it sometimes merely means to succeed^ 
with an accusative of the person^ and sometimes of 
the thing bequeathed, inherited, or succeeded to. 
Examples of all these uses may be seen in Kypke, 
Krebs, and Loesner, who have satisfactorily proved 
that we must not, with some Commentators, refer Sia- 
$€^aft€yoi to oj 7raf€p€99 but subaud aurr^v, i. e. cricijjojv. 
Moreover Grotius, De Dieu, and others (following 
the Vulgate) take ev foreis ; as in a very similar pjls- 
sage of Numb. 82, 5. Sofl^rcu ijfxiv ij yrj ev karoL&j(i<r€i* 
and Deut. 32, 51. The words are therefore to be 
thus rendered : *' which our ancestors, under the 
guidance of Joshua, brought into a land occupied 
by Gentiles.'* 

45. CUV ?^ft)<r€V 0€os' arro TrpotrcoirotJ w. r. tf. So the 
Hebr. *»3D bvD in Exod. 34, 24. Deut. 11, 23. 2, 21. 
^Q is also for a. See the note on 1, 1. and 3, 25. The 
same idiom is found in an antient Punic inscription 
mentioned by Procop. 1. 2. Bell. Vand. (cited by 
Grot, and Eisner) TjfteTs' c^rjxev oi ^uyovrey olttI Trpoo'wTrorj 
*I>}a-o3 To5 Xijo-ToS uioS Nati^, where I conjecture NaSy, 
Nun. Thus v and 13 are perpetually confounded. 
. 45. €(09 Twv i]ft6^coy AajS/S. There has been some 
doubt whether this clause should be referred to the 
immediately preceding words, e^cotrev 06oy, or the 
more remote ones itos^ rwy i^ixepwv Aa3/8. The latter 
mode is sanctioned by the common punctuation, and 
is adopted by the generality of Commentators. But 
this requires us to add some such words as €;^oyr6ff 
aurr^Vy by a most arbitrary and harsh ellipsis. Be- 
sides, as Bp. Pearce observes, there is no reason to 
think that Moses's Tabernacle was in beings up to 
Pavid*s time ; since in Eli's days, and afterwards, 
though mention is made of the Ark^ no mention is 
made of the Tabernacle^ it being probably worn out 
and unfit for use. And this indeed (as Bp. Pearce, 
Owen, and Kiiinoel remark,) is confirmed by facts; 
since it is certain tiiat up to the time of David, the 
Israelites had to maintain a contest with the Canaan* 

VOL. IV." s 



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959 ACTS or ths apoitles^ chap. vit. 

ites, and it was David alone that finally subdued and 
destroyed the last remnants of those barbarians. Nor 
is this interpretation, as Heinrichs thinks, less suit- 
able to the context. For^ as Kuinoel observes, though 
it was the intent of the speaker to notice that the 
Israelites had, up to the time of David, worshipped 
under this tabernacle, yet this circumstance is sug« 

fested in the following wordsy and was too well 
nown to his auditors to need insisting on. Swayed 
by these considerations therefore, many (as JBp. 
Pearce, Dr. Owen, and Kuinoel) remove the comma 
at ^*fuSv, and adopt the former construction. 

46, 47* Ss* eS^ X^^^ ipwTTiov r. 6. £(>p/0-ic», like 
the Hebr. H!tD, often signifies to obtain (see the note 
on Luke 1 , 30). The/act is narrated in 2 Sam. 7. 
Aireiv, like the Hebr. 7Mtt), signifies not only to *eeAr, 
but to tvishy desire J &c. *Hrr^ar#, i. e. asked for 
himself. So Doddridge, who well renders, ** made 
it his petition.** The following cJpc creates some 
little diflSculty. But it may be removed by referring 
to Ps. 132, 5. which is here plainly alluded to, and 
where it is evident that the Hebr. n'>33»D MSDM" Ty 
must be interpreted, to Jind out (a place whereon I 
majf build) an luibitation Jhr^ &c. Now the latter 
member of the sentence is an exegetical parallelism 
of the former ; and the ellipsis is so much the less 
harsh, since the word place (OpD, or roroy) is found 
in the former member. Thus there will no be no oc- 
casion to resort to the harsh and unauthorized inter- 
pretation proposed by De Dieu, and adopted by Kui- 
noel. 

46. SK^MDfAo, or o-Ki}!^, like oticog, is used of any 
house, , bat both words are used, Kar c^op^y, of a 
temphf or habitation of a deity. %fc^vcoiia is by T. 
Mag. treated as an Hellenistic term. 

48. oTOi oix, ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ;u€igdirow3r«jf vowiy icacroucc?. 
3ee the note on ver. 44. and compare similar senti- 
ments in I Kings 8, 27* Acts I7, 24. The words may 
be thus paraphrased: ** But God needs not a tempfe 
in wluch toiohabitj nor is He contained by a temple. 



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ACTS OF THl APOSTLES) CHAP. VII. 25Sf 

He 18 circiiroscribed by no place j the whole univetse 
built by his power is his temple/' 

48. vcipoToiifToir, made with (human) hands. This 
wc»rd Q applied both to idols, and to temples ; as 
in Is. 16, 1^ and Mark 14, 58. and indeed to that 
our Lord seems to have alluded. Grotius has here a 
learned and interesting note, in which he observes 
that the early Christians avoided applying the name 
temple to their places of worship, as being used of 
pagan edifices. " They were content (says he) to call 
them ecclestcBf houses afassemblff^ houses of GodV So 
Zeno : Quo tibi Ecclesiae, si adeunda smt templa ? 
And this distinction was long observed by the early 
Fathers and Christian Emperors.'* See more in Grot. 

49j 50. " Here we have (says Kuinoel), Is. 66, 1 
& 9. quoted yro»t memory'* Be that, however, as it 
may, the difference between the words of Stephen 
and what we have in our present Sept. is scarcely 
any, except in the concluding member^ where the 
interrogative sentence including a negation is strongly 
affirmative, and they are by Stephen expressed in an 
affirmative sentence. A liberty not greater than such 
as are often found in the Septuagint: and therefore it 
is not impossible that some copies might have it in 
the time of Stephen. Kuinoel observes, that the 
Prophet then proceeds to reprehend his countrymen, 
who were boasting too much of the Temple, and, 
content with the external forms of religion, neg-. 
kcted real and substantial piety, and promise them- 
aelvee all safety and prosperity heeiiuse Jehovah 
dwelt among them. The words 19 S^ 7^ ii^w^tw may 
be very well illustrated from the following passages. 
L4ician de Conscr. Hist. 27- (on Jupiter) r«5 uwtnr^m 
8^ ri r€ fJOti^pyty KOii rhej^€(rTW 9at;jxa^€i* which passage 
is cited by Wetstein, among many others, on Matt. 
S@,4@. Orpheus ap. Clem. Alex. Strom. 1.5. (^ited 
by Lampe on John) : Auro^ ^ oUfK^yap aSdiy |t oupotv^v. 
itrnipiKTon Xgwreco eh) d^ovm, ya/i) 8* fi^ri to^g-) ^^nr^ef. 
Eurip. Jone, v. 1, 8. 'ArXay I ;^aWoi<ri v«^o»ff oJgai^ 

s2 



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260 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII, 

51. The discourse of Stephen is now manifestfy 
interrupted; nor does what follows exactly cohere 
with the preceding. The style is suddenly changed, 
and the speaker, who hitherto had recounted the his- 
tory of the Jewish people in a calm and tranquil 
spirit, does not go forward in his narration; nor does 
he shew what he meant to be inferred from this 
enumeration of the fortunes of the Jewish people; 
but breaks off the thread of his discourse, speaks ani- 
mo concitato, and sharply rebukes the judges. Hence 
some have thought that Stephen, in fact, said more^ 
but that St. Luke has, for the sake of brevity, omit- 
ted it. (See Limborch in loc.) Others, however, 
(more rightly,) maintain that Stephen was here inter- 
rupted by his auditors. Those who support this opi- 
nion, most of them suppose that Stephen*s discourse 
was interrupted by the tumult and clamour of the 
judges and the people, who demanded the death of 
the prisoner. This, however, is extremely impro- 
bable. For if Stephen had been compelled to break 
the thread of his history by the clamours and vio- 
lence of the auditors, one does not see how it could 
happen that the author of the narration should pass 
this by, since he, further on, in ver. 54, has, in ex- 
press words, related what effect this last part of the 
discourse had on the minds of his auditors ; nor does 
it easily appear how the person who took down the 
discourse in writing could have heard these words, 
fiut these difficulties vanish, if we suppose that Ste- 
phen was interrupted only by the low murmurings 
and gestures of the hearers ♦. For the Sanhedrim^ 
who had already determined to put him to death, 
weary with his long discourse, and irritated with the 

* And 80 Doddridge, who paraphrases thus : " And Stephen 
finding, by a confused noise murmur in the place, that they under- 
stood whither his discourse was leading them, and perceiving by the 
eagerness of their countenance that they would be like soon to In- 
terrupt him, applied himself more closely to his persecutors in these 
remarkable words, which he boldly addressed to them under the 
influence of the Holy Spirit, by whose immediate direction he 
spoke," &c. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, Vll.. 96l . 

tacit reprehension of themselves which it contained, 
and clearly seeing whither this discourse tended, now 
began to evince their angry feelings, both by coun- 
tenance, gestures, and murmurs. But Stephen, 
stung to the quick at this unreserved declaration of 
their obstinacy and malignity, now utters in vehe- 
mently accusatory language what, if they had not 
interrupted him, he would have couched in other and 
milder expressions. How it happiened that he who 
took down the discourse in writing did not record 
this interruption, Heinrichs has well accounted for, 
by supposing that he did not wish to break the 
thread of it by recording the interruption, which, as 
it probably consisted chiefly in gestures, or at most 
hisses^ or low murmurs^ might be little perceived by 
the writer. That Stephen should have indulged in 
somewhat too bitter a strain against the hearers, and 
in this instance fallen short of the meekness of Jesus 
Christ, is, considering all things, excusable, since 
the rebukes were, upon the whole, well merited, and 
he had himself just cause for complaint. At all 
events, the indignant feeling was very transient, and 
more than atoned for by the Christian meekness 
with which he breathed out his spirit in entreating 
mercy and pardon for his murderers. (Kuin.) 

The same view of the subject has been taken by 
Rosenmuller, and, upon the whole, it seems a tole- 
rably correct one. I cannot, however, commend the 
hypothetical air which is thrown over Heinrich's an- 
notation ; nor can I approve of the over minute dili- 
fence shewn in accounting for the interruption not 
eing recorded, by supposing the speech to have 
been taken down in writing by a single tachygraph, 
or short-hand writer.. This is (not to say irreverent) 
altogether suppositious^ and is allowing nothing to 
the instrumentality of the Holy Spirit, which, we 
may suppose, would sufficiently assist the inspired 
writer in recording this finely conceived address. 

51. (ncX^poTpa;^Xo«, stiffinecked, obstinate. In most 
languages obstinacy and disobedience are expressed 



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£6ji ACTS or THB APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 

by wonis derived from hardness. See Fisch. Prol. 
de Vit. Lex. 812. Hence a-t^T^polKOLpiia in Matt. 19, 
8. and Sirach 6, 10 & 11. where tnOit^parpaxj^y^ is 
used in the same sense. By the Hebrews a person 
of that sort is called Fl"^TRPp; as in Ex. 32,9- where 
Symmachus, Theod. and the Sept. have ^-icXij^orpa;^- 
^•f , which, indeed, is frequently so used in the Sept. j 
as in Deut 11,6. Prov. 29, 1. See also Hesiod. 
Opp. 146. and Tzetzes on this passage. Here too 
we may compare Cic. Ep. ad Die. 6, 13. Non fore 
in te Caesarem duriorem, where durlorem is opposed 
to mitiorem. Terent. Heaut. 4, 1, 51. Quam timui 
valde ne nunc Animo ita esses duro ! Schoettgen 
and Wets, adduce examples from the Rabbinical 
writers. See Valcknaer. 

51. ay€^«TfiiijTo« JJ^ KOf^la k. t. ci, 'ATCgiTpijrof, 
Uncircumcised^ answers to the Heb. 7*tt^ in Gen. 17, 
14. : but here it is taken in ^^gurative sense. For 
the external circumcision was a symbol of mental 
and moral purity, and extirpation of evil affections 
and desires. So Philo, p. 4.50. rl x€pir€u,y€(r^t, ijSo- 
Kov kol\ waiwp TTOLvrwif €kto[jlvj¥^ Ka) So^f avSperiv ao-e* 
^s (n}/xa/y€J. Hence, in the Old and New Testa- 
ment, TegiTOjDtij is applied to the mind^ and meta- 
phorically used of those who abstain from vice, and 
suppress evil inclinations. So Jer. 4, 4. (Sept.) a-fpi- 
T€ftvc<rd€ T1QV (TfO^ripoKapiiav uiidify where Symmachus 
has a^€X6^d< xowjpiag roop ica^hoSv 6iutty. See Orat. 
Manass. ver. 11. and Philo 3, 3. Thus by the ebrc- 
pir|E4'»)roi rji koi^S/oc are meant men whose vices are 
uncorrected, and in whom evil propensities still 
retain their original sway. See Lev. 26, 41. and 
Ezek. 44, 7 & 9. In like manner, by the aTre^iV/uti^roi 
To79 co<r)v are denoted those whose ears are stopped, 
who obstinately turn a deaf' ear to the Divine pre- 
cepts.* This censure is frequent in the Old Testa- 
ment, and so much the more severe, since tlie Jews 

* And so Bp. Fearce, who obeervea that bjr the unclrcumcised ears 
are meant such as ha^'e ears and hear noU Aod he compares Jer. 6, 
10. their ear is uncircumc'ued, ajtd the§ cannot hearken. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VI|» S09 

were proud of circurocision, and thought it affiliated 
them with the favoured people of God. (Kuin.) 
The metaphor is frequent, in the Rabbinical wri- 
tings, from which many examples are adduced by 
Schoettgen. 

51. T£ nvfCaari rvi ayi<o avriirlirrere, you have 
perpetually resisted the Holy Spirit, i. e. the ad- 
monition of inspired precepts. (Kuin.) AvaxiWciv, 
Valcknaer tells us, is properly used of a contrary 
wind; s^s in Plut. Thes. p. 13 d* (cited by Wets.) f^^tiSci/ 
a¥rmiirr€i xol^ol rciif itrropiKwv rois^ rqayiKois. This might, 
however, be more truly affirmed of avrtwarayea} 
(see Thucyd. 3, 22.) ; and the primitive idea seems 
to be rather that of one body Jailing foul of, or im- 
pinging another; and therefore the word came to 
denote resistance of any kind, both military and 
otherwise. It has been illustrated by Raphel, De 
Rhoer, Wets, and Ii-misch on Herodot. 6, 3, 13. 
See also Grotius and Pricaeus. Kai has the sense of 
(soj also, by an ellipsis of oSrav. See Schl. Lex. 

62, rivoL TcSv tt^ijtoJv, &c. See Matt 21, 33. 
seqq. 23, 34. seqq. and Luke 13, 34. Kuinoel ob- 
serves that these words are not to be too much 
pressed; which is very true. Yet the history of the 
Jews might almost justif)r a literal application of 
them.* By the rou Siicatou is meant the Messiah, 
i.e. Jesus Chnst, so called by way of eminence. 
Compare Is. 53, 11. Zach. 9f 9* and Acts 3, 14. 

52. oS bif^s Trpaliirai Koi ^ov€?p ycycm^dc. Upoiirai 
they were by delivering him into the hands of Pi- 
late ; and c^oveiy by delivering him to Pilate in order 
to be put to death, and thus procuring his murden 
Wetstein cites a passage of Diodor. Sic. where 

* Here Doddridge observes, that Ihere is no reason to conclude 
from hence that many scriptures containing the history of these 
persecutions are destroyed by the Jews, as Mr. Whiston nwintains. 
^ It 18 natural (says he) to understand this in a limited sense^ only 
as intimating that most of them suffered such unworthy usage ; and 
we know that attempts were sometimes made to cut off all the pro- 
phets of Jehovah at once. See 1 Kings 19> 10 & 14. and compare 
3Cbron.3«,16. 



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fi64> Acts Of THE Ai'OSTLES, CHAP. tit. 

T^oSorrjff and ^vcws" are unitedy to hint, I suppose; 
that there is here a sort of climax. It is finely 
remarked by Grotius (ap. Doddr.) that the Sanhe- 
drim was obliged, by virtue of its very constitution, 
to guard and defend the lives of the Prophets with 
peculiar care, how much more to protect such a 
divinfe messenger as Christ was from any injurious 
assault ; instead of which they had not only basely 
deserted him, but had themselves become principals 
in his murder. 

On the interpretation of the formula €iy Ztarayk^ 
ayy€7uoy, the Commentators are by no means agreed. 
(See Wolf on this passage.) Grotius, Calovius, 
Glass, Heumann, Krebs, Loesner, Morus, and 
others, explain : *• hosts of angels being present at 
the promulgation of the Law,*' or, ** amongst troops 
of angels ;" since (say they) 8iare{<r<r6jv not only 
denotes to constitute, and also to promulgate a law, 
but is likewise used of the disposition of troops for 
battle; as in Judith 2, 16. Xen. Cyr. 6, 3, 12. 
8, .5, 2. So that Siarayai may mean troops, ranks ; 
€hf too, being taken for ev.** Now since at Gal. 3, 
19- the Law is said to have been SiaraycJf 8«* ayyb<aav, 
and at Heb. 2, 2. XaXeTerdai 8*' ayyeXcov, the above 
Commentators render the words thus: " the law 
promulgated in the presence of angels ;'* as in 2 
Tim. 2, 2. hk iroTCKmv [jLaprtipcov. And Philo. 1019 
A. ha [MLpTtjpcov k'KolUiv. This interpretation of 
the passages of Gal., Heb., and the present they 
think is unquestionably true, since S«aTa<ra-6iv is a 
word appropriate to legislation. (See Krebs and 
Loesner.) « Besides, to God alone (say they) and 
not to angels (as appears from Scripture) is the pro- 
inulg^tion of the Law suitable. See Exod. 21, I. 
J9» 22.*' On the contrary, I accede to the opinion 
of those who explain the words: " ye have received 
the Law promulgated by Angels.'* (See Beza, Ham- 
mond, Kraus, and Heinrichs on this passage.) Kopp 
and Berger on Galat., and Carpzov. on the Hebrews. 
Now Siara<r<reiv denotes generally to order and com- 

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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. ¥!!• 265 

mand (See Luke 8, 55. 17, 19.) ; also to appoint by 
edict, promulgate a law. (See Acts 18, 2.; ^afilian 
V. H. 2, 15. rcop TTo'KmKmv eKatrra Ziardrreiv. Hesiod 
Theog. 74- (speaking of Jupiter) eZ Se cKuara 'A^ava- 
Toiy ii€Ta^€ oftcos*, Ka) €7r€^p(x,0€ Tijutay & Opp. 276. 
ToVSe yao aubpciwoim you,ov hUra^e K§ovia>v. Hence 
haray^ denotes a mandate, appointment, promulga- 
tion (as in Rom. 13, 1.) ; Siaray/xa an edict, order ; 
like hara^i9 in Ps. 119, 9. Eiy is for €y or 81A. So 
that €Aa0€T€ TOP vo{jLQy e^s Siarayas* ayy€\(ov is equiva- 
lent to €Xaj3€T6 Tov vifAOV haray€Pra 81' ayycXcov. And 
so the words were taken by the Scholiast Cod. 
Mosq. The plural is moreover put for the singular. 
Nor need it be objected to this interpretation, that 
haratrtreip is suitable only to God, and not to angels; 
for God promulgated tlie Law by the ministry of 
angels. Besides, the passages of Galat. and Heb., 
unless they be interpreted in a very contort manner, 
confirm this mode of explanation. In the narration, 
indeed, of Moses (Ex. 14, 22. seqq.) there is no men- 
tion made of the ministry ^ nay, not even of the pre- 
sence of angels. But in Deut. 33, 2. the Greek 
Translators iiave, to the words icdfios ck X^vol 7)K€i 
added, Ik he^mv auroti ayy€Xoi ft€r atJrow. In fact, it 
was the opinion of the ancient Jews that God, on all 
solemn occasions, when He declares his especial 
presence, is accompanied by angels (see the note on 
ver. 30.), and that He was so at the promulgation of 
the Law at Mount Sinai. In succeeding ages, this 
opinion was not restricted to the presence, but in- 
cluded the ministry of angels; and in the times of 
the Apostles it was a received opinion among the 
Jews, that the Law was promulgated by angels^ as 
secondary authors. There is a remarkable passage 
to this purpose in Joseph. Ant. 15, 5, 3. TipSv tA 
KOL'WiGrra TcSv 8o7jxaTa>v ku) tol htriiorara rtSv ev roiy 
yojxois' Sr ayy€\wv wapa toS 0€o5 jutadevrcav. Finally, 
this interpretation is confirmed by many passages of 
the Rabbinical writers, produced by Wetstein and 
Schoettgen, Gal. 3, 19. Jalkut Ruben, fol. IO7, 3. 



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9^ ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Vll. 

Deus Mosen legem docuit ; cilm autem descenderet 
-— tanto timore pcrculsus est, ut omnium obiivisce- 
retur. Deus autem statim Jesifiam angelum legis 
vocavit, qui ipsi legem tradidit bene ordinatam et 
custoditam : omnesque angeli amici ejus facti sunt. 
(Kuin.) 

In this latter interpretation I must acquiesce, 
which is also supported by Schoettgen and Bp. 
Pearce. Doddridge adopts the first mentioned one ; 
but I agree with Kuinoel that it has never been 
proved that harayr^ has any such signification as 
troop, squadron. Chrysostom (followed by CEcu- 
menius) explains it ; eXajSere rov voftov rov Siarap^dcvrot, 
riof iyxjetpio'^^rra aurm ZC ayyeXou tou o^flevroy aurcS ev 
rfi jSaro>. But this interpretation, however inge- 
nious, and in some respects preferable to the first 
mentioned one, yet is too harsh ; and especially as 
it requires the plural to be taken for the singular. 

54, 55. htejTplwro, See the note on 5, 33. IlXijp^f 
nveuftaroff ayiou. This is explained by recent Com- 
mentators, "filled with sacred ardour, full of forti- 
tude and tranquillity.'' But this is an unjustifiable 
lowering of the sense, which requires, *' completely 
animated and supported by the influence of the 
Holy Spirit." On are^itra? see the note on Luke 22, 
56. and Acts 1, 10. It is of more importance, how- 
ever, to enquire into the meaning of the words elie 
So^av 06o5. By the 8o$a Grotius, Wolf, Menochius, 
and others, would understand a cloud emitting light- 
ning, as a symbol of the Divine presence j especi- 
ally as the heaven is just after said to have opened; 
which is applicable to lightning. And they refer to 
Matt. 3, 16. But this is exceedingly lowering the 
grandeur of the idea ; and (as Kuinoel objects; the 
spectators saw nothing of it. This is also a sufficient 
answer to the hypothesis of Menochius and Witsius, 
that the heaven was really divided, or rendered 
transparent, so that the throne of Christ's glory 
there became visible. For, as Doddridge remarks, 
it would thus have been a miracle exerted in respect ' 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. YII. 267 

io all present to prevent them from seeing it. Still less 
ran I approve of the interpretation of several re- 
cent Theologians, as Michaelis, who take the words 
to be no more than an highly figurative expression 
of Stephen, arising from firm faith in Jesus, and a 
persuasion that he should soon be with him ; and 
who represent that Stephen was as firmly persuaded 
of what he did not see, as if he had really seen it. 
This is, surely, quite explaining away the plain 
sense of the words, and supposes high poetic imagery 
in a simple prose passage. It is not as if there had 
been no more than areviVas* cly tov oiooLvh, eZie So^ay 
0€ou, &c. But Stephen also affirms tnat he sees this. 
The best-founded opinion seems to be that of some 
antient, and most modern Commentators, who main^ 
tain that the thing said to be done is to be explained 
of an iK<rTa<n9y or visionary representation^ or (as 
Doddridge says) God's miraculously* operating on 
his imagination ; as when Ezehiel sat in his house 
at Babylon among the elders of Judah, and saw Je- 
rusalem, and seemed to himself transported thither. 
See also Is. 6. Apoc. 4, 2. Acts 9, 10. 

This standing of Jesus at the right hand of God 
does not (whatever may be urged to that effect by 
Fabricius and Wolf), like the frequent phrase, '*sit 
at the ri^ht hand of God," denote the royal dignity 
and majesty of God, but (as is remarked by GScu- 
menius, from Chrysostom, and other Fathers) the 
present and perpetual assistance of God : ia-rwra Koi 
oiJ)(\ Kadri(ji.€yoy o iMLKaoios Sr€$avo9 hp^ rov 'IijcroSv, iva 
Sci'^ njv avr/Xijil/iV ttjv els' auriv, #cai voKKr^v r£ adXijTi} 
T19V 7rpo6u|ttiav vapda-^y to roS fioijdoSvToy cTiSeiicvtiraf 
<r;^fAa. The same view of the subject has been 
adopted by Grotius, Taylor, Doddridge, Rosenm. 
Knappe, and Kuinoel. 

57. Kpa^avT€9 Se ^ayvr^ ft€yaX7). There is neither 
support from MSS. nor probability iji the conjecture 
of Battier and Valcknaer, Kpd^arro^ ; though it must 

* 1 tay miraculously, since the imagination of itself is not capa- 
ble of performing any such wonders. (Doddr.) 



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368 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Vll. 

be admitted that the term is sometimes applied to 
loud and earnest oratory, both in the New Testa- 
ment, and in the Classical writers. As to the objec- 
tion of Valknaer, that one does not see why the Jews 
should have stopped their ears, as if they had them- 
selves been loudly vociferating, this is a mere quib- 
ble, and proceeds upon a misunderstanding of the 
purpose for which they stopped their ears, which 
was not so much to avoid hearing the words of Ste- 
phen, as a symbolical mode of expressing detestation 
and abhorrence at hearing blasphemy. See Matt. 
27, 23. Joh. 19, 12. and Acts 19, 28 & 32. where of 
those who at ver. 28. are said Kpa^eiv, as here, at ver. 
29. «Df|tt73<rav ojxodujEtaS^, ely rh fiearpiv, (ruvapv&Kravr^s 
Tatov Kal 'Ap»<rTap;fov. 

57. a-uvetrxoy ra wra auraJv, thei/ stopped their ears. 
The word properly signifies to hold or draw toge- 
ther, as drawing close the strings of a satchel ; and 
is therefore more properly applied to closing the 
ears, than to stopping them (though both produce 
the same effect). This is, in Latin, expressed by 
ocdudere aures. Pricaeus and Wets, produce many 
passages illustrative of the phrase, the action, and 
the thing signified. Of these the most important 
are Pollux. 2, 82. to U iis.n'eTrTiritrOon t^v oico^v hr) to 
Ta?v ;|j6poTy ^payrivar ko) hri'KoL&eiv Se ra wtol^ T60§a;^dai 
roL WTOL, Plut. p. 1095 E. rk wra Kara^yj^ roSs X^F^^^ 
iutrx^pouvw^ Kal /SSfAoTTOfAcvoy. lb. 649 & 783. where 
we have the expression €Ve;f€<rdai ra wra. Philo, 
384, 28. oiyeo-flai 7r^o<roTOKXfiop,et/oti9 iKarepa rwv ;^€ipdJv 
rk coTa, fAij apa ti €vatiXoy airo'KeKpb^v arfiiav — e^yaa^- 
Tai. Irenodus ap. Euseb. H. E. 5, 20. (speaking of 
Polycarp) : €? n toioStov aiojKoev eVelvoy iKOKapio^ Ka\ 
aTotrroXiKo^ Tp6<r0uT6po$», avoKpa^ai Kcti i[M,^pd$ai tA 
wra aurou. Cic. pro Sextio 50. Jpulej. 9. Exhor- 
ruit Myrmex inauditum facinus, et occlusis auribus 
aufugit protinus. Horn. Od. I77 & 47. Acts 19,34. 
Sir. 27, 14. Ps. 58, 5&Q. from all which, and from 
other passages, including Rabbinical ones, it appears 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 269 

that closing or stopping the ears was an usual action 
with the antients on using blasphemy or indecency. 
So that it was a symbolical action^ expressive of de- 
testation and abhorrence. 

58. 6X»do0oXouv. Marklandon Lys. I67. conjectures 
€Xi6oX(fyot;y. But he afterwards abandoned this emen- 
dation. Many critics, however, as Valcknaer, stum- 
ble at the expression, which they maintain cannot 
be understood of the stoning itself^ since that was 
commenced by the witnesses. Hence some think 
that the first Xiflo)3oXoov denotes only the commence- 
ment of the action. But this mode is liable to the 
same objection with the last. Others take the for- 
mer €>ido3^XoXouv to denote the wish or intention j the 
latter the execution of it. Heinrichs understands it 
of preparation for stoning. 

But all this seems little more than solemn trifling. 
Markland indeed observes, that if it be taken other- 
wise there will be an unnecessary repetition of the 
same thing. Now surely at repetition, (which is so 
characteristic of the Oriental, Hellenistic, and Scrip- 
tural Style,) so learned a man ought not to have 
stumbled : and as to unnecessary^ why should we be 
so rigid in criticising popular phraseology, in which 
many things, strictly speakings not necessary ^ occur? 
I assent to Klosius, Roseninuller, and Kuinoel, that 
the thing is expressed more historicorum (or rather 
in the way oi popular narration) ^first generally (ver. 
56.), and then (after an insertion respecting the 
keeping of the clothes by Saul) particularly (ver. 57 

6 58.) i. e. by whom he was stoned j and then some 
remarkable circumstances are narrated, which at- 
tended the stoning. 

58. ol iML^Ti}p€9 aWfl^vTo tA IfiuxTia.* See 6, 13. 

* This was necessary , since the stones were exceedingly large. 

7 The sad office (observes Schoettgen) of inflicting death on the 
criminal devolved on the witnesses. Therefore, if their testimony 
was true, they did a good work^ since they administered justice. 
But if their testimony, was /a/se, such a witness put to death an in- 
nocent person. See Sanhedrin/fbl. 45, 1. cited by Lightfoot.** 



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f70 ACT8 or TUB APOSTLES, CHAP. VU. 

** They laid aside their clothes (says Theophylact)^ 
to be lighter for their office.*' Wets, here observes, 
that though the whole procedure was illegal (see the 
note on Matt. 26, 66.\ yet (as Grotius and Beza 
suggest) they wish to seem to do nothing against 
the law, by which it was ordered that the witnesses 
should cast the first stone. See Deut. 17» 7* 

58. ycawoti, a youth. Saul had indeed then at- 
tained unto manhood; but this expression, includ- 
ing yio9 and veav/a-MS', is also used of men, and those 
in the flower of their age. Thus David, in his combat 
with Goliah, is by Joseph. Ant. 7, 9, 2. styled 
t^av/o-Ko^, though he was then thirty years old. And 
D. Cass. 36. calls Julius Caesar yeor, when about 
forty years old. Caesar, too, calls Anthony adoles- 
cent when thirty years of age. See Cort. on Sallust. 
Cat. 38, 1. Xen. Cyr. 8, 3, 12. 

58. ^iJcoXoujuicyov ica) Xeyavra' Kugi€'Ii}<r«u, S.r.T./ui. 
It is plain that Stephen here offers up prayers to 
Jesus. Why so many Commentators should have 
been anxious to make Stephen offer them up unto 
Ood the Father, I know not. Kuinoel, very properly, 
defends the common interpretation, which, as ne 
observes, is confirmed by Apoc. 12, 20. where by 
the words ipx^^ ^^6*^ 'Ii}o-o5 it is plain that Jesus is 
addressed in prayer. Hence it is strange that Dr. 
Bentley, Klotz, and Valcknaer, should have pro- 
posed to insert 0€oy after cruraXot^vtv. Bentley 
thinks that the 0eoy, i. e. 0N has been absorbed by 
the preceding on. But the article is also required, 
and indeed is found in the text of Chrysostom'^ 
54th Homily. It is however put between brackets, 
as if spurious, and has every appearance of having 
come from the margin. Certainly there is no rea* 
son to suppose, from Chrysostom*s own words, that 

Sehoettgen then proceeds to wy, that he has not seen any mention 
in the Jewish writers of this custom of laying; down clothes and com- 
mitting them to the charge of another. Therefore the fbllowing 
passage may be acceptable, Aristoph. Vesp. 406. hXKa dotparia (ia- 
\6rres Ocrro. 



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ACTS OF THE AFOSTLEt, CHAP. VIl. ^1 

be 80 read. 3ut be that as it may, the reading cannot 
be received, since (as Mark land observes) it is far from 
being necessary to understand Oeov after esriicaXoujxe/oR, 
that it is quite contrary to Stephen's intention, which 
was to die a martyr to the divinity of Jesus Christ. So 
that it is him only he invokes, as if it had been written 
^iicotXoujx€ifoy [rev Kupioy 'IijcroGvl, icoii Xeyovra, K(/pi€ 
'Ii}^o5^ ^|<xi, &c. calling upon tne Lord Jesus, &nd 
sayingj Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. See Dod- 
dridge, Whitby, and Grotius. Such subauditions, or 
repetitions aro roG icoiW, from the context, are, even 
in the Classical writers, sometimes taken from the 
words which follow; though it is accounted care- 
less writing. The other pei-version of the passage, 
by which *Ii)o-oS is taken for a genitive, is too absurd 
to deserve a moment's attention, since that would 
require the article before 'IijeroS, and such an ex- 
pression too is unauthorized in the New Testa- 
ment. 

69* Be^t TO xveiiJM [jlou. On this expression many 
Commentators trifle egregiously. Wets, compares 
Cic. in Varr. 5, 45. But it is nothing to the present 
purpose, since there we have only the expression " ut 
filiorum extremum spiritum ore excipere sibi lice- 
ret" Boiten explains, *^make an end of my life;" 
and Kraus, " receive my life as a sacrifice :** both 
equally far-fetched, and, the former especially, 
frigid. It is evident that Stephen imitates the ex- 
ample of his blessed Master. See Luke 23, 34. Kui- 
noel very properly retains the common interpretation, 
rendering, " receive my soul to the eternal habita- 
tions.*' And he refers to his notes on Luke 16, 9. 
Job. 14, 8. This, too, was the very opinion enter- 
tained by the Jews, who (as Schoettgen observes) 
maintained ^*that the just died easiest, when God 
iiimself receive dtheir souls.'' And he cites Jalkut 
Rubenij fol. 8(), 2. Justi perfecti non moriuntur ah 
Angelo mortis, sed tantum per np^tt)3, osculum, nam 
tDWQi 73plD na^'lttn, ipsa Schechina animas eorum 
suscipit The np*»tt)3, which occurs in this passage. 



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272 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VH. 

Schoettgen illustrates by the following remarks: 
••nptt)3 autem ipsis est genus mortis levissimum, 
quando Deus os suum quasi ad os moribundi appli- 
cat, animamque sic elicit. Originem hujus phraseos 
desumserunt ex DeUter. 34, 5. ubi Moses dicitur 
mortuus esse mrP "^D 7V, ad os Domini^ quod pro- 
prie denotat, secundum mandatvtn Domini, sed Ju- 
daei more suo verba ista in sensu propriissimo acci- 
piunt, contra regulas bonae interpretationis." . 

60. deiy rk yivara, laying or putting his knees to 
the ground, throwing himself on his knees. A pos- 
ture suitable to fervent prayer. See Mark 15, 19. 
Luke 22, 41. Acts 9, 41. Kninoel observes, that 
when they were laying aside their garments, Ste- 
phen uttered the words KJpic, &c. ; and when struck 
by the blows, said,: KJoi^ /ttr^ <rT>]<nr)y auVoly rij'v ojttop- 
Tiav Taun}v. A somewhat remarkable expression, 
which will be understood by bearing in mind the 
following observations of the Philologists : 

^o-Tijfti, like the Hebr. 7ptt), signifies to weigh, to 
try weight by the balance. So T. Mag. ^uyoo-raraJ. 
See Pollux 4, I7I. and Valcknaer on Euripid. 
Frag. C. 25. p. 288. The complete phrase is icrravoi 
€v S^y<p (which is found in Jer. 31. 6<rr>3<ra to 
ogytigiov €v ?t>7«>)? or (rra^ijup as in Herodot. 2, 68. 
UrTW4n (rra^fJLw Tgoy apyupiov ray rpij^^ns* Hence, 
(since the antients used, not to number, but to 
weigh out money) Tcr-nj/tti signifies to pay; like the 
Hebr. 7ptt?, which the Sept. render by r/oi and 
oTor/oi. (See Munthe and Raphel in loc.) Now 
God is by the Hebrews represented as weighing the 
actions of men, when He is about to visit tbem with 
retribution ; as things are thrown into a pair of 
scales, when a price according to their weight is to 
be paid down. See Job. 31, 6. Dan. 5, 27. Hence 
the formula properly denotes, " do not examine their 
sin in the balance T i. e. do not visit it with punish- 
ment.* (Kuin.) See the note on Matt. 26, 15. The 

* In illustration of this metaphor Eisner cites Jsidor. Orig,'!. 15, 
c. 17. Siipendium a 8tij>e pendend£i nominatum: Aotiqui enim ap- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VII. 273 

above illustrations are almost entirely founded on 
the annotations of Grotius, Heinsius, and Eisner ; 
from the first of whom I add the following: 

** Quia autem in rationibus aequandis, quod alteri 
imputo id non minus me liberat quam si penderem, 
id est solverem, hinc factum est ut Itrraavai sit im^ 
putare. Et propter similitudinem quam crimina 
cum debitis pecuniariis habent, (que de re egimus 
libro 2. de Jure Belli ac Pacis C. 20. ^ 2.) sicut 
solvere dicitur pcenas qui eas patitur, ita imputare 
qui eas exigere vult, non imputare qui exigere non 
vult. Hie autem, ne impendas aut imputes^ hoc 
valet, " Ne tanti hoc crimen facias, ut viam illis ad 
conversionem obstruas." 

60. c^coiftijdij. An euphemism. See the note on 
Joh. 11, 11. It should seem scai:cely applicable to 
those who die a violent death ; yet that it is some- 
times so applied has been proved by Lederlin Obss. 
Misc. See Sfuicer's Thes. T. 2, 121. Here, how- 
ever, St. Luke -has reference to the composure with 
which this great martyr met death. 

pendere pecuniam soliti erant> magis qukm annumerare. And he 
refers to Meursius on Lycoph. 270 ; remarking too, that this mode 
of speaking was common with the Jews, who used to say that the 
vices and virtues of all men would, at the last day, be cast into the 
scales of two balances, and they would be everlastingly happy, oi* 
eternally miserable, according as these or those preponderated. A 
dogma adopted into the Mahometan system ; as has been proved by 
Mill in his Oration on '• Mahometanism as derived chiefly from Ju- 
daism." See Rosch Hasschayia and Jarchi on Mich. 17» IB. piT IWJ. 
So also Job. 31, 6. *' The Lord will weigh me in a just balance, and 
will understand my righteousness." And Dan. 5, 27. " Thou hast 
been weighed in the balance, and found wanting." Compare also 
Ps. 90, 8. and see Schoettgen. Wetsteln here cites Maimonid. de 
Poenit. 3. Singulis annis appendunt et examinant iniquitates unius- 
cujusque venientis in mundum, cum virtutibus et meritis suis. 

Something similar to this saying of Stephen is recorded of So- 
crates, and also of Phocion. See Pnceus/ 



VOL. IV. 



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9^A ACTS OF TBE APOfTLBS, €HAP» \Xiti 



CHAP. VIII. 



There now commences a new period of Christian 
history, in the first epoch of which (narrated from 
Chap.' 1 — 8.) the Christian society consisted of Jews 
Only, who hac} hitherto remained in the city of Jeru- 
salem. For although many of those who, on the 
day of Pentecost, had come thither from various 
regions, seem, after their return home, to have com- 
municated to their countrymen some idea, however 
imperfect, of Christian doctrine ; yet the Apostles 
had hitherto continued within the walls of Jerusalem, 
nor had they taught in any other country. The 
congregation, therefore, at Jerusalem was tolerably 
numerous; but it had not yet entirely separated 
itself from the Jewish communion ; since we read 
that, during the whole of this first period, the Apos- 
tles and all other Christians yielded obedience to the 
Jewish Sanhedrim, frequented the Temple at the 
stated hours of prayer, and taught in it In one 
respect, only, was there seen any vestige of a private 
society, namely, that the Christians had their funds 
for the relief of the poor, the administration of which 
they committed to the care of seven persons, whom 
they called Deacons. Now follows ISt. Luke's nar- 
ration of the further propagation and the fortunes of 
the Christian Religion. (Rosenm.) 

After the martyrdohi of Stephen, there burst upon 
the Christians, yet resident at Jerusalem, a most 
cruel persecution, by which, with the active co-ope- 
ration of Saul, they were scattered and dispersed 
throughout Judea and Samaria (ver. 3 & 4). But 
that very circumstance tended to the increase of the 
rfew society, since, by this means, Christianity per- 
vaded the whole of Palestine, being zealously pro- 
mulgated by Philip the Deacon (see ver. 5. seqq. 
and ver. 40.), who thus scattered the seeds of tne 
new Religion beyond the boundaries of Palestine. 



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ACTS or TUB APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. VfH 

Together with this narration is interwoven (ver, 9— 
25.) a history of Simon magna. (Heinrichs.) 

1. Sotixo^ §€ ^y — ftUToS. It is quite plain that 
these words have a close connection with the con- 
cluding verse of the preceding Chapter. SweuSoK^iy 
signifies comprobare; as we familiarly say, ** to ie 
agreeable to any thing/* The word occurs not un- 
frequently in the later Greek writers. Examples 
are produced by Munthe and others. I have onlv 
to add, that it is often found in Deraades. When it 
takes a case, that case is a dative depending on the 
<rW in composition. So also Polyaen. 5. fin. p. 538. 
crwy€i[n3$i<ra«To to5 ^oW. Grotius remarks that this, 
and what follows concerning Saul, is related for tbQ 
purpose of showing ofo^ e| oToti, ^^ quantum mutatus 
ah iHo;; 

1. TToofref T€ Sieorirapjff'ay. The v&yr^s must here 
be taken in the limited sense of very many. IIx^v 
rtm (wtoctWacoj*, except the Apostles. We may suppose 
that they remained at Jerusalem, in order to confirm 
the faith and support the courage of those Chris- 
tians who had not fied, and by devoting themselves 
to their sacred oflice, they trusted that God would 
show them the fit time to depart ; which, in fact> 
he afterwards did. See 14, 9. & 32. (Kuin.) CEcu- 
menius, too, assigns a similar cause why they remained 
at Jerusalem, ?vfla yAp T>k€la>v S 7roX6j:ii>p, eice* Togarar- 
T^crflai Tous 7rp(OTaya}ViCT&9 eSci, icai ▼p<Mf€7<rda< roTr 

^. ctjveicoi^Hroty 8e riv Xt4(i>a¥ov. SvyKofii^oi signifies 
prOjxerly to bring together, ^% fruits : but it is also a 
funeial term, and, like the Latin componere^ denotes 
not only the closing the eyes and laying out the 
body, but every otlier preparation for the funeral, 
and likewise the funeral rites themselves. Henc? 
the Syriac Translator here renders : " they coffined 
and buried him." But this is too free and para- 
phrastic. This sense of the word is sometimes found 
in the Classical writers \ as Soph. Aj.^ 1068. ftij 
#wy«)fJJ^*v, where the Scholiast, ft-q ftg^c 9«tt€iv erwy- 

t2 

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276 ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. 

eV* €K€iif(ov yap X^yera* Kuqia}9 to o-wyico/ti^eiv ko) iJ crt/y- 
KOftiSr). SoalsotheSchol.on^schyl.Theb. 930. But 
it is not very frequent. The passages of Thucyd. 
6, 71. (not 72. as Schl. writes)^ and of Plut. 606., 
cited by Wetstein and Schleusner, are quite inappo- 
site, since in them the sense is merely collect to* 
gether^ as spoken of corpses. Duker quotes another 
example from Xenophon. I am surprised that 
Heinsius, Valckn. and Kuin. should have embraced 
the anile fancy of the Scholiast on Sophocles, that 
this use of <rt>y^oft/^€iv " has a figurative reference to 
what is mortal in man being committed to the earth, 
as to a barn.'' Su^icoft/^eiv (I repeat) merely signifies 
componere, to lay out. 

EuXojSeis', religious persons. Whether these were 
Christians, or not, is a point on which the Com- 
mentators differ. Some, as Doddridge and Pricaeus, 
think they were, and that the burial of Stephen was 
the cause of the immediately subsequent persecution. 
But I assent to Kuinoel, that it is not probable the 
Christians would have ventured on so dangerous a 
step; and, what is a stronger argument, the word 
€t}xa3i5$» has no such sense in any other passage of 
the New Testament, but always (except m Luke 2, 
45. avrip SiKaioy Ka) €u\a^i) denotes a proselyte. 
These (as almost all Commentators are agreed) were 
religious Jews^ or Hellenist proselytes^ and (as 
Kuinoel conjectures) secret friends to Christianity. 
Certainly, the more religious Jews regarded it as a 
sacred duty to bury the dead, especially if innocent 
persons. See 2 Sam. 2, 5. Tob. 1, 20. 2, 3. seqq. 
4, 17. 12, 12. 

2. Kcti i'Toiria'avro KOTrerlv ftcyav €t' aurcS. This 
signifies, by synecdoche, that they paid fiim very 
great funeral honours, of which beating the breast 
is mentioned as forming the principal part, accom- 
panied by the waiHng of the hired mourners, &c. 
Sp Hesych. ^(wrcroj* Qpriifay fxerA ^o^ou ^€ipa}v. The 
expression seems borrowed from Gen. 50, 10. ^^0- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VHI. 277 

^avro atirh Koirerh [Ji^^yoLif, and Mich. 1, 8. Troiijererai 
#f(Mr€rov. Compare Zach. 12, 10. Esth.4, 3. Isa. 22, 
12. Numb.20,29. Deut.34,8. See the note on Matt. 
11, 17. The funeral rites of the Greeks and Romans 
were nearly the same. (See Geier de Luctu Heb. 
and Nicolai de Luctu Graec.) So Dionys. Hal. A. 
2. p. 90. (cited by Schl. in his Lex.) kot€tous' e^owra, 
Koi Qprjvot}^ yovonKwv. Plut. 1, 184 D. (cited by Wets.) 
KOTreroos* t€ yt>vpc»K€iooy a^aipm. Stat, Sylv. 3, 5, 63. 
ingentes iterasti pectore planctus. 

3. XccoKos 8^ tXw/juxiWro t^v €/wcXi3<r/av. This expres- 
sion is equivalent to that in Gal. 1, 13. ihiwKov t^¥ 
iKKXrictav row 06ou, Ka) ejropdovv auTTjv. The middle 
or deponent verb Xw/xa/vecrflai (from Xo/ttiQ, damage, 
waste) signifies to ravage, worry, waste, &c., and is 
used properly of beasts; though it is not urifre- 
quently employed of persons; it denotes, as applied 
to things, to waste, spoil, ravage ; and sometimes to 
injure, ajfflkt, persecute. Of ail these uses numerous 
examples are produced by Wetstein and others. Oh 
the syntax of this verb, which has both the accu- 
sative and the dative, see Matth. Gr. Gf. § 384 & 
409- Consult also Dresigius de Verbis mediis N. T. 
IIL 41. p. 566. 

3, Kara rtth^ oIkou^ €i<rTog6uo|tt6vo$». It was the duty 
of the Sanhedrim to take care that no false doctrines 
should be promulgated, and to make inquisition 
after those who were introducing innovations into 
the Church. (See the note on Joh. 1, 19.) Saul, 
therefore, armed with public authority (see Acts 26, 
10.), broke into houses to apprehend those whom he 
suspected of being Christians, or could perceive to 
have any connection with them. (Kuin.) Kara has 
here a distributive force, and implies that he made 
domiciliary visits by house-row. Supoiv, hauling, 
dragging away. The word is used of forcible re- 
moval, and is especially applied to those who are led 
away to trial, prison, or execution. Examples in 
abundance are produced by Grotius, Pricaeus, Wet- 



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278 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAF. YIII. 

ttein, Loesner, and other Philologists. See also 
Steph. Thes. 

Kuinoel observes that mention is made both of 
men and women^ to shew the bitterness of that per- 
secution which did not even spare the weaker sex. 

3. Trapehi^w €\s ^u'hoLKrivy delivered them into cus- 
tody^ i.e. of the jailors, and (as Grotius thinks) of 
the prison which appertained to the Temple, like 
that which belongs to the Inquisition in some Ro- 
man Catholic countries. 

4. oi |x€v ouv haa"jrap4rr€9j those, therefore, who had 
been thus dispersed. At h^'Kdop subaud ray x^P^^9 
as in 11, 19.; and at r^ Xoyoy supply roS 0€o5. It 
appears that they confined their teaching to the 
Jews. See 11, 19. (Kuin.) Thus (observes Light- 
foot) out of the darkness of persecution the I^rd 
bringeth forth the light and propagation of the 
Gospel, providing at once for the safety of some by 
flight, and for the calling of many others by their 
dispersion. 

5. *iXiTToy 8^ KareTJ^wv. There is here a frivo- 
lous question agitated between Drs. Whitby and 
Doddridge ; the former of whom thinks it was not 
the whole Church of Jerusalem, but the hundred 
and eight who were full of the Holy Ghost ; ** for 
(says he) what authority could the laity have to 
preach the word?** To this Doddridge answers: 
*• There is no room to inquire where these poor 
refugees had their orders. They were endowed 
with miraculous gifts ; and if they had not been so, 
the extraordinary call they had to spread the know* 
ledge of Christ, wherever they came among those 
who were ignorant of him, would abundantly justify 
them in what they did." 

He evidently treats the communication of the 
Holy Spirit to the hundred and eight as hypothetical 
and precarious ; as indeed it seems to be. He might, 
too, have added, that there is scarcely reason to 
think that any distinction between the Clergy and 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Villi $79 

Laity yet existed. Besides, the word is so genera) 
a term, that it does not necessarily imply what we 
mean by preaching, namely, public teacliing, but 
only private instruction, admonition, or exhortation, 

Dr. Hammond, in a learned note, offers some 
excellent remarks on the distinction between tht 
words icijf»j<r<r€iy and ciJayyeX/feflrOai, to which I can 
only refer my reader. That it may be so taken 
here is plain ; and there will be no reason to inquire 
about iheir authority ; though if it could be proved 
(which it cannot) that they had the miraculous gi/t^ 
of the Holy Spirit, no other authority would sefem to 
have been requisite. And yet the persons elected 
by the congregation, and presented for ordination 
by the Apostles, though previously filled with the 
Holy Ghost, required the laying on of hands, &c, in 
order to the exercise of their Deaconal office. 

The Philip here mentioned must (as all Commeflr 
ators admit) be Philip the Deacon. Sete Whitby. 

5. icar€X9a)v els* vqXi9 r^y Sapapeiay. The Comr 
mentators are not agreed whether by Xtiftapeia we 
are to understand the country of that name or it? 
capital^ which bore the same appellation. The for* 
mer opinion is adopted by Pearce, Markland^ atid 
Doddridge, which last mentioned Commentator cour 
jectures that the city was Sichem. But to this it 
has been justly objected, ** how then could it be 
said further on, at ver. 14., that Samaria had rev 
ceived the Gospel, when only one of its cities had 
heard it preached." Some Commentators, indeed^ 
would understand the singular for the plural. Biil 
this is a principle by no means applicable here ; not 
to say that it is a method evidently devised " for 
the nonce:' I assent to Grotius, the Authors of 
our English Version, De Dieu, Drusius, Pricaeus, 
Hammond, RosenmuUer, KuinoeU Heihrichs, and 
Schleusner, that the metropolis of Samaria is here 
meant, which was called by the same name (as 
in Joseph. Ant. 20> 6, 2.), and which, thoiigh it was 
destroyed by Hyrcanus, restored by Gabinius, and 



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280 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, VIII. 

by Herod named 2€0a<rnJ, yet seems to have com* 
monly retained its old name- As to what Bp, Pearce 
urges, that Josephus and Strabo generally call it by 
the name Sebastia, that is nothing to the purpose, 
since they called it so in compliment to Augustus. 
It has been observed, too, tnat cities and towns 
scarcely ever lose their original name. It might 
indeed seem that the article were requisite, which is 
found in some ancient MSS., but perhaps ex emenda- 
tione; for the Hellenistic writers often omit the 
article in such a case. It must be observed, too, 
that %njMM^€la9 is for Softa^iar ; on which state of 
regimen for that of apposition see Glass Phil. S. p. 
15. Kuinoel observes, that Philip preached the 
Gospel to the Samaritans, following the example of 
Christ, and mindful of what he bad said to his 
Apostles before his departure from the earth. See 
Acts 1, 8. 

6. frpwr^iyop t€ oI o;gXoi roTy XeyofAivo^p, &c. At 
Tpwr^ix^^ subaud rh voSv : which ellipsis is sometimes 
found even in the Clasical writers. (See the exam- 
ples adduced by Kypke, Munthe, and others.) 
E. v., Doddridge, and most interpreters render it 
attend, give heed. But this seems too feeble a sense. 
I there^re assent to Krebs, Loesner, Heinrichs, and 
Kuinoel, who explain it by yield faith, assent, obe^ 
dience. This the context requires ; for (as Kuinoel 
observes) it is interchanged at ver. 14. with Ti<rT6u€ii>. 
Examples in abundance are produced by Loesner 
and Krebs; as 1 Mace. 7, H- Sir. 28, 1?. Philo 
104 A. Joseph. Ant. 8, 15, 4. '7rtirT€6€t¥ and Tpwrkyfw 
are conjoined, as are 'jrpwri'x^w and avtcr^ip in Jo- 
seph, c. Apion. 1, 1. So Sir. 32, 24. o frttrreicov vofito, 
xgocreyci eWoXoiy. In like manner we familiarly say, 
" don't mind him.'* Kypke, Heumann, and Rosen- 
muUer, indeed, defend the common interpretation, 
on the ground that it is not credible all the Samari- 
tans should have followed Christ ojtcodufioSov. That 
argument, however, has little force, since (as Kui- 
noel observes) the words are not to be too much 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. 281 

pressed, but only to be understood of the great bulk 
of the people ; as in ver, 10. ^avre^ a^o jxiic^oS €w9 
jLtcyoXou. See Mark 3, 5. Matt. 3, 5. 

7. The construction of the preceding words of 
this verse is as follows : nveiiLara y^p oKoBapra (ck) 
9'oXXcSy TcSv €X0VT(op (awra) jSoaJvra jxeyoXif) ^oii^ ^CTP" 
y€ro. See examples of similar transpositions in 
Glass. Phil. S. 664. On ^T/euftara oucaQaproL see 5, 16. 
The words ^oaJvra jxeyaXi) <^a>yjj are to be referred to 
demoniacs. (Kuin.) Thus we say raving mad. Kui- 
noel, as usual, treats these demoniacs as melancholic 
and epileptic persons. A most specious hypothesis, 
but which, though supported by the learning and 
ingenuity of Mede, Bekker, Farmer, Wetstein, Malt- 
by, and many others, lies open to very serious objec- 
tions. Into so extensive a subject, the nature of my 
plan, and limited extent of my work, will not permit 
me to enter. It may be observed that the ^a^aXcxJ- 
fievoi are those elsewhere called ^agaXuriicoi. 

9« av^p — Xiijuoif wpoS'Trrip^eif iv t^ WX€i [laty^uayif. I 
assent to the opinion of Wolf, Heuman, Krebs, Ro- 
senmuUer, and Kuinoel, that this Simon was the 
Simon a Cyprian mentioned by Joseph. (Ant. 20, 
5, 2.) whose words are these: ^Xi| — Ziifuova ovofMLn 
t£v eat/rou c^iXoiv* 'lot/Saiov, Kthrpiov rh y€V09f ftayov eTvai 
o'lojTTTojxevoy Teft^cov wpo^ our^v (njy Apovci'k'hav) CTCide 
rhv avhpa icaraXiToGiray aurcS yvfoao-dai. Justin Martyr 
indeed (in Apol. 2, p. 690 ^^'^^ ^^ ^^^^ this Simon 
was a Samaritan^ from the village called Gitton. 
But (as Wolf observes) that writer falls into frequent 
blunders in historical matters, and seems to have 
thought that Simon was to be accounted a Samari- 
taftf because he is here said to have abode, or so- 
journedf in the city of Samaria, than which nothing 
can be more inconclusive. 

9. Ilpoihnipx^^ iMyeuaou, *' who had aforetime exer- 
cised the magic art." Doddridge here deviates from 
our common version ; but very much for the worse. 
The verb fiwtyctWiy is somewhat rare ; examples of 
it are however produced by Wetstein from Hippo- 



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282 ACTS OF THE APOSTLSS^ CHAP. VHU 

cratesi and by Pearce from Plutarch. It comes froin 
Mayor. Now on the Mayoi, their principles, and 
practices, see the note on Matt. 2, 1. In process of 
time the name was assumed by many who had little 
pretension to any thing more than a */mi7ari/yo/'*/ii- 
diesy and (as Kuinoel observes) the appellation was 
often given even to strolling quacks, who had some 
knowledge of natural philosophy and astrology, and 
abused it to the deception of the people, by pretending 
to predict future events from the stars, to cure disor- 
ders by the recitation of certain formulas, and even, 
by muttering certain incantations, to bring up de- 
parted spirits, and compel them to reveal secrets ; as 
also by the repetition of certain verses, and the use 
of particular kinds of herbs, to terrify and drive 
away demons. See Perizon. on ^lian. V. H. % 18, 
20. Ruperti on Juv. Sat. 6, 553 & 557. and the Com- 
mentators on Propert. 4, 1 . That l^mon was not a 
mere conjurer, or really exercised magic arts, but 
was imbued with some knowledge of natural philo- 
sophy, though he abused it to striking the minds of 
the vulcar with feigned portents and prodigies, Kui- 
noel thmks has been rigtulp maintained by Van Da- 
len, Schleusner, Rosenmulier, and Heinrichs. This, 
too, was the opinion of Dr. Benson and Bp. Pearce. 
*' Some discoveries (says the latter) these magi had 
made, which were generally unknown to other peo- 
ple, and with these they greatly surprised them ; as 
the effects of magnetism and electricity would now- 
a-days surprise those who never saw or heard any 
thing of that nature." The Bishop then adds an 
example of lutyekw in the good sense from Plut. Vit. 
Artax. where ^iXoo-o^cTv and [uxy^i^iv are joined toge- 
ther as equivalent terms : though he. acknowledges 
that many natural philosophers pretended also to be 
magicians, in the common sense of the word with 
im^ and made their natural knowledge subservient to 
that imposture: and so [utyeieitfy he reasons, must 
here mean the exercising of unlawful arts. I do not 
quite understand the force of his reasoning} for 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. 283 

what he acknowledges seems to demand the dthef hy- 
pothesis. At all events, Simon's arts were unlawful 
by being founded in imposition ; and it is frivolous 
to object (as some do) that bad he practised such, the 
Apostles would have had no intercourse with him^ 
since, at the beginning of the passage it is said, that 
he had aforetime practised such arts. See Valcknaer 
and Schoettg. in loc. 

9. Ka\ i^ta-TOiP rh cQvo^ rrji Xai^apeia^y had thrown 
into amazement* On the force of the formula Xe- 
y€iv elvai riva €aurov /xeyav see the note on 5, 36. In 
the same manner ti^ is used in Herodot. 4, 192. SoAcei 
Se fjLOi ot}8* agency ehai nr ij AijStnj (rwou^alr^y aifTT€ 1} 
*A<ri>) 71 Eiffaimi Trapot^Ts.T^^vai : where Wesselitig pro- 
duces examples of this use, and yet does not seeiti 
to be aware of the ratio of the idiom. In fact^ we 
must after ny subaud some such word as person, or 
understand t^9 as used for ri, with the subaudition of 

On €|i<rr7}jtfti see the note on Matt. 12, 22. and 
Luke 24, 22. That Simon wished (as Deyling and 
Moshem have thought) to be considered as the Su* 
preme Being, or the Messiah, cannot be proved from 
the words of Luke, rior is it all probable. Those 
who in the three first centuries have mentioned himi 
make him the founder of the sect of Gnostics ; but 
upon insufBcient grounds, as has .been shewn by 
Moshem and Heuman. 

10. £ TTpotrelxop wavTes", &c. Here is an Hebrew 
form. 'Awi ftiK^oS ecoy a€y&Kou is for fi^iKpo) T€ Koi fie- 
y^w, hm IV^ ptopib 75 : which has the air of re- 
dundancy, since irapre^ might have seemed sufficient 
This, however, is not unexampled in the Greek and 
Latin languages, nor even in the modern ones. See 
Loesner on this passage, and Bergler on Alciph. 2, 
4. p. 266. We are moreover to understand, not the 

• * So At hen. (cited by Wolf) : as nvp re aifTSunToy iwoUi &va0v- 
efrOaif xal &XKa iroWd t^dnfiara €T€xyo.TOy &6' £v e^trra r&v dvOpd- 
Twv rrip htavoiav, 1 add Onosander 93. ult. koX yap o\\;is xal po^ 
Kol vdrayosSirXwy e^itrrrifn raj r&y erarrliay blayoiaf. 



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S84 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII* 

high and low^ (as Vorstius interprets), but the young 
and old; as in Gen. 19, II- Compare ver. 4. 1 Mace. 
5, 45. and Hebr. 8, 11. (Kuin.) I know not why 
we should limit this expression, which seems to have 
the general sense of high and low, young and old^ 
rich and poor, i. e. all of e^^ery class. 

10." OwToy i(TTi^ 1) %ii^a\kvs toG 06ot/ ij |X€7^)). Here 
there is an hypallage frequent in popular language 
for " the power of God energises in him ; he is a per- 
sonification of the Messiah.** (Kuin.) Doddridge 
explains: "he is omnipotence incarnate.'* See 1 Cor. 
S, 4. and Rom. 1,16. Kuinoel embraces the con- 
jecture of Heinrichs, that Simon, in performing his 
tricks, had uttered the words St/vajxi^B^oS jx^yoXij, and 
that the Samaritans were so stupid as to salute him 
by the name Wya/xis' 0€o5 ft^yoXi]. But this seems too 
absurd. Neither can I believe what the Pseudo- 
TertuUian, and some Latin Fathers, tell us, namely, 
that he claimed to be Jehovah. 

12. €wi(rT€U(rav t£ *iXiWa) euayyeXi^oftevo) raxep) r. 
0. T. 0. Kuinoel explains this as a periphrasis for 
6t}ayy€Xi^o]xev<p ttJv 3a<nX6iai> too 0€o5: which is in- 
deed a common phrase in the best Classical writers ; 
but as it very rarely occurs iri the Scriptures, so it 
may be explained without resorting to any pleo- 
nasm, whicn is here unnecessary. *Oyojxar«9. A fre- 
quent pleonasm. *I)]<rou X^ioTou, of Jesus, as being 
the Messiah. 

13. Simon, a man devoted to lucre and ambition, 
when he saw Philip exhibit miracles far greater than 
his own (ver. IS.), and by which most of the Sama- 
ritans were inclined to receive baptism, and become 
Christians, pretended to be a Christian also, (ver. 
21.,) and having received baptism, attached himself 
to the Apostles, in order thereby to please the peo- 
ple, and acquire the same power with them of work- 
ing wonderful works; so that he might by this 
means further his secular views of avarice and ambi- 
tion. Yet he did not (as Grotius, Le Clerc, Lim- 
borch, RosenmuUer, and others, have rightly judged) 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. S85 

account Jesus as the Messiah^ but as a great magi- 
cian, who, by the aid of angels and demons, had 
worked great miracles, and had returned to life. 
For if he had really regarded Jesus as the Messiah, 
and the Apostles as Divine Legates, he could not 
have persuaded himself that the faculty of commu- 
nicating the Divine Spirit to all on whom he should 
lay hands might be acquired by money. On irpoa-' 
KoiqT. see the note on 1, 14. (Kuin.) And so Light- 
foot and Doddridge. 'EliVraro, was astonished. Here 
Wetstein observes that Simon, who astonished others, 
was now himself astonished. 

14. 7] Xafjut^eiay i. e. the inhabitants of the city of 
Samaria. 'AWcrreiXav Tgo^ awrou^ t. 11. k. *I. Some 
recent Commentators, (as Noesselt,) contrary to the 
universal opinion of the antient Fathers and the 
early modern Commentators, maintain that the 
Apostles departed with no other design than to con- 
firm the true believers in the faith, and establish 
them after the form of a Christian society. But 
this is paying no attention to the context. Hein- 
richs and Kuinoel both admit that the words follow* 
ing compel us to suppose that the Apostles went 
for the purpose of laying hands, with prayer, upon 
the new converts, in order to impart to them the 
gifts of the Holy Spirit. For (as Kuinoel observes), 
in the early ages of Christianity, those who acknow- 
ledged Jesus Christ as Messiah, were immediately 
baptized, and were afterwards more fully instructed 
in the truths of the Gospel. (See the note on Malt. 
28, 18.) Meanwhile, however, the Apostles seem 
to have laid down a rule, that, afler being baptized 
and catechised, the proselytes should have the impo- 
sition of hands, accompanied with prayer, in order 
to their receiving gifts of the Holy Spirit. Hence 
in Hebr. 6, 2. we nnd mention made first of baptism, 
then of instruction, and finally of imposition of 
hands. Now Philip had baptized and taught the 
Samaritans ; and, in the primitive age, this solemn 
benediction and laying on of hands was limited to 



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286 ACTS or thb apostles, chap. vin. 

the Apostles ; but in process of time, when the seeds 
of Christianity were more widely spmd, otiier 
teachers of that religion obtained this power of so- 
leoiniy laying hands on the proselytes. (Kuin.) 

17. hreriiwp tAp X^^P^^ ^^' airoo^. It was the 
custom among the Hebrews for him who prayed for 
blessings of any kind on another, to put his hands 
upon his head. See the note on Matt. 19^ 13. and 
also Matt. 9, 18. Luke 4, 40. Acts 6, 6. 9, 12. 28, 8. 
Hence the Apostles laid their hands on the converts, 
in order to thus communicate, by a visible symbol, 
the gifts of the Holy Spirit.* (Kuin.) 

18. St. Luke does not say that the Apostles laid 
hands upon Simon, Indeed that they did not do so 
ia plain from the context. Neither did the Apostles 
lay hands on him at the same time ; and perhaps he 
might undervalue the gifts commonly understood to 
be imparted, regarding the Apostles as only power- 
ful Magi, and supposing that tliey could communi- 

♦ Tlie several uses of imposition of hands are fully detailed 
In note on 1 Tim. 4. f. Thre0 in the Old Testament: 1, as a cere- 
mony in |irayer ; 9, in paternal benediction ; 3, in cresiting officers. 
And proportionable to them, many more in the New : 1, for curing 
diseases ; *i, for absolution uf penitents ; 3, for blessing of infants, 
or those that are to be baptized, to prefmre them for it; 4, in con- 
firmation J 5, in ordination of officers for the church. Of the three 
iurmer of these there i« none which can pretend to. be here meant ; 
and so all the difficulty is, which of the two latter it was. That 
it was confirmation may appear probable, because it so soon at- 
tended their cun version and baptism : H^hen the Apostles which were 
at Jerusalem heard that Samarin had received the word of God, then 
sent wito them Peter and John (ver. 14.) This agrees well with 
that of confirmation, which is an act reserved to the Rulers of the 
Church, and not communicated or allowed to inferior officers, such 
as Philip, the'deacon, here. That therefore which is most reason- 
able U, so to interpret this laying on of hands, and their rereiting 
the Holy Ghost here, as to comprehend confirmation and ordination 
both, the Holy Ghost by their nunistry coming on all the sincere 
believers, and endowing them with inward, and some of them with 
extraordinary external gifts, of healing, prophecy, &c. (see note on 
ck. 5. d.) and the Apostles, by laying their hands on some special pcr- 
soiis among them, ordaining them Bishops and Deacons in several 
cities : a power which belonged only to the Apostles to exercise, 
and so was not suitable to Philip, though he had power to preach 
and to baptize. (Hammond.) 



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ACT5 OF XHe APOSTLES^ CHAP. VII. S87 

cute yet greater gifts by the imposition of hands^ so 
as to be superior both to Philip and the Apostles. 
(Kuin.) X^^jxara, money. Here the plural is, (as 
often,) used for the singular. See Schl. Lex. 

20. aqyvpiov eroti cruv croi €^ eip cucojiKHuf. Piflcator 
and Grotius explain : '^ tibi maneat cum malis." 
The latter observes that there is a periphrasis of the 
devoting any one by nHM D"tf\ without a definition 
of time. Kuinoel calls it a Hebrew form of imprc'- 
CQHon^ indicating utter destruction, and correspond- 
ing to the Greek m-oXom, &67oC h icopoucar, h Sxedpoy, 
&c. and the Latin pereas, abi in malam rem. The 
sense seems to be : " May you be grievously pu- 
nished on account of this your money.'* Or (as 
Wetstein renders): "May your avarice ruin you, 
not me/' And he compares Ez. 33, 9. Or it may 
be thus Englished : " Keep your money to yourself, 
for your own ruin, not mine.^* There is a similar 
passage in Joseph. 461, 45. AaviijXo^ he rot9 f^^v iwpe^ 
auTW (I conjecture outrlv. for atJraJ, sibi habere) ej^eiu 
ij^/ot^' r^ yap (To^ov Koi rl dcibv a^qohoKt^rov €hai. 

Here Doddridge, very justly, observes, that this is 
not an imprecation^ biit a strong way of admonish- 
ing Simon of his danger, and of expressing how 
much rather the Apostles would see the greatest 
sum of money lost and cast away, than receive any 
part of it on such shameful terms. Markland, too, 
observes that this is not an imprecation, but a pre^ 
diction of what would befall Simon, without re- 
pentance. 

2L ot/K etrrt trot jx^o)y otl^c /cX^poy ev rS Xoyo) toutok 
That these words imply that he should by no means- 
have the power he askedy namely, of conferring the 
Holy Spirit by the imposition of hands, is plain from 
the subject of the words, and Xoyoy, like ^^Jfta and 
the Hebr. "isr\, has very often the sense of thing, 
matter. See the note on Matt. 4, 4. Luke 1, 37 & 
62. It must be observed, too, that f^ept^ and icX^por 
are synonymous terms, and when vnited have an in- 
tensive force. So the Hebr. ThT\S\ pbr\, in 2 Sam. 



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288 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP- VIII. 

20, 1. where the Sept. render: oJic etrrt jtt^giy ijpi' €9 
Aa0)S, oiie icXijpovojxia i)jx7y iv rep uicS *If(ro*a/, ti^ Aave 
nothing at all to do with the son oj' Jesse. Deut. 
10, 19. otJic iarai TOTS' Afufraip ftepip oJW icX^po^ fi' t«?p 
(x$€X^o7r aurcov. lb. 2, 12. and Job. 22, 25. (Kuin.) 
Others take Xoyos' for the ^octrine of the Gospel ; 
which, as a secondary sense, may be admitted. 

21. Ti yotp K0Lp8ia — row 0€o5, i. e. " thy heart is not 
sincere, thou art not what thou oughtest to be, thou 
art a dissembler r* So 2 Kings^lO, 15. Tn^nM ttTH 
IttT, where the Sept. render : el I o-ri Kap^ia <roo ei^la. 
(Beza, Cam. and Kuin.) I add jEsop F. <r X a. 
0UTC09 IS€i eudtry Ka) arXoSv elvai. Compare Ps. 95, 15. 
The words may be thus paraphrased : " For thou 
seekest not the honour oi God, that God who is a 
^a(Sio7W<rr»]f .*' On ivaixiop rati 06o5 see the note on 
Luke 1, 6. 

22. fierot^or^a-otf otJv awo r^^ KaKiOLs, *^ repent there- 
fore, and abandon this thy wickedness.'* The for- 
mula €1 Apa is by Glass, Krebs, and Loesner, ren- 
dered utey'\ **pray God that the evil thought may 

* This b no instance of Peter's miraoulously discerning spirits, 
for every common minister or Christian might have made then in- 
ference in such circumstances. But, on the other side, this story 
will by no means prove Peter to have been destitute of this gift. 
He might (like Christ in the case of Judas) have discerned Simon*8 
hypocrisy lung before he thought fit to discover it openly* or he 
might have had the gift really in some instances, though not in 
this J for there is no more reason to suppose that Christ ever gue 
any of his servants an universal power of discerning the hearts and 
characters of all they con versexi with, than there is to believe he 
gave any of them the power of healing all the sick they came near, 
which we are sure that Paul (though he was not inferior to the 
chief of the Apostles, ^ Cor. 11, 5. 1^, 11.) had not, otherwise be 
would not have suffered the illness of Epaphroditus to have brought 
him so near to death (Phil. % 25 — 27* )> ^^^ ^^^^ 1^^ ^o useful a fel- 
low-labourer as Trophimus sick at Miletum (2 Tim. 4, 20). Doddr. 

f And so it is rendered by Schleusner in his Lexicon, in v. ci. § 
6. We are however to remember that in this^ as well as some other 
uses of eU there is an ellipsis of some verb, which is to be supplied 
by interpreters. So Eurip. Heracl. 640. iraXai yap itbiyovaa tAv. 
htbiy^ivtav, i^t/X^^ ^r^icov, voinos el yev^aerai, animo tabesces 
(auhitans) an, ficc. Here we are to subaud velpwy, trying whellier. 
So also Eurip. Hal. 1388. tnyrfTiov fxoi' kuI ae irutnriaoai trdre. In 
the fbrmer passage the el may be rendered if perchance. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. 289 

be forgiven thee.*' They observe that the explica- 
tion siforte, anforte^ is at variance with Peter's pur? 
pose. " For if (says Krebs) Simon's prayers were sin- 
cere and devout (and that they ought so to be, Philip 
had of course instructed him), how can we suppose 
remission of sins doubtful. So €lirai9 for nt in Phil. 3, 
11. 61 icai ibid. ver. 12., and €i ^coo in Thucyd. 3,45, 
and Philo 752. Thus the Hebr. ^71M, si/ortCyis by 
the Sept. rendered Tva in Exod. 32, 30. This i$ 
however a rare signification, to which there is here 
no need to resort. For (as it is justly observed by 
others) the doubt does not respect the benignity of 
God, but the reformation of Simon, of which there 
was little hope remaining. Nor are Peter's words 
to be interpreted after the subtilty of theologicd 
principles, but in reference to the popular sense of 
common life. Peter meant by these words to hint, 
that a man so fraudulent, so greedy of lucre, and 
atbirst for vain glory, whose iniquity had reached 
6uch a height, could* with difficulty repent and re- 
form, and obtain the pardon of sins.* See Grotius. 

22. €Tnvoia signifies contrivance^ counsel: from 
ivivo€(jbj to fix the mind upon something, to take up 
a thought, contrive, &c. Though both are words of 
middle signification, yet they are often taken in a 
bad sense for crafty and fraudulent counsel, guile; 
of which signification examples are produced by 
Raphe!, Kypke, Wets., and Loesner. (Kuin. ) The 

* The same view of the subject is taken by Doddridge, who ob* 
serves : ^' Here is so incontestable an evidence of an un^nver^ed 
sinner being exhorted to repentance and prayer while he was known 
to be in that state, that it is abtonishing it should ever have been 
disputed ; and one would think none could be so wild as to imagine 
faith in Christ was not included in that repentance and prayer 
which an Apostle preaches to a baptized person as the way of ob- 
taining forgiveness. The dubious manner in which he speaks of 
bis being forgiven, intimates, not that his sincere repentance might 
possibly fail of acceptance, for that is contrary to the whole tenor 
of the Gospel, but that, after the commission of a sin so nearly ap- 
proaching blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, there was litUe rea* 
son to hope he would ever be brought truly to repent. 



VOL. IV. U 



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£90 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VIII. 

last* mentioned signification is confirmed by the yoLp 
in the next verse. 

XoXi^ signifies properly gall; though it is sometimes 
used of anything bitter (as, for instance, an infusion 
of bitter and poisonous herbs). See Joh. 16, IS. 
20, 14. Prov. 5, 4. Thren. 3, 15. Deut. 29, 17- 
Ps. 69, 42. Jer. 22, 15. Now x^'^^ 'J^^Kpias is put 
for x<Kp(i, i. e, hitier gall. In order to more accu- 
rately determine the sense of the word, we must 
compare Deut. 29, 18. Heb. 12. 15. In the former 
we have & tD, " let there be no root which may send 
forth a poisonous or bitter plant." Here the Sept« 
render : ft^ n^ cVnv iv ufuv pi^a dtvco ^uouo-a 6V ;c«^73 
KoH^ TTiKoia. Now as the subject is the worship of 
idolsy tne meapiqg of the passage i&this: ^Met ther^ 
not be among you any one who, like a poisonous 
bitter herb, may infect your minds with his own 
bitter poison, and may seduce others to idolatry.** 
The passage of Heb. 12, 13. is entirely parallel, and 
the sense of it is this ; ^' Take care that no bitter 
poisonous plant growing forth may excite distur- 
bances, and many be by it infected." Here there 
is a plain reference to Deut. 29, 18. The Hebrew 
Aietaphor being therefore transferred to the present 
passage, the sense will be as follows ; '^ I see that 
tliou art a most pernicious person, like to a bitter 
poisonous plant, a pest to the Christian society, and 
so disposed as to be calculated to ruin and corrupt 
many.** Again timi cl^ x^'^'^^^ ^^- ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ X^'^^^ 5 
as in Matt. 19, 5. 8, 10. Heb. 8, 10, 15. Acts 
IS. 47. Here we may compare Epigr. Gr. L. 2, II. 

This interpretation being admitted, there arises a 
more nervous sense than il^ with De Dieu, Palairet, 
and some others, we take €jy ;coX^y wiKpla^, &c. for 
€vx^><fi &^c. : though this is supported by the autho- 
rity of an ancient Gloss in the Cod. Cant. (Kuin.) ; 
from Hammond and others. 

The above interpretation of cly ;^oX^y ^nic^iW, which 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, OHAK Vlll'. ^1 

is pronounced the true one by Valcknaer, was first 
brought forward by Alberti Obs. Phil. 236., and 
adopted by Wetstein. Valcknaer adds, that Archi- 
lochus^ was called mKpo^o7^o9 by Julian ap. Anthol. 
3, 25, 18. So also Alexis ap. A then 225 a. tocGt* 
«o;^l Tnkqir€p ca-rw aJriJy rr^g x^^^^- Pricaeus very 
appositely compares Plaut. Truculent. 76. In raelle 
linguae sunt sitae atque orationes Lacteque : corda 
felle sunt sitae atque acerbo aceto : and Senec. ego in 
alto omnium vitiorum sum. 

The (ruvSer/xof is by Wetstein and Kuin. well ren- 
dered fasciculus ex improbitate quasi colligatus, col- 
ligatio iniquitatis. Kuinoel compares Cicero in 
Pison. 9. ex omnium scelerum importunitate con- 
cretus. Bp. Pearce thinks the expression the same 
with that of Isa. 58, 6. in both which places (says 
he) allusion is made to the custom (which the Ro- 
mans used, and probably other nations) of fastening 
one end of the chain with which a prisoner was 
bound to the arm of the soldier who was appointed 
to guard him.'* He therefore takes the expression 
to mean, that Simon was as much a prisoner to 
iniquity, and fastened to it, as a state prisoner is to 
his soldier and keeper. But this is very fanciful and 
precarious. 

24. tef/^rir€. There is little doubt but that the 
contrition and humiliation were only pretended, and 
produced by fear ; as in the case of Pharaoh. See 
Exod. 8, 28. He might fear legt he should be pu- 
nished as Ananias was. (Grot. & Kuin.) Now the 
reason why God did not see fit so to punish him was 
(as CEcumenius observes) in order to show that faith 
was not a thing of compulsion, and to introduce 
repentance. One may observe, too, that by asking 
Peter to pray for him, he adftiits his own unworthi- 
ness.* In this view, Wetstein refers to Joh. 9, 81. 

* Heinrichs ftincies here an accommodation to the notions of 
those times> namely, that the curses imprecated by any one can only 
be avoided by the deprecation of the imprecation. But Peter's words 
contained no imprecation. (Vide supra.) It is, however, well ob- 

U 2 



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99i ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. 

1 Pet. S, 12. and cites Ten Adelph. 4, 5, 70. abi 
domum, ac decs comprecare — abi, pater, tu potius 
decs comprecare : nam tibi eos, certo scio. Quo vir 
melior multo es quam ego, obtemperaturos magis. 
That his repentance was not real we have every 
reason to suppose, both from the circumstances of 
the case, and from his subsequent conduct, if we 
may believe the testimony of early Ecclesiastical 
tradition. By his using the plural number we may 
suppose that John also was present. 

25. Siaftaprti^^jxeyoi, Koi XaXi}<rarr€^. These words 
must be understood like those of 10, 42. #ci}pu|ai t£ 
Xacp Koi hofMLOTvpcurdai. Aiofto^rupourdai signifies to 
prove on good evidence, shew, teach. 

25. ^oXXar T€ KWIM19 Twv 2. 6., evangelized many 
villages of the Samaritans : such (we may suppose) 
as lay in their way to Jerusalem. 'EuayycXio-ao^oi 
has often the accusative, both in the New Testa- 
ment, and sometimes in the Old ; as Joel 2, 32. 

26. ayyeXof Se Kuploo eXoXij^c irf^9 *. Some Ger- 
man Theologians take these words to mean nothing 
more than that a thought rose in the mind of Philip, 
which he could not dismiss ; the expression is, say 
they, agreeable to the common opinions of the Jews. 
Others, as Eckerman, Heinrichs, and Kuin., explain 
the words of an appearance in a dream. But there 
is no occasion to resort to any such far-fetched de- 
vices, since (vls Storr. observes, Opusc. 3, 178 seqq.) 
it is no wonder that Philip should have been admo- 
nished sometimes (as at 29 & 39.) by the internal 
suggestions of the Holy Spirit, sometimes (as here) 
by the personal conversation of an angel ; since, in 
a similar case, after he had been once and again 
internally admonished by a vision (see Acts 16, 6. 
seqq.), he was at length externally admonished by 
a messenger sent from God (ver. 10). See the 
learned annotation of Dr. Hammond. 

26. av4<m3di Koi Tropeioo — ^/top. The words aSnq 
ia-rh e^ftof present some difficulty, and it may seem 

serred by Heinrichs, that there is no reasoi)^ from this story, to fix 
on Simon the charge of heresy. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES/ CHAP. Vlll. 293 

doubtful whether they are to be referred to Gaza, or 
tp the road thither. If it be taken of Gaza, the 
iDterpretation fas Kuin. observes) will be very con- 
tort, and one does not see why the remark should 
have been made ; not to say that a city so well in- 
habited could in no sense be called l^ftos*. Others, 
to remove this difficulty, maintain that there were 
two Gazas, one, OldGaza^ destroyed by Alexander; 
the other, New Gaza. See Lightfoot and Wesseling 
on Diodon Sic. and Munthe on this passage* But 
for this assertion (as Kuinoel observes; there is little 
authority; and moreover this sense would require 
aSr>j €<rri¥ ij €^|xo9, this is the ruined one. In short, 
it is liable to obvious objections. I would prefer 
the interpretation of Chrysostom, CEcumenius, Beza, 
Casaubon, Le Moyne, Basnage, Glass, Schoettgen, 
Bengel, Doddridge, and Heumann, who refer the 
lpi]jxo9 to oSos^, and suppose that there were two roads 
to Gaza, one the more freauented, the other, on 
account of the interposing solitudes of Mount Casius, 
unfrequented. And it is certain that ^pijjtto^ is, in 
this sense, applied to a road. One example from 
Wetstein will suffice. Arrian 3. ^p)7/xi]y 8' ehai t^v 
oSiy Sr aw^piav. I add Thucyd. 2, 1?. rk ^f^ff^a ttjp 
wo7i€a}9j the uninhabited places of the city. Some, as 
Rosenm., take the words to be a parenthetical in- 
sertion of St. Luke. But to this Kuinoel objects, 
that whether there be turn Gazasj or two roads sup- 
posed, it would be necessary that Philip should be 
directed by the angel which to take, in order to meet 
the Ethiopian : and he accedes to the opinion of 
Valcknaer, Heinrichs, and Wesseling, that it is a 
later addition of some Scholiast. See the note on 
5, 5. But this is cutting the knot. Indeed, on so 
perjplexed a question it is difficult to form any de- 
cided opinion. I am inclined to agree with those 
who regard the words as a remark of St. LuJce^ and 
refer them to the city ; which will be true, whether 
we understand it of Old or of New Gaza. To the 
road it cannot well be applied^ since Reland says 



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S94 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES) CHAP. VI IS. 

there is.no reason why that road should be called 
i^TifMs any more than other roads in Judea. 

27- ov^^ Aid«)>|/ eM^Syofy SufflMrTijy k. t. 0. A. *Arii^ 
is generally considered as redundant ; but it should 
rather seem to be a relique of primitive copiousness, 
afterwards cut down by ellipses. Thus it is found 
most frequently in the ancient writers. 

27. €tJvo5;^«f. This word properly denotes cubicu^ 
lariuSf chamberlain, and is the same with the M 
row KfiiTwvo9 at l'^, 20 (answering to our Lord of the 
bed-chamber). It comes from euvri a bed^ or couch^ 
and €;^e*y to keep^ guard; as in xoXio5;^oy. Now 
since in the courts of the Oriental monarchs the 
prefects of the bed-chamber (especially that of the 
women) were castrati^ hence ctJyoS;^©^ came to denote 
such. See Donat. on Terent. Eun. 1, 2,87. Hesiod. 
Opp. C. 6. Dorville on Charit.481., and Fischer de 
vit. Lex. 492. Moreover, since the castrati were, in 
various parts of the East (as they yet are), set over 
the most important offices, and used to be privy 
counsellors to the Kings; hence €uvoo;^op came to 
denote generally a court officer, whether contrasted 
or not. Thus Potiphar, though he had a wife, rs 
called in the Sept. of Gen. 87, 36. tf-raS<oy 4^apa«o, 
and in Gen. 39, 1. ei/VoSpfoy 4>apaa>, where the Chal- 
dee Version has njnDT «3*», and not Mtia spadof 
See De Dieu and Spanheim on Julian Or. I74. and 
Diog. Laert,5, 1, 5. In the present passage €t>vdS;fdy 
can only mean a court officer, which is defined by 
the context to mean treasurer. 

27. SuvacTTijff signifies properly one who has great 
power, like the Heb. 7^5; as in Sirach. 1^ 1. : but 
also, as here, one who has great influence with a 
King.* That the Eunuch in question was not a 
Gentile, is plain. He was probably a Jewish pro- 
selyte (since many such there were both in Egypt 

* So Thucyd. 1,38. ylverai yap ahr^ ^niyas. 2 Kingt 5, 1. 
" Now Naaman, captain of the host of ihe king of Syria, was a great 
man with his master.** Herodot. 6, SO. ?yo /ii) ^ca^uywv alru fiiytu 
wapa flaffiXe'i yivi^rai. SotoXXcc bvyavdai rivt in Synes. Ep. 107. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. HQS 

and Ethiopia) ; as appears from his readfog the 
Book of Isaiah : and had doubtless come to Jem* 
salem for the purpose of religious worship. It is 
true that, according to the Law of Moses (see Deut. 
^, ^.)» ^n eunuch could not be admitted as a proser 
lyte : but, as we have before observed, eipw^o^ does 
not necessarily denote this. 

27- KavSflMojff. This (as we learn from Pliny, D. 
Cass., and Strabo) was a family name common to all 
the Queens of -SEthiopa (like Pharoah in Egypt, 
Ccesar at Rome, and the Czar in Russia). So rlin. 
H. N. 6, 9Q. Regnare feminam Candacen, quod no- 
men multis jam annis ad reginas transiit. See Wolf 
and Wetstein. 

27. fiaiTiXiVcnjf Aidiwron'. Here we are not to un- 
derstand ^Ethiopia superior^ called Meroe. See 
Michael. Sp. Geogr. extr. T. 1. p. 180. (Kuin.) 

.27. 09 ^9 iiri TToun^ ttJ^ ya^'Jjf aJr^r. Subaud re 
rayii.€V05^ or Kadia-rafuvo^j set or appointed; as in 
Acts 6, 3. & 12, 20. Sometimes this is expressed; 
as in Diodor. Sic. 37 b. oI inrh r^r degaWa^ too jSoo-i- 
XeW T€TayfjL€909* Ta^a is a' word of Persian origin, 
denoting wealthy treasure^ and Kar €^o;^y a royal 
treasury/. So Q. Curt, 3, 12, 27. pecuniam regiam, 
gazam Persae vocant, cum pretiossimis rerum efferri 
jubet, simulans fugam. See Brisson de regn. Pers. 
1. ^181. and Wets, on this passage. 

28. oLveyi^wfTKe. *AyayiyoKrif€iy signifies to readj 
whether to oneself, or aloud. In the latter sense it 
is. here used ; as appears from the context. Tiv 
jr^c^Tijy *H(raiay, i. e. (by a popular hypallage com- 
mon to both ancient and modern languages) the 
book of the Prophet Isaiah. In reading the Scrip- 
tures on his journey, this proselyte followed the 
injunction of the Jewish Rabbis ; in illustration of 
which Schoettgen cites, among other passes, Eru- 
bin. fol. 54, 1. Sota. fol. 46, 2. " R. Joshua, son of 
Levi, said that whoever was going upon a journey, 
and had npt a companion, should study the Law»" 



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996 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VIlI. 

That Jewish students used to read aloud, appears 
from other citations to be found in Schoettgen. He 
is supposed to have been perusing the Sept. Version 
then commonly used Inr all the foreign Jews; as also 
by Philip himself. It has been, not improbably, 
conjectured that he had heard of Jesus, his death, 
and resurrection, and that his followers appealed 
to the prophecies of the Old Testament concerning 
the Messiah, and especially Is. 53. : and that he was 
now revolving those sacred oracles, in order to de- 
termine whether they agreed with what had been 
related to him concerning Jesus. (Kuin,) 

29. When Philip heard the Eunuch reading aloud, 
he immediately resolved to approach the chariot, 
hoping that he might bring him over to Christianity : 
and since his expectation was fulfilled, it might be 
said that God, or the Holy Spirit, had admonished 
him so to do, (Ruin.) But, unfortunately for this 
interpretation, we find, by St. Luke's words, that 
Philip had not heard the Eunuch reading until he 
had ran up to the chariot; so that the thought 
could not well be his own. I am not, however, pre- 
pared to assert that the words were uttered by an 
angel, (as some ancient Commentators have thought,) 
they were only suggested by the operation of the 
Holy Spirit, ih some such manner as that of the 
afflatus of the Prophets, whereby the inspired al- 
ways distinguished such Divine suggestions from 
Vhat arose naturally in their minds. 

29. KoXXi}di)Ti t£ op/JiaTi. KoXXao^ai, from icoXXo, 
glue, a word of uncertain (perhaps Northern) origin, 
has, with a passive force, a deponent or reflected 
sense, and signifies ** to stick oneself to, to attach 
oneself to, join company, follow ;** as here. So the 
Heb. pan is used in the Old Testament ; as in Ruth. 
2, 8. (Sept.) iS^ icoXXifdijri i^erk rtSv Kdoota-ltov* & 1, 8. 
PnnpaT r\r)\ where the Sept. has 'Poiid ik ^•|coXoudi3<r€y 
awjij the literal meaning of which is, " Ruth stuck 
close to her.** 

30. Heumanii and Kuinoel think, from a compa- 



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ACTS OF THE AP08TLE8, CHAP. VIII. 297 

rison with ver. 35., that Philip spoke more to the 
Eunuch than is here recorded, St. Luke only giving 
the heads of the discourse. Most Commentators, 
from the tifne of Grotius to that of Kuinoel, agree 
that there is here a paronomasia ; and they quote a 
parallel one of Julian in his laconic Epistle to Basil. 
ay^yMDV, €yvm¥^ Karhfffwv. To which the Father, with 
equal wit, oveyvoy, oXX* ook lywttf, 61 yAp lyveof, oAc dty 
KOLriyvfos. So also Cato : Legere, et non inteliigere, 
est negligere. So 2 Cor. 3, ± But whatever may 
be thought of tlie last passage, I can scarcely recog- 
nize in the present anv such paronomasia. 

31. vaUsyoLo av Stivaiftijy, €oLv jxi} r. o. ft. Valcknaer 
remarks on the amiable simplicity of the answer, 
which contains a modest form of expressing igno- 
rance. Here, too (as Pearce well obsel*ves), there 
is an ellipsis of the negative particle. And he, very 
justly, notices, that both affirmative and negative par- 
ticles are, by the Greek writers, often thus omitted : 
in proof of which he refers to Rom. 8, 37. 1 Cor. 9, 
10. 10, 30. 12, 31. Mark 7, 21. See also Matt. 1^, 
27. 2, 6. and the notes on those passages. 

. Kuinoel here observes that he is in doubt whether 
the passages of the Prophets, adduced by the fol- 
lowers of Jesus, had a reference to the Messiah. 
Valcknaer justly commends the shrewd remark of 
Grot, that this Eunuch did not find the Scriptures so 

Eerspicuous as they are now made, not only by low 
andicraftsmen, shoemakers, and tailors, but even 
by women. 

32. 1) 8^ 5r€pio;fi} r. y. ^. a. n€^io;^ denotes the 
sum of what is comprehended in any book, oration, 
or passage : but here it simply signifies the passage 
itself; of which Wetstein cites an example from 
Thucydides, and Valcknaer one from Stob. Eel. Phys. 
164 A. ^ouro} tI aKpoT€yi(UTa7oy r^y T€pioy^ff' where I 
would read ojcpor^'Keimov (fag-end). It is a some- 
what rare word; and occurs in Thucyd. 2, I7. where 
I shall adduce several other examples* 

** The passage (observes Kuin.) is quoted from Is. 



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298 ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. YIII. 

53, 7 & 8. (Sept.) in which, however, for Kcipovros we 
read ic€«pavToy, and the pronoun ouroS added to TaT€i- 
woVei is wanting ; as also $€ interposed between the 
words Tigv y€V€av'' Then, after detailing some suflB- 
ciently latitudinarian, nay sceptical^ hypotheses of 
various German Theologians, he concludes by 
espousing the common opinion, qamely, that the for- 
tunes of the Messiah are adverted to in the words of 
Isaiah. In this, he says, he has the support of many 
distinguished recent Commentators, as Dath, Cube, 
Michaelis, Hezel, Hensler, Storr, Martinius, and 
many others. One may wonder that there should 
have been in that country those who came to any 
other conclusion." 

^* This passage (continues Kuinoel), as is plain 
from its very commencement and the whole tenor of 
it, does not cohere with the preceding verses. To 
advert however to the subject in question. Prophets, 
Divine Legates, and Kings, were kut c^opfi^y, named 
worshippers and ministers of Jehovah, hy this ap- 
pellation, therefore, the Prophet might, with pro- 
priety, distinguish the Messiah^ who, we may observe, 
is here also described as a King (compare ver. 12) : 
and thus this oracle of the Prophet (who lived at the 
time of the Babylonish captivity) teaches the same 
as the other Prophets had taught. Now by David 
and other most meritorious leaders and deliverers of 
the state much was to be endured, and a great conflict 
to be maintained, in order to remove all impediments 
thrown in their way by their enemies. Or the Pro- 

Ehets and Divine Legates many had been persecuted 
y the hatred of the corrupt populace ; nay, not a 
few had been put to death. (See Matt. 23, 34.) In 
a later age, however, the Jews represented the Mes- 
siah to themselves as a King, Prophet, High PriesL 
(See 1 Mace. 14, 41 & 47. compared with 18, 15.) 
They regarded their evils and misfortunes as punish- 
ments inflicted by the angry Deity. (See Job 9, I.) 
They believed also that an innocent person would 
suffer punishment in the place of the guilty, and 



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ACTS OF THE AP08TLB8, CHAP. VIII. 299 

thus* reconcile them to the favour of God. See Jo- 
seph, de Mace. § 1, 17. Now the wiser Jews who 
were living in captivity were aware that they had 
brought this calamity upon themselves by their own 
wickedness. Piacular sacrifices had been offered up 
by them ; and at that time they anxiously longed for 
some expiator, and represented the Messiah to them- 
selves as the author of every kind of felicity ; from 
him especially expecting the restoration of true piety 
and religion; and therefore hoped also that he wouI4 
expiate the sins of the people, &c. See Schoettg. 
Hof . Hebr. t. 2. p. 647 & 650. Thus there is no rea- 
son to be surprised that the author of this passage, 
tdgfether with the other wiser Jews, should have come 
to the opinion that the Messiah would die^ in order 
to expiate the sins of the people^ (see the note on 
Luke 23,42. Joh. 1,29. p. 148.) and would, for 
their sins, suffer heavy afflictions; all which must 
take place till his kingdom were established: but 
that he would finally overcome these various calami- 
ties, reign gloriously, and that all the citizens of his 
kingdom Nvould be most studious of piety and virtue. 
Compare Joel, c. 3. (Kuin.) I assent to most of the 
positions in this note of the learned Commentator ; 
yet I cannot but take exception to ih^ fundamental 
principlcy which seems to refer the language of the 
Prophet to the ideas and notions of the Jews of his 
time, but. which is inconsistent with the full inspira- 
tion which we are accustomed to attribute to this 
most distinguished of Prophets. 

32. o)^ frpofiarov hr\ er^ayi^v, &c. This beautiful 
image (which needs no illustration) is found also in 
Jer. 11, 19. Wetstein has here citations in super- 
fluous abundance, of which the most apposite are the 
following. Phcedr. 1. 5. Patiens ovis injuries. Ter. 
Ad. 4,1. Cum fervit maxim^, tam placidum quam 
ovem reddo. And he remarks: *^ Maximam hostiam 
ovillj pecoris appellabant, non ab amplitudine cor- 
poris, sed ab animo placidiore." 

33. €V T*^ T0L7reiUw(r€i aurou rj Kpitris rip^ ; In the 



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300 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIlI. 

Hebr. text, we have np*? tDBttJODI nsj^, ex angustid 
et judicio abducitur, in which passage IDBtt)03 "Oy is, 
by a hendiadis, for judicii angustia^ oppression (Ps. 
107,39), i.e. severe, violent judgment. Now PTp7 
is an usual term, denoting the being hurried away to 
punishment; as in Deut. 30, 4. Judg.18, 24. Ex.3, 
14. The Sept. seem to have read np7 ItODtDD 123^1. 
On the interpretation, however, of the words of the 
Sept., as they now stand, the Commentators are not 
quite agreed. To omit other opinions, Michaelis, 
Hensler, and Thiess, on the authority of the Syriac, 
connect ev rf) xaTcivcoVci auroS with the last words of 
the preceding verse, and render thus : ** He opened 
not his mouth, since great was his misery.*' The 
words 1} icg/<riy atJroG r^^ are by Thipss explained : 
** his judgment was taken away; he was condemned.*' 
I would, however, put a stop after the words 13 Kfitn^ 
aJroG, by which the sense will be as follows : " in his 
humility, when his condition was exceedingly mise- 
rable, was his judgment (i.e. he was condemned), he 
was taken off, destroyed." (Kuin.) See Doddridge, 
who says that to take a person's judgment is a known 
proverb for oppressing him. 

33. ng*' ^^ yevcAv aJroG — if ^omq awTou, " who can 
describe the wickedness of the generation, when his 
life has been taken away upon earth.** r€vea, like 
the Hebr. y\"^^ signifies the men who live in any age. 
See Matt. 23, 36. Luke 16, 8. 21, 32. Not a few 
Commentators, however, assign to the words the fol- 
lowing sense : ^* Who can number and tell his age, 
his years? for he has been carried up to Heaven, and 
enjoys eternal life." But this signification of yefia 
is unauthorized, and the sense is unsuitable to the 
words following. (Kuin.) On the meaning of the 
above words it is difficult to form any 'decided opi- 
nion ; for (as Doddridge observes) this is one of the 
many passages of the Old Testament prophecies, in 
which it is not so difficult to find a sense fairly appli- 
cable to Christ, as to know which to prefer of several 
that are so. He adopts the following interpretation 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. VIII. SOI 

proposed by Hammond, which does not differ mate* 
rialJy from KuinoePs : ** Who can describe the obsti- 
nate infidelity and barbarous injustice of that genera- 
tion of men among whom he appeared, and from 
whom he suffered such things." 

35. ovoi^a^ S^ rl ctoijim auroS, Ktii aq^afi€if09, &C. 
The words oito/^a^ r^ (rro/xa are an Hebrew pleonasm. 
So Acts 10, 34. and Matt. 5, Z. where see the notes. 
Fpa^^ is here used of particular passages of Scrip- 
ture ; as in Mark 15, 58. compared with Luke 22, 
37. 4, 21. So Luke 24, 27. oggop^oy axi Manrew, 

tf-aiy Ta?p yoa^ou? tA xf^l outoS. 

Philip snews that the words of the prophecy are to 
be referred to Jesus ; and then he takes occasion to 
inform the eunuch about the person, doctrine, and 
merits of Jesus. (Kuin.) 

36. Ti KcSKi^i fie 0aTri(rd^vaf ; One may collect 
from these words that Philip had shewn the eunuch 
the necessity of baptism, as being a rite by which 
Jesus had ordered his followers to be initiated. " Thus 
(observes Grot.) many circumstances which precede 
are supplied from what follows." Wetstein adduces 
examples of n icoiXJei and oiSev icoiXJci (to which it is 
nearly equivalent) from Demosthenes and Plutarch, 
and of the Latin quid vetat or prohibet from Virgil, 
Petronius, and Ovid. 

37. This verse is wanting in A. C. G. and very 
many other MSS. ; as also in the Syriac, Arab., 
Copt., Sahid., and -Slthiop. Versions ; and in others 
there is much of variation and transposition. It has 
been therefore rightly thrown out by Griesbach and 
Matthias. The verse seems to have been introduced, 
lest any one should think that Philip had too preci- 
pitately admitted the eunuch to baptism. (Kuin.) 
To the last position J cannot accede : and as to the 
verse, since it is contained in so many MSS., and is 
found in the Vulgate and Syriac Versions, it should 
(I think) be retained, though put between brackets; 
especially since it assuredly represents the earliest 



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303 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. 

confession required of adults at baptism. And there- 
fore, whether genuine or not, it will prove that the 
candidates had previously been informed of the doc- 
trine of Christ's divinity, which this confession ma- 
nifestly recognizes. 

On KUT^^e-oLPy &c. Doddridge observes, that con- 
sidering how frequently bathing was used in those hot 
countries, it is not to be wondered that baptism was 
generally administered by immersion, though there is 
no proof that it was essential to the institution. " It 
would be very unnatural (continues he) to suppose 
that they went down to the water, merely that rhi- 
lip might take up a little water in his hand to pour 
on the eunuch." 

The phrase e^ Jxt)? ttJ? icogSiW is thus illustrated by 
Valcktiaer. " This expression, which is so often 
used by the Sacred writers, is also found, though 
with some variation, in the best Greek authors. In 
Theocritus ou^ oXay ^t'K€€iif [jl ^deXijo^' oltto JcopSias* is 
equivalent to ^«7^66iv oXy) rfi '^XTi ^" Xenopn., and 
'jravri iufup in Demosthenes. The contrary term is, 
love any one^ onri yXco(r(r>3$', i. e. with the tongue only, 
and by words. Both are conjoined in Sophocl. CEdip. 
Col. 990. raoTOL (TOi Tip vcS 6* 6/xoiW fc &jrh r^y yXaftrtrtjy 

39. 0T€ 8^ av€^(rav Sk toG S^aro^ — 4>«Xi7nrov. Some, 
as Doddridge, following the opinion of Augustrn, 
Didymus, and others, have thought that Philip was 
caught upby theangel,or comeyed in some other pre- 
ternatural mode through the air to Azotus : a thing 
(observes Doddridge) which seems to have happened 
to some of the prophets. And he compares 1 Kings 
18,12. 2 Kings 2, 16. Ezek.3, 14. But the most 
enlightened Commentators are now agreed that the 
word ripTratre may very well be understood of the 
imperative suggestions of the Holy Spirit, which Phi- 
lip doubtless well knew how to distinguish from ordi- 
nary thoughts. There seems also an allusion to the wn- 
wilUngness with which Philip tore himself ifrom this 
promising convert. Now apva^^iv is used in much 



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ACTS OF TH5 APOSTLES, CHAP. VIII. 803 

the same way as avayica^eiv, and other similar terms, 
of moral compulsion : and there are many more pas- 
sages in the Old and New Testament, where the in- 
spirations of the Spirit are similarly described j ex* 
gr. 1 Kings 18, 12. Koi Jf<rrai — ical tl^ejina ap€i tre iK 
Wff y^ff ^v oiJif olSa. The recent Commentators, in- 
deed, almost explain away the force of the expres- 
sion ; which is a fault as great as that of the early 
ones in pressing it too much. Chrysostom seems to 
have taken the middle, and, as in most cases, the 
safe course. (See his 26th Homily.) CEcumenius, 
however, deserts us here, and evidently adopts the 
common opinion. I must observe that there is a si- 
milar passage in Herodot. 4, IS. *Api<rro)$', avijp ir. 

The words 7rv€tifM/t aiytov hr€Tr€(reif iir\ riv €(}voS;^ov oty- 
y€Xo$' (r^, found in some MSS. are (as Kuin. thinks) 
added by those who thought the snatching up of the 
eunuch was more suitable to an angel than to the 
Holy Spirit ; and the words being found in Acts 10, 
44, seem to have been transferred hither. 

39. Koi ouK ethev aurov ot;«cerf o eivou^o^ — ^(aiqayp. Most 
recent Commentators^ as RosenmuUer ana Kuinoel, 
adopt the notion of Grotius, that the last words as- 
sign a reason why the eunuch no longer saw Philip, 
namely, because he was returning to his country : 
and to the word j^aipmvj which ought, (as Grotius and 
Markland think,) to be pointed off separately, he 
ascribes the force of a whole sentence. But the 
sense thus arising is very frigid, and wholly un- 
satisfactory. To me it appears that the words 
Ko) ouK etiev at/rov o €t/yoS;^of are a popular pleonasm, 
not unfrecjuently found after verbs of departing j and 
the words ixopeuero yap tiqv oSiv avroo ^aiqoav seem to 
have little or no connection with the preceding. The 
y^ has the sense of 8f, autem^ verb, (as it is rendered 
by Beza, Schleusner, Vulg., and E. V.) : or it may 
denote the ellipsis of a whole sentence, to which ijt 
has reference ; such jis the following : " And the 
Eunuch scarcely missed him, for he was absorbed in 



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3(H ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP« VIII. IX. 

the new and sublime ideas which his conversation 
had introduced." The expression hropevero — p^ai- 
panf occurs elsewhere in Scripture. Xa/poiy well 
expresses the genuine consolations of the Gospel. 

40. */Xinroff U cupcflij ciy "A^mrw. Heinrichs 
thinks that €ug^ is a dictio pcegnans for ^' he went 
to Azotus, and there abode.** But I agree with 
Kuinoel, that it is not necessary to resort to this 
principle; especially as cases occur where the preposi^ 
tion is to be used when that principle is inapplicable. 
Thus in Herod. 4, 14. where, speaking of Aristaeus, 
a poet who, afler he had been thought to be deadt 
suddenly disappeared, nor could even his corpse be 
found, till seven years after he appeared, ^oveyra 
a(!rov is UpoKoPvr^trov^ xoi^o-ai roL €T€a, &c. Indeed, 
the Latin ad seems to have a similar force ; as ap- 
pears from our at. 

EfJ^lo^K€(rBa^, like the Heb. MS03, has often the 
sense of 6e, abide ; of which Kuinoel gives the fol- 
lowing examples. Esth. 1, 5. 1 Par. S9» !?• 2 Far. 
29, 99. 30, 21, 25, & 31. 1 Mai. 2, 6. Eurip. Iph. 
T. 277. 'ToG voT ov9' etjpriii^a. Sir. 44, 20. See 
Kypke on Matt. 1, 18. and Loesner on 1 Cor. 4, 2. 
Beza comnares the French " // se trouva^ for iljnt 
trouvi. On Azotus or Caesarea see the Geographers 
or Schl. Lex. 

CHAP. IX. 

On the important subject of PauVs conversion, as now related 
by St. Luke, the recent Commentators are not agreed whether wc 
are to regard it as strictly miraculous, and 5U):po$ed that Jesus 
Christ really appeared, or whether it may be ascril>ed to, and ac- 
counted as the effect of, certain terrific natural phenomena^ or the 
high-wrought imagination and wounded conscience of Paul. Since 
the question came under discussion, the former position has b€«n 
ably maintained by several of the most eminent Theologians, as 
Grotius, Hammond, Limborch, and Lyttleton, and, of the German 
writers, Hasse, Niemeyer, Michaelis, and many others. The argu- 
ments on that side of the question are thus summed up [though 
with little impartiality. Edit.] by Kuinoel. 

«) "Paul is not simply said to have heard a voic^, but a voice 
which said unto him, "Saul^ Saul, why pcrsecutest thou me?" 



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ACTS or THK APOSTLHS9 CHAP. YX. $05 

(Sm 9. 4. n, 7. M, 14.) He asks who it it that addreaBcs him. 
and hanng reoeived the aaswef, affain entan into a convanalion 
with it» which is distinctly namitedbj St Luke (9, 4->-6 ), and by 
St. Paul himself (SS, 7> 8 & la 2tf» 14 seqq.)) and in 96, 19. he 
calls it oiffoycoff ^uTttff/a. Paul himself, in communioating this 
conversatiQi, lias been so exact as not to have omitted to detail any 
oircumstaooe, even what would seem of minor importance, namely, 
that he who addressed him spoke in the Hehrew kmguag^k (See 36/ 
14.) h) Ananias, in 9, 17-9 ^7^ ^^^ ^**1 ^^ Jesus in the wi^ ; 
which he oould not have known but from St. Paul himself: and 
the same is affirmed by Barnabas, to whom P&ul had related the 
oiroumstance. c) St. Paul, in 1 C6r. 9, 1. 15, & Qal. I, 1, 16. 
boasts of this appearance of Christ [but in GaL 1, 16. another 
appearance of Christ is aUuded ta Compare Acts 92, 18. Kuin.], 
and from it deduces arguments in proof of his Divine legation, 
which he could not have thus established, if Jesus had not appeared 
to him. d) The Apostks doubtless made every enquiry before they 
would receive into their society a man from whose cruelty and 
fanatic pi^y there might have seemed much to fear ; nor would they 
have received him, unless they had been thoroughly persuaded that 
Jeaus Christ had appeared to him. " From this common view of 
the subject, however, (continues Kuinoel,) many Commentators of 
our age dissent, contending that we need not imagine any miracle, 
or the corporeal appearance of Christ, but that, accommodating 
ouiaetves to the peouUar fi>rms of expression used in the antient 
worid, we are to explain the whole of a t^istcm, seen amidst thunder 
and lightning, and of the thoughu which then arose in the 
mind of Paul* Such is the opinion of Ammon, Eicbhom, Ecker^ 
maon, Gruling, Paulus, Schulz, Bavius, Heinrichs, Boehm, 
Wittig, Hesel, Roseomuller, Dindorf, &c. The hypothesis had 
been kH*oach6(t as far back as 1685, by Yitringa, Obs. Sacr. L. 6, lO, 
19., whose words are these : ** Primo refertur, kimen de eosk) P^u- 
lun prostravisse humi; dein vero ilium audivisse vocem. Per lu- 
qem sive lumen de ccelo, quia aliud hie inteiligat, quam fulgor ful- 
minis? jQuod si admiaeris, non n^gaveris, per vocem, fiilmini 
eonjunctam, vocem tonantem ct gravera intelli^ndam esse, quia 
ex lege naturae fulmina comitari solent tonitrua.' 

The aiguments adduced in support of this interpretation are 
are thus summed up by Kuinoel «) ^«ii^, like the Hebr. ^p, in 
Ex. 19, 16. not uuf^queotly denotes thunder (see the note on Matt, 

3, 17- 17, 5. Job. 19, 98.) j and ^6$, like niM, lightning, in Job 
37* 3. r# ^s aWov M wrefvy»v rns ^ym* And so Hebr. 3, 10. 
Now thunder and lightning both Jews and Gentiles numbered 
among signs of the presence of God, prodigies Divinely producedi 
the meaning of which they interpretad accoKling to circumstances. 
See the note on Matt. 3, 17. 17> 1- Joh. 19, 98. So Joteph, Ant. 3, 

4. iLffrparai r< iivay fofiepal tois oprntrtv, Kui Kepavvol KarevexBkvr^g 
iiiyXovi' r^v Tapwfftay rav Geov. Senec. Qusst. natural. C. 31. 
mira fulminis si intueri velSs, opera sunt, nee quioquam dubU re-^ 
linquentia, qiun diviaa insit illis et subtilis potentia. Such thunder 

vol- IV* X 



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S06 ACTS OF THS APOSTLES, CHAP* IX# 

and lightning tlie Jews accounted as prodigies, nay calUd by ths^ 
name, and thinking that God spoke in them, termed them the* 
▼aice of God, See Matt. 3, 17- Joh. 1«, 28. They believed also 
that the Almighty, in order to strike terror into the minds of men^ 
especially those of the wicked, manifested hb presence amidst light-' 
nings and thunders. See P&. 18, 13 & 14. 1 Sam. 1^, 17 & 18. 

The above Commentators therefore maintafn, that, agreeably to 
the notions of the antienc world, we are here to imagine a prod^- 
ous crack of thunder, and suppose that the thoug;hta which then 
arose in the mind of Paul are related as the voice of Jesus speaking 
in the thunder. 

b) <'St. Paul no where in hb Epbtles appeals to any vision ex-» 
ceedingthe bounds of nature, but only affirms lAu, that he was 
converted to Chrbtianity by a heavenly vbion* c) The corporeal 
appearance of Christ cannot be admitted, since if Chrbt had ap« 
peered clothed in a human form, and in a vbible manner, not on^ 
the Apostle, but also his companions, would have seen it) which 
is, however, denied at 9, 7." 

The foregoing view of the subject b also adopted by Kuin., who 
subjoins the following further illustration. 

'* Paul, a Pharisee and a strenuous defender of the religion of hb 
forefathers (Acts ^2, 3. 26, 5.) had heard of the doctrine of Christy 
whichy ^dbtorted, misrepresented, and calumniated as it was by the 
Priests,) he heki in abhorrence, as fake and pernicious. ""The Mes- 
siah indeed he eagerly expected, but it was an earthly one ; and 
thus Jesus (who had been crucified, and whom the Priests called 
an impostor and corrupter of the ancient religion) he utterly re* 
jected. His followers therefore he persecuted, fancying that he 
was supporting the cause of God and of Religion. Yet he had not 
entirely foi^otien the admonitions of his master Gamaliel, who was 
endued with a remarkable exemption fitMn prejudice in deciding on 
the merits of another religion, and who recommended this dbposi- 
tion of mind to others. ( See 5, 34 . ) Besides, the constancy, and even 
joy with which Stephen and many Christians had met persecution 
and death, together with what he had heard from them of the doctrine 
of Chrbt, (so contrary to what it had been represented by the 
Jewbh Rulers,) had produced such an effect upon his mind, that 
he began to doubt of the goodness of his cause. But, hurried away 
by desire of vain glory, and lest he should appear inoonsbtent witlt 
himself, and seem to be a colder partisan and a less zealous de- 
fender of the Pharisaical sect than he had heretofore been, he stu* 
diously repressed conviction and the force of truth, up to the time 
of his journey to Damascus, when he was compelled by a vbion to 
abandon his prejudices and embrace the truth ; and, as is the case 
with persons of iardent temperament, he then rejected and con- 
demned the Pharisaical dogmas with the same fervid impetuosity as 
that with which he had beK)re maintained them. When, therefore, 
to evince to his companions his zeal for his sect, he was proceeding 
to Damascus, with an intent to seize and persecute the Chiistians^ 
and was, by the way, reflecting on the purpose of hb journey, there 
occurred to hb mind all that he had heard from the Chrbtiaoi con- 



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ACTS OK TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. S07 

veming Jesns and his doctrine, namely, that he had returned to 
life, that he sat at the right hand of God, and would return to 
judge the quick and dead. He recalled to mind, also, the admoni* 
tions of Gamaliel, and other moderate men, who disapproved of the 
persecution carried on against the Christians, and biegan to doubt 
whether he were engaged in a good cause. * What (thought he) 
If the things which the followers of Jesus tell rae be true? I would 
believe if he would appear to me !'* While revolving this in his 
mind, suddenly, about mid-day, there arose (though the sky had 
been just before serene) a tempest conjoined with thunder and 
lightning, and that so much the more terrific since (as we learn 
lUstt Manadrdl) the valley of Damascus is closed in by exceedingly 
fofty mountains. Tliero suddanly shone round about him a flash of 
ligfitning, and indeed, with a vivid imaginalion, he fancied he be- 
held a celestial nature, even Jesus. Struck with terror, he sinks to 
the earth, and falls into this soliloquy : ' Is not this the Jesus 
whose followers I have hitherto persecuted ? Yes ; it is he : He is 
rebuking my presumptuous attack on his society. I must repent, 
and abandon my prejudices. I will go to Damascus, and there 
consider what it will behove me to do. While Paul, amidst fre- 
(pient peak of thunder, was revolving these thinp in his mind, he 
nincied that in the crack of thunder he diftcemed the voice of Jesus, 
accusing, threatening, admonishing, exciting him. Hence also he 
afterwards, when narrating the affair to others, related his own 
thcHights in the form of a conversation between himself and Jesus. 
When Paul had risen fh>m the earth, he iaw no one (v. 8 ), his 
sight being temporarily suspended by the dazzling eflect of the 
lightning. As to his companions, they had seen nothing (v. 7.), 
since to them the lightning would not appear portentous, neither 
^re they so likely to have been tormented by the stings of a re- 
buking conscience.'* 

Thus far Kuinoel, whose matter Is chiefly formed upon the 
learned treatises to which he refers, and whose language I have re- 
ported at large and accurately, that I might not be thought to mis- 
represent it. But I must maintain that the hypothesis which it sup- 
ports, though ingeniously devised and ably supported by De Dieu» 
Eisner, ana other Commentators, yet is utterly untenable ; and 
though it p r o t e ases to simplify, produces more difficulties than it 
removes. It were surely Inconaietent with ingenuousness and tnith 
to dress up vivid impressions of the mind, caused by natural phe- 
nomena, in a dramatk; style, and manufiacture them into a dialogue. 
Paul, however ardent might be his temperament and vivid hn 
imagination, could not so far deceive himself as to suppose that the 
conversation (related by him at large in his speech before Agrippa) 
really took place, if there had been no more than these Commenta- 
tors tell us. The Apostle's mental powers were of too superior a kind 
to permit us to suppose that he could not distinguish between the 
thoughts of his own mind the address of a supernatural being. 
Besides, he is so minute as to say it was in the Hebrew language. 
And moreover, if he were so worked upon by his own high-wrought 
feelings and tender conscience, that could not be the case with his 

X2 



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P06 ACTi OF TBB ArOSTI»fi% CHiiPb IX. 

miitnimH^ iad ]MI it is teid ibiU they e^io, stroek dunb wkli 
ftttcMiiflhcneat, Aear^ 4^ Mice, tliough they mew no one. Now ilnn 
4iiflicuky) which those Conmieiitfttora have not iM>flC9d> eaRRot he 
^ded. A» to the objeetion which they mAe. at €>, that the eor^ 
fiormla|]pearanceofCftvi0teaimoti>e«ii«Uledkii^ had 

Rfipeared dottied in a human fona and in %, ▼isible manner, not 
vnly the Apostle, hat alto hit oompankmt, would have aeeo it $ 
«^hieli It denied at ^^ 7* 1 answer, that we are not obl%ed, nof 
•will «i% undertake, to prove the eoffOt^l € p f i mrtmoe of ChH8t« 
ainceit it no where aaserted* nm not even toapUed s lor when it ia 
aaid of the attendants fi^b^rm c^ (^«psvrrf«, 0p/mi iw i is involved 
in ^^, and the words were only meant, to coi^unolion with the 
preceding &ico{f9rr€s fiky r^ ^y^> to assign a reason why the at>- 
teadants were so dumb with aAonishnMnt, namefy, because thqr 
Jieard a voice speaking in the Hebrew language, but could not dio- 
xiern the speaker: and though it is sakl of these persons at ^8, la 
n)v hk ^4i^^F chic ificovtrav, yet Hicavffay there (with the accusative) 
has the sense of undeniand, and that, probably, because tbey did 
not sufficiently comprebend the language;, and perhaps the woid^ 
might have been uttered in a low tone. 

By this admission and eaplanation, the ot^ectioa at () is also de^- 
stroyed. Beskles, ^yii, if it has ever been used for thunder, cannot 
be so taken here: for what would be more absurd than, '* I hear a 
clap of thunder toytag.** And again, we are told ^hat the aUsnd- 
ants, hearing the— what ? the cktp, and seeing no one, (who could 
they expect to see ?) were mute with astonishment. Then again, 
fUs is no where used of ligfUning. And as to the example adduced 
from Job 379 3. it is not to the purpose, since 4ik there means the 
•sun*$ iig/il. Besides, from the mainner in whkm this 66c is spokMi 
of, it cannot be thought to denote a flash of lightning.* For wheic 
is lightning said irepi^panrtly : And moreover, we are told thai 
it exceeded the brightness of the mid-day aun ; which, I appr^iend, 
cannot apply to a flash of lightning, any more than to the Axo rfK 
b6l^s rov ^i^os. FinaUy, when the attendants and P^ threw them- 
selves with their fiMses to the ground, it is surely fsr more reason- 
able to suppose that they did so from -connecting the blaze of light 
with the idea of a supernatural appearance, (which, with the super- 
stition of their nation, they were anxious to avoid seeing,) than 
with that of merely a flash of lightniag* 

1. in 4iMrvkmv exirciX^^ #ooi} ^^oiiso* "'Eri, even yet ^ 
i. e. from the time of Stephen's death. *£fA7rv€a»y is 
said to be for Trvccov. Markland cannot see how 
ifuTmoif can signify brecUhing out threatening. Even 

* Hence may be excellently defended the common reading ^&s in 
Eurip. Bacch. 585. which Matth. upon conjecture altered to ^<rfta. 
Wetstein here compares Peiron. 127. Toto mihi clarius cosk) netscio 
quid relucente, libuit Dcte nomen qiiserere. 



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ACTS 0» TMt AI«OSn.B8y CHAP. IX. SC@- 

fKitWiMs he says, would not have expressed this : and 
he conjectures e/xw-Xetoy axfiTcris Koi 4>oVa»v. But ^f*- 
wMot signifies inhale, anhelare. Now either inhaling 
or esshalins the breath, strongly expresses, both in 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, anger. So we use the 
ward tosnuffl It must be remembered, too, that, in 
Hebrew, the seat of anger is represented to be the 
nose. Similar passages are produced from the Clas- 
sjcal writers h^ Abresch, Kypke, Wets., and Loesner. 
The onhr diflerence between the Classical use and 
that of St. I^ike is, that the Classical writers use the 
sit^tle verb, and that generally with the acousative, 
though instances of the gcuiftW are found in Aristoph. 
Eq. 435. KAKuts Koi trwctxpoun-w xm. Q. Calaber 14, 
73- ArieitBn. 1, 6. ^ra ^k«v co'd^ emrlf Ka) rienrcW- 
Si)iw ft«S«i» K€KpetY<is ifui Kft} jTv^tttv dwpw. In the same 
manner anhelare is used in Cicero and other Latin 
authors. And so Chrys. de laudibus Pauli. Buam 
T»«Aw«ff. We may also compare Gen. 87, 45. breath- 
ing for your death. The genitive is^ dependant on 
ew-i, and the accusative on mr^. To the above cita- 
tion* I add Niceph, 47 c. hr\ U meiv Kork -nig 
iw^iast where I conjecture, for Korii r?y wre^ids 
mrk r^ff vre^f. Dienys. Hal. 1, 456. T^y at}»a- 
«€iap ^s a-oXoy irvet. Lecapenus de Atticismo ap 
ViUws Anecd. 2, 84. Avri r«5 ^,x,^?i» ^y^^ ^rifloueT 
/ue;i^ imei "ksyowrnt. ~ 

1, 2. TfwroAwv rm 'ApxifpfT, ^t^uto it. a. i. By 
^i<rroX«2 are meant letters credential, by which he 
received authority to apprehend or bring bound to 
Jerusalem such Christians as he should find at e4- 
mascus. (So 23, 5. W rifimpy^iv.) They had been 
written by the High Priest in the name of the whole 
Sanhedrim. (Compare ver. 14. and 22, 5.) Now 
the High Priest at that time was Theophilus, son of 
Anan, whom Viteljius had, in the year 87, appointed 
having removed his brother Jonathan, on whom he 
had conferred the office at the Passover of that same 
year. Paul, we may observe, w«nt to Damascus in the 



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SIO ACTS or THB APOSTLBS, CHAP. IX. 

year A. D. 40. (See Proleg. § de CbroDologia 
libri D. 3.) 

2. €ff AajtAoo-K^. A formerly celebrated city, si* 
tuated on a most fertile plain between the Libianus 
and the Antilibanus, on which was the Syria Da^ 
maacene (see 2 Sam. 8,5. Is. 7, 8.)f called by Stralxn 
p. 755. Casle Syria. The Jewish population may be 
miagined from the fact related by Joseph. Bell. I, % 
55. that, under the reign of Nero, four thousand Jews 
were immured in the .public bath, and slain by the 
people. See De Dieu on this passage, Cellerius 
N. O. 2, 442., Walch Antiq. Damas., and Michaelis 
Spic. Geogr. Heb. 2, 126. (Kuin.) 

2. vaos rks frwaywy^^j i. e. ** to the Rulers of the 
Sanhedrim.'* T^r o8oG is for raxnr^^ oSoS ; as in Acts 
22, 4. TWiT^y r^v 6$oy iiUb^ou The article is also put 
for the demonstrative pronoun in Joh, 7f 17- (^e 
Glass Phil S. 131 seqq.) 'OSof denotes not only a 
way, but way of life^ mode of thinking (as in Judith, 
5, 8. eK^^vai i^ ^ov rw yt^vioay); and also sect in 
religion, as here and in Acts 24, 14. And so Lucian 
Herm. p. 577* oLvaay^f o$oS ^rereipofteKo^ ev (fiiXwro^i^ 
(Eisner & Keuchen.) To these examples I add 
Suidas in v. ^EixxeioKXrj^ : doSiVoi ^aai n}v oSoi^ IIc^ 
Oayopou. 

2. AvZpa^ T6 KOii yumucoL^. This circumstance (as 
that in 8, 3.), is mentioned, in order to designate the. 
bitterness of the persecution. The number of Da- 
mascene Christians was probably considerable ; for 
not only many of the Damascene Jews, who fre- 
quented the feasts, would disseminate Christian 
doctrines to the people, but there must have been 
many refugees from Jerusalem. (Kuin.) On o/oyi} 
see the note on 6, 12. It is, we may observe, a vox 
Molemnh de hac re, a word appropriated to this sub- 
ject. Wetstein compares Aristoph. A v. IO78. i^n 

Xoyrov riv 8c §WT ayayji, rerrdpa. 
It appears that so great was the authority of the 



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ACTS OF TBB APOSTLES, CHAP. IXv SI I 

Jewish Synagogue among the foreign Jews, they 
readily submitted to its decrees, especially in what 
Respected heresy, &c* Hence the Kulers of their 
Synagogues yielded implicit obedience to the Jeni*- 
3alemitish Sanhedrim, to whom the Romans had 
granted the power of trial and condemnation in all 
cases which respected religion* See Joseph. Ant. 
14, 10. 16, 6., Vitringa de Syn. Vet. 866., Witsius 
Melet. p. 23. and Wolf on this passage. Now Da* 
mascus was, at that time, under the power of Arctas, 
King of Arabia. -(See 2 Cor. 11, 32. and the note on 
ver. 23.) Some have conjectured that this Aretas 
was a Jewish Proselyte, from the circumstance that 
i)e had married his daughter to Herod Antipas; 
(Basnage and Michaelis.) Certain it is that he was 
well affected to the Jews, and that he admitted th^ 
exercise of that dominion which the Jerusaleraitish 
Sanhedrim claimed over his Jewish subjects in mat- 
ters of religion. 

'' 3. €yiv€To aurhf eyyi^eiv. This is plainly a Hebrew 
{>leonasm, and eycvero answers to TTI. The Greek 
•writers would say, orav U vop€uoiJL€if69 ^yy*?^» (Kuin.) 
It should rather, however, seem to be a relique of 
the simple and primitive phraseology found in the 
popular idiom of most languages. 

Kuinoel observes that Tr^piaerrpaTrr^iv is only used 
by the Greek Fathers for ^e^iXaa^r^iv, which occurs 
infr. 26, 3., and which explains the word ^€pia<rrga5r- 
T€iv here used. They both signify *^ to shine all 
around/' and are not applicable to lightning ; still 
less (as I have before observed) is ^aJy. 

4. i^Kotxr^ ^VTJv Xeyowo-av aurcS. Many recent 
Commentators explain this of thunder^ and cite Joh. 
7, 28., which, however, is nothing to the purpose. 
Ti, wfn/ ? Wetstein, in order, I suppose, to illus- 
trate the power of fancy, quotes Lucret. 3, 158. 
Venim ubi vehementi magis est commota metu 
mens, Consentire animam totam per membra vide- 
mus. Sudores itaque et pallorem existere toto cor- 
pore, et infringi linguam, vocemque aboriri, Caligare 



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819 ACTS OF THS APMTLM, CHAP. JX. 

oculusi fonere aures, succidere artus, Denique con- 
cidere ex animi terrore videmus sdtpe homines. 

3. €tir€ ^ Th <7, Kopic ; The Commentators are not 
agreed whether Jesus was known by face to F^ul^ 
or not. The question is not of easy determinattoo, 
bat is of little importance* since (as I before ob* 
served) there is no proof that Jesus really Appeared 
in a visible form, still less in that of a man. . At M 
events, Paul* on seeing so glorious a blaEe* and flood 
of celestial light* could not but expect that some 
supernatural being would appear* to avoid seeing 
which, he and the rest fell down with their Ikces to 
the ground. Nothing* therefore* can be more inap^ 
posite than the exposition of irupic proposed by HeiiH 
richs* who says it is a form of address to an imibtoiM 
person. See note infra 16* SO. 

5. o-icXijpoV 0-01 irols idrrpa Xorri^civ. A proverbial 
form common botn to the Hebrew* Greek* and Latin 
writers. The Philological Commentators here pour 
forth* certatim^ the stores of extensive reading. The 
most important passages cited are Pindar Pvth. S* I7& 

JEsc/nfl. Prom. S^dw ouic»oy* l/Aoiyc Xf^V^^^ fii$aric^bif> 
xfi9 iccvreoi lotSxovcicrei^ip and Agam. iGSS. wf^ictyrfa 
fti] Xaicrif^* fti) Tn^o-ar futy^^. Rabbinical passa^ are 
cited by Schoettgen. iSee also Wets, and Valckn. 
To adq more would be needless* since neither the 
ratio metaphorwy nor its application present any no 
dam vindice dignum. 

7. oi Se £y^r — hhf€^. I cannot see any such 
difficulty as many learned Commentators i>ecogniae 
in these words. As to the seeming contradiction 
between this passage and that of 22* 9*, it must not 
be removed in the manner proposed by Valla* and 
approved by Greller and many recent Commenta^ 
tors (as Kuinoel and Heiorichs)* namely* by suppo- 
sing that the men had first fallen down* and then 
risen again ; since this is evidently a device *' made 
for the nonce*" and involves no liUle improbability ; 
for if they had at first fallen down through over* 



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ACTS OF THE ArOBTLEM, CHAP. IX* 318 

whelming fear and deep reverence, it would not be 
likely that they should have changed that poature 
until the apprehended danger bad pa9aed. I here 
desiderate the usual ju^ment of iCuinoel in not 
seeing that the only satisfactory^ mode of viewing 
the words is that of ^za, De Dieu, L*£nfant, and 
others. Xrrivai has here the sense of be, hefesedp 
comstare. I>oddridge here compares our stand in 
jeopardy for he in jeopardy ; and he produces seve* 
ral examples of this idiom. 

'£yy€o)^* ** deprived of sense, mute with astonish* 
meat.** This word properly signifies dumb; as in 
Prov. 17, 29. Is. 56, 10. (Sept.) ; or rather (if we 
may believe Ammonius)i deaf and dumb. It de- 
notes not so much one who is destitute of the natural 
faculties^ as one in whom they are suspended, or 
destroyed : aqd it is also usea figuratively of one 
out of his mind; as in Hos. 9» 7* See Steph. 
Tiayesaurust Ruhnk. on Timaeus 74., and Vackii» 
JSchoK on this passage, who, among other citations, 
has the fdlowing. Lucret. 1, 93. muta meiu terfam 
^eoibus submissa petebat. 

Thi^ seems at variance with what is said in the par 
raUel passage of 32, 9* r^ p.^ ^$ SeouraMTo, r^ U 
^m^¥ owe ^yw^ouf rmi XotXouyro^|iof. Various method$ 
of reconciliog this contradiction have been proposed. 
Valla on 22, 9« is of opinion that we ought here to 
read ^<ofwj¥T€9 p^ tl ^m^ ftijSeva S^ ojcouoyrc^. which is 
somewhat confirmed by the iEthiopic Version, but 
seemf to have been merely formed on a conjecture^ 
and is, moreover^ not countenanced by amr MS. au#> 
thority. The present reading is therefore to be 

* The modem Philologists venture not to offer any conjectures 
on the etymology of thb word, and In attempting it the antient ones 
gUBfOQiBly f$kL To me it teems to come fh>m ky aod vion new ia, 
r^io ai (any thing); and consequently (to use the old iibmse) id 
a gape^ or surpriBe at anything. Thus, vnong other senses, it had 
that oi juapoii as we find by the antient Lexicons: and il exactly 
aaswers to Ihe Latin stupidus. Thus our siHy, from the Ang. Sboh 
9eUig,fuU of wonder \ which is an apt description of a fooL 



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SI 4 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CtfAP. IX. 

retained, and another mode of explanation devised. 
Sonne ancient Commentators (as Chrysostom and 
CEcumenius), and a few modern ones, as Beza, 
Schmid., Castalio, and Heumann, understand the 
word <^yi) here of the voice of Paul in answer; but 
at 3S, 9* of the voice of Jesus speaking; and the 
purport of the words (they think) is, that PauFs 
companions heard him conversing with some one, 
but saw not the person with whom he conversed. 
But strong, and indeed just exception is taken to 
this method by Camerarius, Casaub., Hammond, 
and others, as being contort and utterly at variance 
with the context ; since the immediately preceding 
words are, as Kuinoel observes, the words of Paul; 
and if Luke had meant the word ^oar^ to be under- 
stood of the voice of Christ, he would have added 
airoO. Hammond, Eisner, Morus, Rosenmuller and 
•Heinrichs take (^wvri- here to denote thunder, but at 
52, 9., an articulate voice; whicb seems an untenable 
position. To me it appears to be the safest course 
to interpret ^icowrov, with Grotius, Bowyer, Kuinoel, 
and others, understood, and thus render n^y 5^ 4>mv^f 
4iuK i^Kftutrav rati XoXouyro? jttoi, *^ did not understand 
the sense of what was spoken to me/ For ojcou^iy, 
like the Heb. jnDtt), is often used in this signification. 
See Gen. 11, 1. 1 Cor. 14, 2, &c. and Schl. Lex. 

8. (xyea>7fteya>y $e rm o^9aXpoy auroS, o&S(va I^Xcre. 
I cannot accede to the opinion of those critics who 
understand the ouS^va of Jesus, becciLUse it had been 
before said that Paul saw Jesus. I assent to Kui- 
noel, that the words are simply descriptive of blind- 
ness (but can only refer to the companions^ not to 
Jesus) : as in ver. 9. Ka\ ^v ifftcpay r^pw fti) j3XeTow & 
22, U. ai^he ooK iv€^%€irw. Ouhev is indeed read in 
the Alexandrian MS., is expressed by the Syn 
Arab., and Vulg. ; and is approved by Grotius, 
Pricsus, and Bengel. Kuinoel thinks it savours of 
a gloss. But, as it only occurs in one MS., it woulc) 
seem to be a mere error of the scribe, from mistaking 
an abbreviation. 



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ACm OW TH£ APOSTLES) CHAP. IX. 315 

As to the Versions^ they are not proper evidence 
in this matter, since they often use much license of 
interpretation. 

With respect to the blindness of Paul, it is by most 
recent Commentators accounted for from natural 
causes, and ascribed to the effects of lightning, which 
hypothesis, however, as far as it rests on that princi* 
pie, is untenable. We are not, say they, to attribute 
the blindness of Paul to any supernatural agency of 
God; especially since in 22, 11. it is said to have 
been produced dtTri r^y 80^9 ro3 ^a>roy €K€ivw^from 
that glorious and most splendid lights but this is too 
manifest a fallacv to need any refutation. The blind- 
ness is consideed by Michaelis, Heinr. Eichh. Plou* 
Guet, and Kuin., as a teihporary amaraurosis, arising 
from excessive light. On this affection of the eyes 
Kuin. has the following interesting extract from Plou* 
quet*8 Dissert, de amaurosi.^^ Sequitur species anaesthe-^ 
tica, cum medulla retinae quavis ex causs& faculta-* 
tern aentiendi perdidit. Hue pertinet 1 ) Exallactica, 
cum substantia ejus degeneravit^ qualis est — d) hy- 
perphaes, quse ex nimis intensd luce oritur. VuU 
garis est experientia, solem vel focum radiorum ejus, 
nubes splendidas, colores nimi$ vividos inspicientea 
statim caacutire, irides ipsis observari, dolores in imd 
orbita urgere, et sic momentaneam quasi amaurosin 
nasci« Ferri fusi fulgentes massse idem et perstan- 
tius efficiunt, teste Dunklero, NootnageL £x fuL 
mine ortam habet Richterus. — Nimia quippe irrita* 
tio a luce aut affluxura enormem humorum ciet, quo 
epispastica vel et thliptico-empharctica species ori- 
tur, aut nervosam substantiam nimis afficiendo motus 
in ea ciet excedentes, non satis determinandos, qui* 
bus mutatio tristis permanens, enallaxis aliqua, stu-^ 
p<u?em retinae perpetuum comitem habens, efficitur. 
Apud hos tentandum, quid frigus actuate possit/' &c. 

Michaelis, too, relates the case of an African, who 
having lost his sight by lightning, and continued 
blind for a week, at length received it during ano* 
ther terrible tempest, when the whole room was illu- 



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Sl6 AXm Of THI APOSTLSSy CHAP. IX. 

mined witli lightning. Thia may, I doubt not, be ac* 
counted for upon optical principles, and bjr a **con-« 
sideration of the structure of the eye:** but I see not 
what bearing it has on the present case. The above- 
detailed hypotheses manife^y leave many difficnltieB 
unsolved. 1st, Why was Paul ahne struck blind f 
9dly, How is the above description of an amaurasiB 
consistent with what we read further on, namelyt 
that MCttles had grown over the eyes ? Sdly, How 
are we to account for a disorder of the eyes so inve^ 
terate as to occasion scales to grow over them,. Uav-* 
ing Paul so soon^, and svddemly, immediately oH 
Ananias*s laying his hands on him. To beKeve all 
that is asserted by the defenders of those hypotheses 
would require a larger portion of credulity than is 
usually found, even in modern philosophenu But 
sttppQs» this, as well as the preceding part of tha 
afl^ir, to have been produced by a preternatural in-* 
terference of the Deity, and all becomes plain* 

This blindness seems to have been inflicted, in or^ 
der to typify to Paul the ignorance of his former 
state, and, by withdrawing ^ attention from extor* 
pal objects, and turning his thoughts inward, to At- 
vour self-examination, and promote repentance. We 
may suppose, too, that the scales were caused to 
grow over bis eyes, in order that his blindness might 
be the more manifest to others. Many more objec- 
tions to the first-mentioned hypothesis which I could 
advance, but which not fail to present themselves to 
every reflecting enquirer^ I am compelled, from the 
nature of my work, to omit. 

$• '/<^%oay(aywrr€S iiovlrth. Xjei^ofyayy^w, to lead hf. 
th^ hand, is a word frequently used speciatim of one 
who leads the blind; of which Wetstein produces 
several examples : as Artemidor. 5, 2. td^ms ^dver^, 
i(a\ tnrl rtu SouXou inEhfW e;(€i^aya»7e£ro. 

hneif. Among the three days we are perhaps to 
reckon the day on which he came to Damascus. 
Kuinoel observes that it does not foUow from these 



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ACT3 Of TH« AIH>$TLt8» CflAP^ lU, 817 

jvrarda that Paul abstaiiied Hvm^UJhod (referriiig t<i 
hianot^ on Matt. 4s 2. 11, 18. compared with S, ^ 
aad liuk^ 4, S.) but tliat the words are to be inter- 

5r€ited> ^^ abstained from all free use of food and 
rink» i% e* ate and dtank, in a maimer, nothing.^ 
But this seems an unwarrantable lowering of wet 
neosei and 9till more so in the passage to which Kuir 
noel appeals. I would seriously deprecate this uhu9e 
of t?he principles of <;rittci8ra9 by which the extraor- 
4inary» and sometifnes pretematuraly ctrcumstances 
of. Holy Writ are degraded and brought down to the 
level of oirdinary life, and the events of every day 
occurrence. This strict &sting was intended as a 
sign of deep penitence for his persecuting the Chris- 
tianSt and was likely to be so much the more rigid 
iro&i his awful sense of his present visitation, not 
knowing whether he would ever be restored to sight. 
He therefore ^^ humbled his soul with fasting.'* Dod*- 
dridge thinks it was the result of bodily disorder, and 
of the attachment of bis mind to those new and as- 
tcHi^ing Divine revelations, with which he supposes 
him to have been favoured. Indeed we may easily 
suppose that he might have little imdination to eat 
or-arinkybr thai time.* 

IQ. That Saul and Ananias had before been known 
to each other, is the conjecture of Ammon, I^libora, 
And ileinrichs; which is by Kuinoel thought ex- 

* The exact length of this period cannot very well^ be deter- 
Diinedy since we neither know the time of day when he arrived at Da- 
maacus^ nor that on which Ananias removed his blindness, and bap- 
tized him. He lasted one whole day^ and a part, (more or less,) of 
two others. For there seems no reason to doubt but that Ananias 
visited him on the third day of his blindness. This idiom is very 
frequent in the Old and New Testament. Thus when it is said that 
Christ was in the sepulchre three days, we are only to understand 
one whole day and a part of two others. 

As to the Divine revelations which are supposed to have been 
vouchsafed during these days (and> as some think, ascending to the 
third heaven), all this seems mere speculation, founded on conjec- 
ture, and not very reconcileable with what we read in ver. 17., by 
which it appeai-s that Paul had not received the Holy Spirit, when 
Ananias Uud his hands upon him. 



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318 ACTS or THK APOftTLES^ CHAP. IX. 

tremely probable. In this, however, I can by nd 
means a^ree with him. It is {very inmrohahle that 
Saul and Ananias were acauainted. Had that been 
the case, God might not have thought it necessary 
to resort to any preternatural interposition ; which, 
however, we learn from the plain words of Scripture 
that he did. Many German Commentators, indeed, 
as Eichhorn, Heinrichs, and Kuinoel, make a despe- 
rate attempt to imagine how the event might home 
happened^ (or in fact dRd happen^) in the regular 
ocmrK of ordinary life; and, what is more, they en- 
deavour to reconcile and intermix this view of the 
subject with the extraordinary and preternatural me- 
thod recorded by St. Luke. But surely never was 
there any thing more hypothetical,* contort, and far- 
fetched; so totally dissimilar to the plain and obvious 
sense of the passage, as it would appear to any man 
of plain gooit sense, reading it for the first time, and 
without any preconceived opinions. 

11. ovacrrAr xop^wdijri cVl ttJv pvfJLi^v r. ^. E. I would 
write EtJdeiav. On the subject of the names of streets 
among the ancients I must refer my reader to the 
writers on antiquities. Yet may I be permitted to 
suggest that a memoir on Chis subject from the pen of 
some F. A. S. would be acceptable ? At ^SXov ovojxa 
must (as Kuin. thinks) be understood aifipou (Com^ 
pare ver. 12. and see Bos Ellips. Schl. p. S3 seq.) On 
Ta^o^f see Calmet, Schl. Lex., and Hornfe*s Intro- 
duction. 

* It was accidental, it seems, that Paul should dream of a person 
called Ananias coming to him, and healing him ! Wetstein, indeed, 
(with an intention, it should seem, of favouring this fkucyi) cites 
a passage of Athen. 575 b. in which he says that it is related by the 
historians, ** that a certain woman dreamed she saw a certain man, 
and fell in love with him ; and that the veiy same thing happened 
to him in respect to her/' But I believe our Critics wdl themselves 
admit that this tale is of too apocryphal authority to materially aid 
their conjecture. That Ananias was unknown to Paul, is plain from 
the manner in which his name is mentioned in the relation of the 
dream. 

* This city is called Tnptrol by Xenophon, Philostratus, and He- 
sychius: perhaps because it was divided into two parts by the Cyd- 



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ACTS Of THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. IX* 919 

12. Kol ^IScv €v iqAfAari ai^pa oyo/uuxri 'Ai«y/ay, i. e- 
'/ b^ saw in a vision or appearance a man whose name 
(he learnt) was Ananias.** Kuinoel takes avSpa om^ 
jxari 'Akxviov for ^e vidit, observing that the Hebrews 
are accustomed to put proper names in the place of 
pronouns; and he refers to Job 4, 1. Luke S, 19. 
Gen. 4, 23. This is, indeed, a characteristic of the 
primitive style in general. 

Uqofreixerm, he praj/eth, i. e. that he may re- 
cover his sight (which words must be taken out of 
the following words, ovm^ ava^Xe^^). " Thei^efore 
(as Chrysostom adds) fear not." 

iS — 15. By ayioi are meant ** Christians " in gene- 
ral. (Compare 32 & 41. and Rom. 1, 1. Eph. 1, 1,) 
So Tiyiaa-fjuim in Acts 20, 32. Just as the Jews were 
said to be S'^tZTI'Tp, as being separated from the so« 
ciety of Gentiles, brought to tne true religion, and 
consecrated to God. See Koppe on Eph. 1, 1. and 
our note on Mark 1, 24. and Jon. 10, 36. (Kuin.) 

14. fca) ciie €x^i ^^t^uciauf, &c. How this came to 
the knowledge of Ananias, we are left to conjecture, 
and Commentators indulge their fancy. Wolf and 
Roaenmuller think that Ananias had received letters 
from Jerusalem, apprising him of the mischief which 
was brewing up. But counsels such as those of Saul 
are usually kept secret, and it is not probable that 
the Christians would be acquainted with it in time 
to apprize the Damascene Christians of their dan-^ 
ger ; for we find there was so little connection be-> 
tween the cities, that the news of St. Paul's conver- 
sion was a very long time in reaching them. It is 
far more probable that the design of Paul's journey 

DU8. On similar principles one may account for the use of the 
plural in several other names of antient cities, as Athens and Syra- 
cuse i the former of which was so called from its being compounded 
of the old w6\is (which occupied the Acropolis), the new one South 
of it, and the Port Piraeus. As to Syracuse, it cons'isted of three or 
four dbtinct towns ; on which see Thucydides, and Goller s learned 
Tract De Siiu Syracusarum. Thus also Thebes, Clazomense, and 
many others, which we may suppose originally consisted of a high 
town and a. low one, something like our city of LincoUi. 



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^O ACTS OF THB APOSTLU, CHAP* IX. 

to Damascus was divulged by his companioiis^ and 
thus reached the ears of the Christians. And Ana^ 
Bias might justly doubt whether so bitter an enemy 
to Christianity could have so suddenly changed, and 
become disposed to receive that doctrine. In »2 en* 
KnXoufihm rl oMofM o-ou we have a peripharsis for fio^ 
ftijng^ roS KofioUs 

15. (rK€uo9 iiOioyis |um) €<rrh. Xiceio9 ^leXoyi)^ is a He- 
braism for a-Keios ^kXc/ctoi^. The sense is, ** He is a 
chosen tool, or instrument, to work my plans/* So 
Chrys. S^ipos* ?<rri, tJl Soicittw y&f ^Xcyojxcda. Now 
<rKeio9f like the Hebr. *h^f though it properly denotes 
an utensil or piece of furniture of any kind, es- 
pecially a vessel (see Sao. 15, ?. and Toup. Emend, 
ad Suid. p. 8), yet, like ^h^ in Isa. 13, 5., it denotes 
also an opyoi^y, both literally and figuratively, i. e. a 
person us^l for or adapted to the execotion of any 
purpose. Thus Aristot. Pal. calls a servant ipycm^. 
Here Grotius cites Polyb. Exc. p. 1402. Aa/xoKX^^^ 

In addition to this I must observe that o-icfuo^ oc« 
curs in the sense ofAamiture in Thucyd. 7, 24., and 
0-io^ frequently in Thucyd. and other Attic writers. 
Kuinoel remarks, that tiie metaphor is continued. 
But I should rather think there is an allusion to the 
otho- sense of vKew, namely^ vegsel, such as we use 
fer carrying any thing about. B}r {y^ is meant doc- 
trine (as often), and ^MMo-ra^^i^ signifies to promul- 
gate, &c. BflwiXcTy are here not only Kings^ but 
Rulers in general. See Matt. % 22. 10, 18. 

16. eya yo^ 6To$€f^, &c. The yiip here seems to 
signify autem, and by t;ToSei|a> is meant " wUl show, 
teach.'' Kuinoel paraphrases thus : ♦* I will show him 
that he must sufler much on account of my religion j 
and yet he will continue in sincerity, penitence, and 
feith. Therefore thou mayst lay aside all fear." 
Markland takes atrrfo for iv tx^rSy and, omitting otJ- 
rov, assigns to the words the following sense : " I 
will show you in or bi/ him, as by an example^ what 



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ACTS OF THE APO^TLISy CHAP. IX. 321 

every man must suflfer." But I agree with Kuiuoel, 
that this interpretation is inadmissible. Nor can I 
assent to Grotius ap. Doddridge, that <Hhis intimates 
that Saul would presently have a revelation, and 
perhaps a visionary representation of all his suffer- 
ings among Jews and Gentiles by land and by sea^ 
in tumults and imprisonments, of which this book 
and his Epistles give so lar^ a description.'* This 
would not be necessary^ and indeed (if we may pre- 
sume to offer an opinion on the counsels of the 
Deity) would, in the present weak state of our neo- 
phyte, have been unseasonable. 

17. 'IijToSff. I entirely agree with Kuinoel, that 
this word ought not to have been thrown out of the 
text by Mill and MatthisB, since, though some MSS. 
have it not, yet they are chiefly modern ones, and of 
little authority. A far greater number, including all 
the ipost antient MSS. and Versions, have it; and as 
it strengthens the sense, it should seem the more 
probable that Ananias would use the word. Certain 

is that Chrvsostom read it. 

7^mi€9. Here again Eichhom and others labour 
with all their might to destroy every idea of miracle, 
and to account for this sudden recovery on natural 
principles. They adduce three causes, either c^ 
whioh, they think, might produce it ; and Kuinoel is 
inclined to think that a// conjoined would render this 
possible ; namely, the cold hands of the old man, the 
effect of sudden joy f and the result of poor living I ! I 
Risum teneatis, amici ? Now surely this is utterly 
inconsistent with that view of the subject which St. 
Luke evidently means to inculcate^ namely, that it 
was effected by miracle* Nor is there any cause why 
Kuinoel should depreciate the greatness of the cure, 
by appealing to oiVcl, in order to prove that they were 
not real scales, but what Saul fancied to be such, 
namely, the humours of the eyes dried up, and which 
seemed to him to fall from his eyes. This, indeed, is 
doing manifest violence to the words, and trampling 

VOL. IV. Y 



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S2% ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. 

on evei^ principle of legitimate interpretation* For, 
in the nrst place, the oiere} often detracts little or no- 
thing from the sense of the word with which it is 
united. Secondly, it is well known that sometimes 
humours in the eves concrete^ and form, as it toere^ 
scales, which is all that is here meant See Job 11, 
IS. But it would be a waste of words to dwell 
longer on such a subject. We majr, however, observe 
with Chrysost. that besides causing a stronger evi- 
dence of his blindness to others, it seems to have 
been meant to typify to Paul the darkness and pre- 
judice which had formerly obscured his mental vision. 

19. Kol XojBddv Tflo^v, eviWu<r€v. The word hio-^ 
XycOi properly signifies corrooorare, but like the cor- 
respondent English term strengthen^ has sometimes 
a neuter or intransitive sense ; as here and in Gen. 
48, 2. where it answers to pthn^ in 2 Mace. 2, 1*. 
in9")(yfra¥ Koi oi Si^o-Tijo-av r^y our€^€la^. See Kypke 
on this passage. The rapid improvement of his 
strength, after his blindness had been removed, 
may very well be accounted for both from physical 
and moral causes. 

19. ey^vcro U SaSxoy. St. Paul to the Galat. 1, 
17. relates that he, after his conversion, did not pro- 
ceed to Jerusalem, but repaired to Arabia, and from 
thence returned to Damascus. Hence, according 
to the opinion of Pearson, in his Annal. Paul. p. 2., 
the words €7€vero li 2auXo9 are to be separated 
from the preceding passage, and constitute a new 
story, in which is related what happened at Da- 
mascus after Saul's return from Arabia. But the 
words l/cotyai r^iUpai may and ought to be referred to 
the whole time of Paul's abode at Damascus, before 
he went into Arabia ; and thus with the iicayai '^ifUpai 
be numbered the r^iUpai nvk^ mentioned at ver. 19* • 
for the sense of the words is this : ** Saul, when he 
spent some days with the Damascene Christians, 
immediately taught in the synagogues. Now Luke 
entirely passes by Paul's journey into Arabia. (Kuin.) 
Doddridge imagines that his going into Arabia (to 
which, as he observes, Damascus now belonged), was 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTtES, CHAP. IX* S&S 

only making excursions from that city into the neigh^ 
boiuriii^ puts of the country, and perhaps taking a 
large circuit about it, which might be his employ^ 
ment between the time in which he began to preach 
in Damascus, and his quitting it after having been 
conquered by the Romans under Pompey/* But in 
this view of the subject I cannot agree with him. 
The country in the neighbourhood of Dam<iscus is 
not properly Arabia. 

20. Koi 6ud(a>r — t/iof ro5 0€o5, i.e. the Messiah, 
of whom the Prophets of the Old Testament pro-^ 
phesied. For Xpi^rov many ancient MSS. and Ver- 
sions read 'I^o-oSv, which is approved by Grotius, 
Mill, Bengel, Michaelis, Morus, Kosenmuller, Valck- 
naer, and others, and received into the text by 
Griesbach; and rightly, I think. For that Christ 
was the Son of God Paul had never denied ; nor did 
the Jews deny that. They only denied that Jems 
was the Son of God. X^kttw doubtless crept in 
from the margin. (Kuinoel.) 

21. ow;^ wr6$ itrriv h irofAi^a^. The verb vofA^tv 
properly denotes to lay waste, devastate, ravage, and 
is often so used by the Greek Historians. Hence it 
came to signify to vex, persecute, &c., as here. 
Thus Hesychius explains it by Ziwk€iv. And so Gal. 
1, 13. where there is joined with it the synonyme 
$io(k€iv. See Wesseling on Diodor. Sic. 11, 3S. 
Kypke on this passage, and Munthe on Gal. 1, S3. 
(Kuin.) 

22. /xaXXoi^ (VfSuyajxouyro. His persuasion of the 
truth. and excellence of Christianity daily increased, 
and with it his vappr^ia. And thus he confuted 
Qru¥€j(yv€) the Jews. Xvy/yv^iv signifies to confound^ 
perturb, and put to a stand. Sup.Pi3a^a> properly 
signifies '* to go up together;" 2dly, ** to raise up 
together ;*' 3dry, *' to bring together ;" and is espe-» 
cially used of carpenter's work. Hence it is em- 
ployed metaphorically in Eph. 4, 16. Col. 2, 2. Now 
since he who proves ^nd demonstrates truth, thereby 
shews its connection and traces the chain of demon- 

y2 



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32* ACTS OF THE AP08T|,£a» CHAP. IX# 

stratton, thus it comes to mean demonstratey shew ; 
as here and in 1 Cor. 2, 16. and often in the Sept. ;. 
as Exod. 4, 12. 18, 16. Dent. 4, 9. Is. 40, 14. 
Dan. 9, 22. In the Classical authors this significa- 
tion is very rare. Kypke has, however, adduced one 
example from Ocellus Lucanus de universo, c. 3. 
p. 530. €lw€p aXijd^f 6 X<^o^ (^if4/3l^a^(f, fti^ pu^v rii 
lUpt^ evinfirapxei¥ r^ Koa-fA^Of cOO^m Ka) roL Tep^^x^V^^ 
rots ijJp€(rl. 

23, 24. o>9 U ^Vxijf oSi^o — oyeA^iv ouroV. In 2 Cor. 
11, 32. we read that the Ethnarch of Aretas, king of 
Arabia, had placed a guard at the gates of Damas- 
cus, to seize Paul. Now it appears that Syria Da- 
mascene was, at the end of the Mithrtdatie war, 
reduced by Porapey to the Roman yoke. It has 
therefore been enquired how it coula happen that 
Aretas should then have the government, and ap- 
point an Ethnarch. That Aretas had, on account 
of the repudiation of his daughter by Herod Antipas, 
commenced hostilities against that monarch, and in 
the last year of Tiberius (A. D. 37.) had completely 
defeated his army, we learn from Joseph. Ant. 18,5, 1. 
seqq. Herod had, we find, signified this by letter to 
Tiberius, who, indignant at this audacity, (Joseph. 
L. c), gave orders to Vitellius, prefect of Syria, to 
declare war against Aretas, and take him alive, or 
send him his head. Vitellius made preparations 
for the war, but on receiving a message acquainting 
him with the death of Tiberius, he dismissed bis 
troops into winter quarters. And thus Aretas was 
delivered from the danger. At the time, however, 
that Vitellius drew on his forces, Aretas invaded 
Syria, seised Damascus, and continued to occupy it, 
in spite of Tiberius's stupid successor Caligula. This 
is tne opinion of most Commentators, and among 
others. Wolf, Michaelis, and Eichhorn. But I have 
already shewn in the Proleg. § de chronologia lib. 
2, 3. that Aretas did not finally subdue Damascus 
until Vitellius had already departed from the pnh* 
vince. (Kuin.) 



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ACTS or THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. H^ 

** watchea the gates day and night to kill him.*" 
But Paul in 2 Cor. says that the soldiers of the 
Ethnarch of King Aretas occupied the gates that he 
should not escape. This diversity Commentators 
have, by various means, endeavoured to reconcile. 
The most probable opinion, and that adopted by the 
generality of Commentators, is, that we are to un- 
derstand an Ethnarch appointed by Aretas over 
Damascus and the circumjacent regions. For ^dvag* 
;^9 denotes in general any one who is set over a 
nation, whether great or small, with the power of 
governing it ; and who is elsewhere called ^V/rgwroy. 
Now if in 2 Cor. there had been meant the Ethnarch 
of the Jews, Paul would have written h i^va^yiisrwv 
'louSaioiv, oy iKarifrry^tr^ 'Apcray o ^a(rlX€wy. In order 
to reconcile the diversity, one must suppose either 
that the Ethnarch had enjoined the Jews to watch 
the gates, or that, at their instigation, he had placed 
a guard there ; so that xapar^potiv may be taken im* 
personally, and thus the Jews be said to have done 
what they did by another^ or (which is more pro- 
bable), that the Jews, by the authority of the Eth- 
narch, watched the gates in conjunction with the 
soldiers. The words fywoVflTj 8^ — wir£v are paren- 
thetical. (Kuin.) 'EtrilBouXi). This always signifies 
a plot, or secret counsel, and is frequent m the best 
writers. 

25. ifad^Kay Sia to5 t€i;^ow^, i. e. through an aper- 
turc of the wall, or the window of a house adjacent 
to it. In 2 Cor. 11, S3, we have S$ot Ow^iJdy. See 
Jos. 2, 15. and consult Harmer in loc. Wetstein 
compares Sallust Frag, e muris carnes sportis demit- 
tebant, and refers to 1 Sam. 19, 12. I add Procop. 
155, 35. ol /A€V o5i/ aMv 0poyoi^ rur)y av^xj^tyr^^ vu/cro)^, 
Awl TdS 9repi)3oXot> k^Kaif. Fatep. de Incred. Hist. 9. 
Ka^)9 ioityrlv hd, ftwpiW. Athen. 214 A. hiirfSv r^lxoiv 
ouirtA^ KaBiiAvi(rovTa9 k. t. X. Arist. Vesp. 354. jX€juu- 
rr^trai — U\s traurh Kark to5 r€/;^ot>y. & 379* aXX* 



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32& ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP, IX* 

o-aurov k. t. X. Pricaeus cites Amm. Marcellin. Ad 
pinnas muri fune sublatus. Schol. on Aristoph. Av. 

Saul, thus delivered from the snares of the Jews, 
did not go immediately to Jerusalem, but repaired 
to Arabia. See the note on ver. 19. Gal. 1, !?• 
seqq. Kuinoel is of opinion that Luke either knew 
not of the journey, or had forgotten it. But it seems 
most reasonable to conclude that he omitted the 
mention of it from some motive which it were vain 
for us to attempt to conjecture. The most probable 
opinion is that of Haselaar, that I.uke only meant to 
narrate such parts of St. Paul's history as especially 
illustrated the providential care of God, and the 
mode in which he was brought to apply himself to 
tlie conversion of the Gentiles. It is remarked by 
Chrysostom 728, 17- EJic^of lya avinroirrwri ro ^pay" 
jxo, ri ot/y ; roioSroy ic/ySuyoy Sia^t/ycuy, dpa krrarai ; 
WSajiuSf ' aXX* aW^pf €rai €v^a fuci^wci^ ay aurowy e^a^/of, 
where Saville conjectures ^etJyei. But this is very 
wide of the mark, and is both tautological and in- 
elegant. The learned Editor might have emended 
the passage by the insertion of one letter only^namely, 
by altering apa Itrrarat to ap a^itrrarai. The verb 
a(pi<rrami is used in that sense by the best writers, 
both Scriptural and Classical : but Chrysostom seems 
to have had in view the passage of Luke 8, 13. icai ^ 

20. Tapay€v6iJL€vo9 Se o SauXof eh 'Ic^owtf-oXijjx, when 
Saulwas come to Jerusalem. Not immediately after 
his conversion, through fear of the Sanhedrim, but 
when he thought the report of his conversion might 
have died away. KoXXourdai, to unite himself to, at- 
tach himself to the society of. Grotius, Rosenmuller, 
and Kuinoel, take it for (royp^gocrdai ; as in Job. 4, 9. 
See the note on 5, IS. Some MSS. have ey for eJp : 
but that seems to have arisen from a misunder- 
standing of 7rapayfyofi€yof . 

^. Bapva3a^86,^TiXajS<)jui€yoffatJroy, &c. Saul went 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. ^ 347 

to Bafnabas (of whom we read in the context, and ta 
whom, as the Commentators say, Saul was before 
known), that he might be introduced by him to the 
Disciples. *E3riXa0ojx€VOff, taking him by the hartd: 
on which signification see Hemsterhus on Lucian 1, 
SIS. It seems to be here used in a figurative sense, 
and not to be (as Kuin. thinks) a Hebrew redun- 
dancy. 

27. nfos T0V9 a«-o(rToXouff, to the Apostles : namely, 
Peter and John. For Paul (Gal. 1, 18 & 19.), tells 
us that he only saw these : from which it may be 
inferred that the rest were not at Jerusalem. A113- 
yritraro airois'. These words are by some referred to 
Saul, but more rightly, by the Greek Commentators, 
as also Capellus, Lightfoot, and others, to Barnabas. 
For that is required by correctness of language, and 
the relation would come with greater propriety 
from Barnabas. Besides, at introducing him. Bar* 
nabas would be likely to say something of him. 

Wetstein paraphrases thus : " U the Lord hath 
vouchsafed to speak to him, is it for us to shun him i 
If the Damascenes received him, why should not we 
toor 

28 — 30. Ka\ ^y [uer aitrwu €io"^o^ojui€voy Ka) eiCTop^u- 
jbta'os'. See the note on 1, 21., to which I add the 
following passages illustrative of the expression. 
Soph. Phil. 147. oTorav 8c (aoXt) Seivop oJinjy rwvS* €K 
li,€\aBp<up^ where 0811-*)$' eic /xeAadpeuv is rightly ex- 
plained by Wakefield, victor, qui ex his sedibus egre- 
ditur, incola, scil. harum aedium. Matt. 15, 1. oi 
airl 'I6po(ro7it;jxaiy TpaiKy^ar^t^ teal ^aqi<ra7ot. Eurip, 
Phaen. 534. (speaking of ambition) w-oXXouy 8' h oIkous 
icol xoXciff €u8aij|xoyaf ter^xflc ica^xfl* er oXedgcp ro»i« 
^pwiiiiftov. 

The period of Paul's residence was fifteen days. 
See Galat. 1, 18. 

28. TapjW}(riaJojX€voff, ** he had freely spoken and 
taught.*' 'ExaX€i, disputed with. See 11, 20. 

30. eTiyvoWy, scil. roGro. This ellipsis is not un- 
frequently found in the best writers ; as Thucydides 



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J^ ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. 

and jEschyl. A^am. 1588. hrtyp^ifyop. Kanjyayoi^, 
brought hinif viz. to the sea-coast. Spoken with a 
reference to the situation of Csesarea (icarA), on the 
sea-coast, in comparison to that of Damascus dvcoy in 
the interior. Or this Wets, adduces an example 
from Plutarch. Doddridge says he should have con- 
cluded this had been the celebrated city of that 
name on the Mediterranean Sea, so often mentioned 
afterwards, and fro!n whence Paul might so easily 
have passed by ship to Tarsus, had he not himself 
told us he went through the regions of S^ria and 
Cilicia (Gal. 1, 21.), which intimates (continues he) 
that he went hj/ land, and makes it probable that it 
was Ccesarea Philippic near the borders of Syria, 
which is here spoken of. There was no need, how- 
ever, to have resorted to this conjecture, since eiy, in 
the passage of Gal. 1, 21., to whicn Doddridge ad- 
verts, signifies not through^ but to. Paul now went 
to Caesarea, and took ship for Syria, visited Laodicea 
and Antioch, and passed from thence to Tarsus by 
land, through upper Syria, and what was called 
Cilicia Campestris to Tarsus. We may observe, that 
they sent him to Tarsus both for safety's sake, and 
to give him an opportunity of propagating the Gos- 
pel most effectually among the Hellenists of that 
great city. 

31. The reading of this passage is approved by 
Mill, Bengel, and Griesbach, and probably the true 
one is, i} [ihf €Ki^rifria — €7;^€v eJg^i^, oiicoSoftoujut^ ical 
vap€miUvj\ — ArXijflwero. Now since various regions 
of Palestine are mentioned, the scribes changed the 
singular (which is put for the plural) into the plural. 
(Kuin.) 

31. OIico8o|xoujX€i'ai KoHi 7rop€i>oft€vai k. t. X. There 
is here, as in many passages of the New Testament, 
an architectural metaphor, which is well illustrated 
by Dr. Hammond ; though as to the exact bearing 
which it has on the present point. Commentators are 
not agreed. Most of the earlier interpreters explain 
it of spiritual edification ; and indeed it is frequently 



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ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. 3S9 

80 used in tiie New Testament ; as in 1 Cor. 8, 10, 
23. 14, 4. 1 Thess. 5, 11. The later ones, and, 
among others, Doddridge, take it to denote increase 
in number, as a house which, while it is building, 
increases in size. Either interpretation may be de« 
fended: but the former seems preferable. 

Ilop€v€<rQai, like the Heb. 1711, signifies to live. 
The metaphor, therefore, seems to refer to habitual 
action. So Luke 1, 6. *£y must be understood 
before ^3^9 like the Heb. 1 Examples of this in 
the Old Testament are frequent ; as in 2 Sam. 15, 
11, Ps. 81, 14. 79, 31. Prov. 28, 26. So also the 
Targum on Gen. 5, 22. (cited by Wets.) ** Enoch 
walked in the fear of God;'* & 6, 9- 

82. From this verse up to 11, 18. St. Luke treats 
of the journies v^ich Peter (who had hitherto taught 
the Christian doctrines at Jerusalem, and for a short 
time at Samaria, 8, 14.) undertook, in order to visit 
the congregations founded in Palestine, and, by 

E reaching the doctrine of Christ, increase the num- 
er of his followers. 
At Siob Totvraiv subaud ymprnv or roTrcov, by a very 
common ellipsis. It seems to be an adverbial phrase 
equivalent to every where. On Lydda (situated 
near the Mediterranean) and called by Joseph. Ant. 
20, 6, 2. a town not much inferior in size to a city. 
See Reland*s Palestine, 878., Lightfoot, in his Cho- 
rogr. C. l6,. Wets, in loc, and Home's Introduction. 
Kor^xdov is used, with reference to the situation, as 
Karayciv a little before. The opposite ov^gp^eerflai is 
always employed of those going to Jerusalem. 

S3. Aiv/aff. From the name (which is Greek) it is 
probable that he was an Hellenist ; and that he was 
a Christian may (as Kuinoel thinks) be inferred 
from the turn of the whole passage. To me, how- 
ever, this seems to amount to no more than a high 
degree of probability. *E§ eroJy wcrco Karaic6ifx€voy hri 
Kp^^Ario, 0. 13. TT. By this we are not (I think) to 
suppose that he had been literally ten years laid on 
a bed, but had been for that time, as we say, bed- 



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330 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. 

ridden. On Kpa^^rw see the note on Mark 2| 4* 
and Joh. 5, 8. IlapaXfXu/tA^yoff is for TrapaXuriKoV. 

34. iaral o-c lijeroSy ic. r. X. Jesus is pleased to 
heal thee. Xr^Acov c^aurS. On tiiis passage most 
Commentators trifle egregiously. Xrpwcw must de- 
note what we call making a bed (which, by the way, 
is not a mere Hebraism, since in Herodot. 7» 17* and 
in Vit. Hom. vre have koItop Tot^ttrQai). It is there- 
fore a stronger expression than take up thy bed, 
which Beza thinks is meant here. The truth is, 
that the expression take up thy bed had reference to 
those portable couches on which cripples were laid, 
in order to excite charity, and which were made 
portable for convenience of frequent removal. But 
the present expression crpwaou has reference to a 
bed properly so called^ namely, of % large size, and 
suitable to persons of respectable situation in life : 
for (as Chrysostom tells us) jEneas was amo6XfV)}|tiu>9. 
The words are well paraphrased by Dr. Doddridge 
(from Grotius) : " iEneas, Jesus, the true Mes- 
siah, in whose name I preach and act, not at this 
instant healeth thee, and operates, while I speak, to 
strengthen and restore thy weakened frame. With 
a dependance, therefore, upon his Almighty agency, 
arise and make thy bed. And upon this the palsy 
left him, and the disabled man was, all at once, so 
strengthened, that he arose immediately and did it.** 

Dr. Doddridge (after Clarius, and he from Chry- 
Bostom) points out the difference there is between 
the manner in which this miracle was wrought by 
Peter, and that in which Christ performed hi^ works 
of Divine power and goodness. ** The different 
characters of the ^ert?aw* and the Son, the creature 
and the Crod^ are every where apparent." 

35. K€ii €lSov aur^y — hr\ r\v Kupioy. Some modem 
Commentators, as Heinrichs and Kuinoel, take ex^o-- 
Tpe^ in the sense of a pluperfect, had turned ; and 
refer to Glass. Phil. S. 299- And I do not deny 
that man^ instances occur of aorisls in a pluperfect 
signification ; but here it would lead to a peculiarly 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. 331 

awkward sense ; as if no other had seen the healed 
person but the Christian converts. But surely all the 
inhabitants must have seen it ; and this is what St. 
Luke means to assert j and not only that, but to nar- 
rate the effect which this most stupendous miracle 
had on those dwelling in that part of the country. 
I would therefore retain the common interpretation, 
which gives the best sense, and is not liable to any 
serious objection. Kai may be understood before 
cWerTijcrav, and oTrn/ef may be taken for the relative : 
than which nothing is more frequent. As to the 
nouifr^Sy we need only understand the greater part ; 
and certainly all saw, or might have seen : which is 
an idiom very often found in the antient and modern 
languages. Kuinoel indeed objects that if Luke had 
meant this, he would have expressed himself other- 
wise. But this is begging the question, and is a 
mere matter of opinion. The learned Commentator 
might have more truly said, that a Classical author 
would perhaps have expressed himself otherwise : 
though I have occasionally met with some examples 
of this subaudition of ical after a relative pronoun, 
in the best Attic writers, as Thucydides. In such 
a case, however, it may be most advisable to resolve 
the relative into its component parts, namely, the 
copula and a pronopn personal. That, in fact, is 
the force of the relative pronoun ; though it may not 
be easy toprove this from the form which they now 
assume. Thus the Latin qui may come from que and 
tile J ille being melted down into i (whence our he)y 
and quis comes from qui and is. And so the Italian 
quello. 

Sb. 'lewnrv). See the writers on Sacred Geography, 
Reland, ancl Wets., including Hornets Introduction. 
Mad^pia, an Hellenistic or vulgar Greek word for 
the Attic ftaOijr^if . It is used, and in the same sense 
as here, by Diog. Laert. 4, 2. ^Xeyovro Sc aJroS Koi o! 
nxaraii^09 oKot^iv fxoflijTjiar and Pyth. 8, 42. jxafl^- 
rpiav le IltjdoLyopou. On the name Dorcas I must re- 
fer my readers to the Commentators and Schl. Lexi- 



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932 ACTS or THE APOSLTE8, CHAP. IX. 

con ; who, however, come to no certainty. Indeed, 
there is not more egregious or unprofitable trifling, 
than that which is employed upon etymologizing pro- 
per names, antient or modern. 

36. w'K^p7^9 ayadduv €py£vj &c. is a popular expres- 
sion for " she was highly studious of.** Kuinoel ob- 
serves that the term Ipya ayaOo^ in the New Testa- 
ment, sometimes signifies genera% actions a^eeable 
to the precepts of the Christian Religion ; as m Rom. 
S, 7. 13, 3. and sometimes specialty liberality and 
beneficence exercised towards the poor ; as here, and 
in 2 Cor. 9, 8. 1 Tim. 5, 10. and elsewhere. 

37, 38. XotJa-avrfff Se aJngv ^icav ev wc€ptiio. Kui- 
noel observes, that washing the dead was customary 
both among the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans; 
and he refers to Geier de Luctu, Hebr. c. 5, 9* and 
Doughty 's Anal. p. 2, 77. Some Commentators 
stumble at the sense which seems inculcated by Xou- 
o-ovrfy, as if men had washed the body of Dorcas ; 
which Bp. Pearce thinks not probable. And yet we 
read in Herodotus of men being professionally so 
employed ; which, indeed, weakens the objection on 
the score of indelicacy. But Bp. Pearce, Markland, 
and Owen, are of opinion that it may be taken for 
Xou<rao-ai, avS^owroi being understood, which, as it is a 
general term, may include females. To me, howe- 
ver, this appears a far-fetched device. It is better to 
regard XotJ^arrer — ^kolv as a popular mode of ex- 
pression for " she was washed and laid outy' " they 
washed and laid her outy' i. e. they whose business it 
was, namely, the women. In such cases the mascu- 
line is used in a general sense for either sex, as being 
(if we may believe the Grammarians) the worthier. 
Now we learn, both from the Scriptures and the 
Classical writers, that women were employed upon 
such sad offices even towards men. So Ennius (cited 
by Wets.), Tarquinii corpus bona femina lavit, et 
unxit. And Socrates (as we learn from Plato in 
Phaedon.) chose to take a bath just before he drank 
the fatal cup, thinking it better not to trouble the wo- 



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ACTS OF THB APOSTLES^ CHAP. IX. 333 

meriy j/t^ T^aypxra ra?p Tuvai^lv Tra^lj(€i9. Thus we 
cannot doubt that women performed the same offices 
one to another : and this is proved by a very pathe- 
tic passage of Apulejus 8. (cited by Pricaeus and 
Wetstein) : Famiiiares miserse Charites accuratissim^ 
corpus ablutum unita sepultura ibidem marito per- 
petuam conjugem reddidere. On &r€gcoov see the 
note on 1, 13. Such rooms were, no doubt, selected 
for their privacy. 

88. anitrru'KoLV — ems atircSv, ** sent unto him two 
men, desiring him that he would not delay to come 
to thcoi.*' Not merely to condole with them (as 
some Commentators think) : for that is inconsistent 
with oicy^(rai, which hints that he should come without 
delay. So Joseph. Ant. 2, 7- 'rcSv 8' o/cyouvra>y aXX* 
U\kiifwv ft€Ta enrouS^r to which may be added the fol- 
lowing passages cited by Wetstein : Thomas. a^roicvcS 
Soicifxcorfpov ^ oKvco. Galen. Anat. 4. f/ii^d' oSo5 jx^ico^ o^- 
itfyras fti^re 9rXo5y. Etymol. ok^£ rl padujtuo, oioyc) oJ 
Kii/eS. Num. 22, 16. Plato ssepiss. okihU. Diog. Laert. 
Periand. 1, 99. H »'f»'«« 'fai «'ap ^f^ (^oirfiv. So the 
Hebr. 7Sy in Judg. 18, 2. where the Sept. render j/wj 
•woJenjTe tow xopeud^vai. (Kuin.) This, indeed, seems 
to be the primitive sense of oici^civ, namely, to delay j 
he slow : and oicyo9, ^/o^A, which I am surprised the 
etymologists should not have seen conges from i^!^, 
to holdy stop, detain ; whence o;^ and op^Oo^, a bankf 
also, o;f-Xo$', oy-fta, ^pf-ft^, ^X"/*^^? o;f-upoy. Thus our 
foa/A comes from the old word lag-an, lageth. Valck- 
naer here remarks that iiofo^ properly denotes sitting 
on the ground, complicatis manious et pedibus. This, 
however, does not make against the above deriva- 
tion. 

39. vapia-rr^troaf aini. It is well known that the 
women of antient times, even those of the higher 
ranks, used to manufacture garments for the use of the 
family. There are often allusions to this, both in 
Homer and Virgil, from the latter of whom Pricaeus 
cites, ** Vestes ostroque auroque rigente ; Extulit 
^neas, quas illi Ista laborum ipsa suis manibus 



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S34f ACTS or THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. 

quondam &iofiia DUo Fecerat: where Servios re^ 
marks, " Suis manibus, ut Heroides solebant/' Kui- 
noel refers to Sueton. Vit. Aug. C.JS. and Frensheim 
on Curt. 5, 2, 19. seq. 

These words are generally understood as if the 
widows exhibited to Peter stocks of clothes pro- 
vided for the poor. Some recent Commentators, 
however, as Kuinoel, (and formerly Cyprian,) sup- 
pose that they shewed Peter their own garments 
such as they had then on, and which had been 
made and given them by Tabitha. This, indeed, 
seems the preferable mode of taking the words, and 
is more agreeable to what we should expect ; though 
the common interpretation is more easily elicited 
from the words as they now stand, and in a Classical 
author no other could be thought of. 

The expression jx€t aJrcSy o3(ra has great simplicity 
and pathos, and is not unfrequently found in the 
Classical writers, from whom several examples are 
produced by Wetstein. 

40, 41. €K^7iioif §€ €§ai TFavras. On this mild sense 
of e^XX€ii^ see the note on Matt. 9, 25. Peter 
seems to have imitated his blessed Master on this 
occasion, nor were his actions (on which see the 
Commentators) dissimilar. See 2 Kings 4, 33. There is 
great delicacy in the words ISotxra rh Il^rpoy avieicafifo-e. 

41. xotp€<rr>3<rfv ainQv §ci(ravy •^and he exhibited 
her (to tnem) alive." There is great elegance in 
this use of wap/ernjp, of which an example is given 
by Wetstein from Sext. Emp. 254. ot€ *A8fw/Tip o 

The Sceptical Theologians of Germany, as usual, 
deny that there was any miracle. Their specula-r 
tions are, however, so ludicrously absurd as to de- 
serve no notice. 

43. l3uf<r€r. Doddridge well observes (from Chry- 
sostom) that the purpose for which St. Luke men- 
tions Simon's business is, that it might appear the 
Apostle was not elevated, by the dignity of the late 
miracle, above mean persons and things. And so 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLfiS, CHAP. IX. X. 335 

Schoettgen, who observes that this circumstance is 
not mentioned in vain, since though this was a trade 
stigmatized by the Jews, yet Peter did not hesitate 
to tarry with him, nor did this injure him in tfa« 
opinion of the others. 

CHAP. X. 

Hitherto the Apostles had received into the Christ 
tian society none but Jews and circumcised prose- 
lytes (see 11, 9. 13, 43.), since for them alone they 
thought the benefits of the Messiah were destined ; 
and that the Oentiles, if they would participate 
therein, must first become Israelites, by circumci* 
sion. See Acts 16, 3. 5, 1 & 4. Divine rrovidence, 
however, ordered that they should communicate the 
doctrine of Christ to the Gentiles also, and bind 
them, too, by the solemn rite of baptism to the pro* 
fession of the Christian religion. (See Matt. 28, 19.) 
This important office was undertaken by Peter, who 
(as it is related in this chapter) brought over Corne- 
lius to the Christian Religion. It is the opinion of 
most Commentators that this Cornelius was not a 
mere Gentile, but a proselyte of the gate, i. e. one 
who, having abandoned idolatry, had embraced the 
Jewish religion ; so, however, that he had not re- 
ceived circumcision, and therefore could not be 
numbered among the Jews. So Deyling, Obs. «, 
357., Fecht Diss, de Pietate Cornelii, Hammond, 
Wolf, Benson, Moschius, Emesti, Ziegler, and others. 
Their arguments are as follows : 1. Cornelius is said 
to be ^o3oufta^f rlv 0€^. Now this is a name given 
to proselytes of the gate (see 13, 16. 26, 43.) For 
proselytes of justice, i. e. Gentiles who had embraced 
the Jewish faith, and undergone circumcision, were 
considered as having become part of the Jewish 
people, and were called Jews. 2. Cornelius offered 
up his prayers at the hours usual among the Jews 
(see 3, 30.), and that he had read the Old Testa- 
ment, is plain from the circumstance that Peter, in 



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336 ACTS OF THE AP08TLBS» CHAP. X. 

demonstrating Jesus to be the Messiah, appeals Co 
the prophecies. He had too conferred many bene- 
fits on the people (ver. !^.), not the Gentiles only, 
but also the Jews. 3. Although the Jews did not 
refuse to mix with the proselytes of the gate (as we 
learn from Joseph* Bell. 6, 3, 3.), yet the more rigid 
ones despised them, since they had not undergone 
circumcision, nor used to observe the precepts of 
the Mosaic Law concerning clean and unclean 
meats. 

But these reasons seem not very convincing. For, 
in the first place, the words ^o0oufit€yo£, or crc^oftcyo^ 
rey 0€oy, or cuXaj^eif, are also used of any persons 
studious of piety, and filled with reverence towards 
God. See Acts 18, 11. 19, 27- 2«i 12. Luke 1,50. 
£, 25. 2 Pet. 2, 9. Apoc. 11, 18. 2dly. Cornelius is 
called by Peter i^^ji^pxyK^^ with whom it was not 
lawful for Jews to associate. See 10, 28, But there 
was nothing in the whole Law which forbade the 
holding society with prosehtes of the gate. Nay 
the Law of Moses permitted to ^reigners a perpe* 
tual abode among Jews, on condition that they 
should renounce idolatry, and abstain from whatever 
had a reference thereto ; as meats offered up to idols, 
food formed from blood. (See Lev. 17, 10, 11, 13.) 
The Law had morever enjoined the Israelites to 
treat such proselytes as fellow-countrymen, and love 
them as themselves. (I^v. 19, 33 & 34.) See Mi- 
chaelis on the Law of Moses, and Nitch de sensu 
Decret. Apost. Actt, 15, 29. Hence also to such 
was permitted free access to the Synagogues (see 
Acts 14, 1.) and familiar intercourse with Jews. 
(See Luke 7. 3. and the note on Matt. 8, 5.) Be^ 
sides, had Cornelius been a proselyte of the gate, 
the news of his conversion would not have occa- 
sioned such astonishment to the Apostles and others 
(U, l.seqq.) Sdly. Cornelius is, in 11, 1. expressly 
numbered with Gentiles. (See also 10, 34 & 35.) 
Now what is predicated of Cornelius is transferred 
to the Gentiles; and in the Council of Jerusalem 



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ACTS OF TIfB APOSTLES, CHAK X» 88? 

Peter claims to himself the glory of first preaching 
the Gospd to the Gentiles. (See 15, 70 On all 
which accounts it seems far more probable that Cor-f 
nelius was a Gentile. (Kuin,) 

K Xveipa signifies a cohort. See the note on Matt* 
S7> 27. %v€ifnq^ IroXiic^ff. So called by way of dis« 
tinction, as being formed chiefly of Italians ; since 
most of the cohorts and other forces of the Romans 
then stationed in Syria and Judea seem to have been 
raised from Provincials. Thus Joseph. Ant. 13, S7* 
relates that most of the recruits were derived from 
Syria. See also Bell. 1, 13. In Gruter's Inscrip-* 
tions, p. 431, mention is made of a cohors nUlitum 
itdlicorumvob$ntaria quce est in Skfria. (Kuin.) Wets* 
cites similar passages from the Greek and Latin his* 
torians, who make mention of Italian cohorts, or 
legions; as Tacit. Hist. 1, 59 Sl 64. 2, 41. 3, 14i 
Arrian, Tactic, p. 73- Tcpf^rera^Swv ie aitrSv 01 r^f 
fnreipii9 TroXuc^^ ire^ol* irMfrcav oe TjycKrfloi IlovXycp, 
9<rrfy K«i t^p tnreipr^s rrj^ 'IrttXii^ff %/^^« Joseph. Ant. 
19, 9. 2, Bell. 3, .4, 2. D. Ciss- L. 55. p. 384. It 
seems to be admitted by all recent Commentators 
and Critics, that we are not to understand (as was 
done by the older Commentators) the Italian Legion t 
an error which (as Valcknaer observes) arose from 
Tacitus and other writers mentioning an Italian 
Legion, but few or none the Italian Co/wrt. Arrian, 
above cited, is one of the few who mention an Ita* 
Han cohort. Dr. Doddridge, however, thinks that 
Mr. Biscoe (ap. Boyle's Lect.) has proved that the 
Italian Legion did not at that time exist, that this 
cohort M^as difierent from thp legtOnary ones^.and 
(as Doddridge conjectures) was the l^e-guard of 
the Roman Governor. As to whether Cornelius 
was a. Gentile, or a Jewish proselyte, most recent 
Commentators maintain that he was a pious Gentile. 
And so Valcknaer, who remarks that those among 
the Jews who, though of Gentile origin and un- 
circumcised, yet worshipped the true God of the 
Israelites, like Cornelius, are by St. Luke called 

VOL. IV. z 



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338 ACTS or the apostles, chap. x. 

Kar ^§o;^v, ^ojBowjXfyoi tov Qeiv ; and thus in Acts ISi 
16. the Israeh'tes ku) (^ojSoujxcvoi rov B^ov are dis- 
tinguished. 

Here Wetstein observes that he is called M-e&Si?* 
because he acknowledged one God ; ^o(3ouft€iro9 rov 
Bcov, because he regulated his life by the rule of the 
Law of Nature. 

That Cornelius was a O entile is also decidedly 
the opinion of Dr. Doddridge, who maintains that 
the name proselyte was never by any antient or cor- 
rect writers (such as St. Luke) applied to an uncir- 
cumcised person ; and indeed he positively asserts 
(and meant, in a separate treatise, to prove) that 
there is no sufficient authority for the distinction 
generally admitted by learned men between prose- 
lytes of fighteousness, who by circumcision became 
debtors to the whole law, and proselytes of the gatef 
who, worshipping the true God, renouncing idolatry, 
and submitting themselves to the observation of the 
seven (supposed) precepts of Noah, were allowed, 
though uncircumcised, to live among the Jews, and 
converse familiarly with them. 

It is well observed by Chrysostom, that the Trea- 
surer of Queen Candace and the Centurion of the 
Italian band are not mentioned, because they were 
persons of rank and authority, but because their 
rank and official duties did not hinder them ffom 
discharging the duties of piety. He observes, too, 
that Cornelius, though not a Jew, nor a Christian, 
yet lived the life of a good Christian. Therefore 
(adds (Ecumenius) rdSrov I&ov o i^^ Mj&ela^ o$9aX/x^r, 
in KaxSt (A^y Tfll ^P7^9 V€Kpk Se, eri iri<rri¥ wk ?;fovra, 

adXoSvra trre^oLifdiirai rfi TriVrei, where for cwijficw I 
conjecture eiiuv^lw. See Matt. 6, «. By the Xooy 
is meant the people in general, both Gentiles and 
Jews. 

3. elSev h op^jxari, saw in a vision. Eichhorn and 
others contend that this vision was presented in a 
dream. And this opinion is embraced by Rosen- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. X. SS9 

muller arid Heinrichs, the latter of whom maintains 
that it signifies no more than a mind joyful under 
the detenniiatton of embracing the Christian Reli- 
gion, and sending for Peter. And to this opinion 
Kuinoel strongly inclines. It is unnecessary tor me 
to point out the absurdity of this hypothesis, which 
scarcely merited the ftill refutation it has received 
from Storr. Opusc. 3, 181. There is nothing in the 
words that leads one to imagine a dream. The hour 
at which this happened was one of the hours of 
prayer, and that the most solemn of all. Cornelius 
was, doubtless, engaged in prayer when the angelic 
vision was presented to his view. It is well observed 
by Lightfoot, that ^avepw^ is added, in order to show 
that Cornelius was awahcy and saw this with his 
corporeal eyes. On this subject the student .may 
also, with advantage, consult Pricsus. 

4» arevla-as. See the note on Luke 22, 56. T» 
€(rri K6pi€ ; I am surprised that Dr. Doddridge should 
have recognized no more in these words than a sud- 
den exclamatioa and prayer to God to preserve him, 
such as " good God.'' This, surely, is as objection- 
able as the Socinian interpretation of Thomases 
words, ** My Lord, and my God.** It is moreover 
destitute of any authority/. The true one is that 
adopted by Beza, ** quid me vis.** In fact, it is a 
popular form of respectful answer to the. call of a 
superior, though sometimes to that of an inferior^ 
varying according to the tone bf voice with which it 
is pronounced. Kuinoel £^tly cites Esth. 5, 1. n 
€<rTiy Etr^p ; So also Esth. 5, 6 & 7. 7, 2. ti itrnu 
^Etr^p 3otWxio'(ra ; Koi ti ri atrrjfMi (r«t>; there is 
therefore ap ellipsis of some such word as aJfi^fia or 
3ouXi)(rif. It may be Englished thus : *' what is your 
will, or business with me.'* 

4. ai wpfiO'^o^^ai trou — eyaiiriov tou OeoS. The words 
€fr iMn^fMovvov must be pointed off from the rest of 
the sentence. Another example of the phrase awt- 
^aSfeiv iwviw to3 0€o5 occurs in Apoc. 8, 4. av^&j — 
i^iiwm ro5 0€oG. Some Commentators think there is 

z 2 



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540 ACTS or THB APorrLEs, chap, x: 

reference to the Jewish bpihion, that men's prayers 
are carried up by angels ta God in Heaven. Se^ 
Apoc. 8, 4. fob. 12, 12. But there is here no oc- 
easion to entangle ourselves with Jewish opinions. 
If such a notion were really entertained, it must have 
been by the vulgar, and have arisen from inter- 
preting figurative language in a literal sense. Most 
assuredly the words of the present passage have 
the same meaning as those further on in ver. 31. 

Kuinoel, too, adduces examples of this use of ovajSou- 
Kiv from 1 Mace. 1, 31. ij ifpauyij r^y TC^K^ws av€|3ij w 
rhv ^paiAPf i. e. to God in heaven. £xod. 2, 23. Ka\ 
icarecrrci^a^av oi ulo) *I(rgai)x axh rwv 'IcrpouoX axi t£u 

9€M^* The fti^ftao-uvoy (continues Kuinoel) is equi- 
yalent to |xv9}|ui€ibi^ and the Latin monumentum. So 
the Heb. p^3t denotes monumenlum in Ex. 12^ 14. 
28, 12. 30, 16. and Josh. 4, 7. Now since monu^ 
menu are set up for preserving and recording the 
memory of any person or thing, hence the Heb. 
pT3t in Exod. 17, 14. (where the SepU render €h 
IMfTiiMtrwov.) Neh. 2, 10., and Mai. 3, 16., also sig- 
nified remembrance; and the Jewish writers so used 
p^fMHTuvw. See Sir. 45, 1. 10, 18. 35, 6. 1 Mace. 
3, 7., and 2 Mace. 6,31. 

5. Koi vSv, ** now then.*' An hortatory formula, 
examples of which* are produced by Eisner from 
Xenophon and i^cKines. MerexTr^/uixl/ai, send Jon 
In this sense the word is used in the best Classical 
writers, especially Thucydides, and almost always in 
the middle voice, whose force we may here plainly 
discern. For is ^ncaXcirai Tlerpos many MSS. have 
ro¥ erwcaXoJft€iw IHerpop^ which reading is preferred 
by Matthias and Griesbach. To me it appears to be 
derived from the margin: and the less elegant 
jreading seems here (as generally in the New Testa- 
fvient) the truer one. 

" 6. §fw^€Tai ^opkrivi XifLcon ^ptr^i ** is a guest," &c. 
fi^yi^ai is by Hesychius explained §ew>8o;f€ira*. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. X. 341 

5ee the valuable philological illustrations of this 
word brought forward by Valcknaer. S/pww ^^fxrejy 
J^imon a tanner i who is supposed, from ver. 28., 
to have been one of the Christians. By fioptr^s^ is 
not meant a currier (as some explain it), but a tanner , 
one who soflens, and otherwise prepares ^pa-al 
(hides) for various uses ; regarded by the ancients as 
a very mean occupation. See Schoettg. Hor. Hebr., 
Wets, in ioc, and Walch's Diss, de Simone coriario. 
6. xap^ OaX^^reroy. Amongst the ancients, tan- 
ners used to have their houses and workshops apart 
from towns (on account of the fetid odour arising 
from the dead animals), and near rivers, for conveni- 
ence of water necessary to the preparation of the 
skins. So Artemid. 1 , 53. veK^cSv aTverou cwiiarcov o 
^^(ro^€^9, Ka\ T^y 7r^X6a>$' axtpKurrai. Surenhus. 
Misch. T. 4, p. 64. Cadavera et sepulcra separant 
et coriarium l. cubitos a civitate. Nor is it (as 
Walch observes) certain, because St. Luke says that 
Simon's house was at Joppa, that it was situated in 
the city itself, since suburbs, especially within so 
short a distance as fifty cubits, are reckoned as form- 
ing part of a city. (Kuin.) 

6. oSroy XaXiJo-fi eroi ri <r€ hei irtnetv. These words 
are wanting in some very good MSS. and Versions, 
and in others we have another simitar sentence. So 
difficult, indeed, is it to account for their omission^ 
and so easy for their insertion, that I assent to Wets., 
Griesbach, Matthia?, and others, that they are de- 
rived from the margin, where they were noted from 
9,6. 10,32. 22, 10. 11, 14. 

7. m 8^ dtTT^xdcv ayy€Xoy. Heinrichs and Kui" 
noel, most unwarrantably, take these words to be 
equivalent to " finita ecstasi.*' AJo twp o]k€t£v auroS, 
Kol trrpancirr^y ejtrefiri. *Ex}<r€^9 must here be taken 
in the same sense as just before, where it was ap- 
plied to Cornelius, namely, a virtuous person, a wor- 

* The Attics used, not fivpcrevs, skinner, but (ivpcroii\pffs, 1. c. a 
skin softener, ooriarius, leather maker, tanner (which word comes 
from tain, cognate with the French teindre, to stQin), 



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334 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. 

quondam Sidonia Dido Fecent : where Servius re^ 
marks, *^ Suis manibus, ut Heroides solebant/' Kui* 
noel refers to Sueton. Vit. Aug. c. 73. and Frensheim 
on Curt. 5, 2, 19- seq. 

These words are generally understood as if the 
widows exhibited to Peter stocks of clothes pro- 
vided for the poor. Some recent Commentators, 
however, as Kuinoei, (and formerly Cyprian,) sup- 
pose that they shewed Peter their own garments 
such as they had then on, and which had been 
made and given them by Tabitha. This, indeed, 
seems the preferable mode of taking the words, and 
is more agreeable to what we shoula expect ; though 
the common interpretation is more easily elicited 
from the words as they now stand, and in a Classical 
author no other could be thought of. 

The expression (ler atrnSv oica has great simplicity 
and pathos, and is not unfrequently found in the 
Classical writers, from whom several examples are 
produced by Wetstein. 

40, 41. €icj3aXcov $€ i^w irdrra^. On this mild sense 
of €/iq|3aXX€iv see the note on Matt. 9i 25. Peter 
seems to have imitated his blessed Master on this 
occasion, nor were his actions (on which see the 
Commentators) dissimilar. See 2 Kings 4, 33. There is 
great delicacy in the words tBowra riv Tlirpop avVaflio-c. 

41. iraoi(rT7^(r€v aungv ^ai<ravy **and he exhibited 
her (to tnem) alive.'* There is great elegance in 
this use of irapia-rr^iKi^ of which an example is given 
by Wetstein from Sext. Emp. 254. ot€ 'ASftyJrip i 

The Sceptical Theologians of Germany, as usual, 
deny that there was any miracle. Their specula-^ 
tions are, however, so ludicrously absurd as to de- 
serve no notice. 

43. ^p(r€i. Doddridge well observes (from Chry- 
sostom) that the purpose for which St. Luke men- 
tions Simon's business is, that it might appear the 
Apostle was not elevated, by the dignity of the late 
miracle, above mean persons and things. And so 



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ACT9 OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. IX. X. 335 

Schoettgen, who observes that this circumstance is 
not mentioned in vain, since though this was a trade 
stigmatized by the Jews, yet Peter did not hesitate 
to tarry with him, nor did this injure him in the 
opinion of the others. 

CHAP. X. 

Hitherto the Apostles had received into the Chris* 
tian society none but Jews and circumcised prose- 
lytes (see 11, 9. 13, 43.), since for them alone they 
thought the benefits of the Messiah were destined ; 
and that the Gentiles^ if they would participate 
therein, must first become Israelites, by circumci* 
sion. See Acts 16, 3. 5, 1 & 4. Divine rrovidence, 
however, ordered that they should communicate the 
doctrine of Christ to the Gentiles also, and bind 
them, too, by the solemn rite of baptism to the pro* 
fession of the Christian religion. (See Matt. 28, 19.) 
This important office was undertaken by Peter, who 
(as it is related in this chapter) brought over Corne- 
lius to the Christian Religion. It is the opinion of 
most Commentators that this Cornelius was not a 
mere Gentile, but a proselyte of the gate^ i. e. one 
who, haying abandoned idolatry, had embraced the 
Jewish religion ; so, however, that he had not re- 
ceived circumcision, and therefore could not be 
numbered among the Jews. So Deyling, Obs. 2, 
357., Fecht Diss, de Pietate Cornelii, Hammond, 
Wolf, Benson, Moschius, Emesti, Ziegler, and others. 
Their arguments are as follows : 1. Cornelius is said 
to be ^o^ii€vo9 rlv 0€^. Now this is a name given 
to proselytes of the gate (see 13, 16. 26, 43.) For 
proselytes of justice, i. e. Gentiles who had embraced 
the Jewish faith, and undergone circumcision, were 
considered as having become part of the Jewish 
people, and were called Jews. k. Cornelius offered 
up his prayers at the hours usual among the Jews 
(see 3, 30.), and that he had read the Old Testa* 
ment, is plain from the circumstance that Peter, in 



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336 ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. X. 

demonstrating Jesus to be the Messiah, appeak to 
the prophecies. He had too conferred many bene- 
fits on the people (ver. i^.), not the Gentiles only, 
but also the Jews. 3. Although the Jews did not 
refuse to mix with the proselytes of the gate (as we 
learn from Joseph* Bell. 6, 3, 3.), yet the more rigid 
ones despised them, since they had not undergone 
circumcision, nor used to observe the precepts of 
the Mosaic Law concerning clean and unclean 
meats. 

But these reasons seem not very convincing. For, 
in the first place, the words ^o^•uft^yo^, or o-e/Softcyor 
riv 0€ov, or €uXoe0€ir, are also used of any persons 
studious of piety, and filled with reverence towards 
God. See Acts 18, 11. 19,27. 2«, 12. Luke 1, 50. 
2, 25. 2 Pet 2, 9. Apoc. 11, 18. 2dly. Cornelius is 
called by Peter i:KKi^\ji>A9% with whom it was not 
lawful for Jews to associate. See 10, 28. But there 
was nothing in the whole Law which forbade the 
holding society with proselytes of the gate. Nay 
the Law of Moses permitted to ^reigners a perpe- 
tual abode among Jews, on condition that they 
should renounce idolatry, and abstain from whatever 
had a reference thereto ; as meats offered up to idols, 
food formed from blood. (See Lev. 17» 10, 11, 13.) 
The Law had morever enjoined the Israelites to 
treat such proselytes as fellow-countrymen, and love 
them as themselves. (Lev. 19> 33 & 34.) See Mi- 
chaelis on the Law of Moses, and Nitch de sensu 
Decret. Apost. Actt, 15, 29* Hence also to such 
was permitted free access to the Synagogues (see 
Acts 14, 1.) and familiar intercourse with Jews. 
(See Luke 7, 3. and the note on Matt. 8, 5.) Be^ 
sides^ had Cornelius been a proselyte of the gate, 
the news of his conversion would not have occa^ 
sioned such astonishment to the Apostles and others 
(11, l.seqq.) Sdlv. Cornelius is, in 11, 1. expressly 
numbered with Gentiles. (See also 10, 34 & 35.) 
Now what is predicated of Cornelius is transferred 
to the Gentiles; and in the Council of Jerusalem 



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ACTS OP TBE APOSTLES^ CHAP. X, 88? 

Peter claims to himself the glory of first preaching 
the Gospel to the Gentiles. (See 15, 7.) On all 
which accounts it seems far more probable that Cor-» 
nelius was a Gentile. (Kuin,) 

1. XireipoL signifies a cohort. See the note on Matt* 
S7, 27. %T€tfnfi9 ^IrcLKmi?. So called by way of dis- 
tinction, as being formed chiefly of Italians ; since 
most of the cohorts and other forces of the Romans 
then stationed in Syria, and Judea seem to have been 
raised from Provincials. Thus Joseph. Ant. 13, 27. 
relates that most of the recruits were derived from 
Syria. See also Bell. 1, IS. In Gruter's Inscrip* 
tions, p. 431 , mention is made of a cohors militum 
itdlicorvm vob$ntaria quas est in Syria. (Kuin.) Wets, 
cites similar passages from the Greek and Latin his- 
torians, who make mention of Italian cohorts, or 
legions; as Tacit. Hist. 1, 59 & 64. 2, 41. 3, 14* 
Arrian, Tactic, p. 73. flrporerayfiiov Se aurifv oi r^t 

o<rrif Kol T^ff tnr^lfnt^s t^9 *IraXin^ff %/t^* Joseph. An t* 
19, 9> 2, Bell. 3,4, 2. D. C^ss. J^ 55. p. 384* It 
seems to be admitted by all recent Commentators 
and Critics^ that we are not to understand (as was 
done by the older Commentators) the Italian Legion t 
an error which (as Valcknaer observes) arose from 
Tacitus and other writers mentioning an Italian 
Legion^ but few or none the Italian Co/iort. Arrian, 
above cited, is one of the few who mention an Ita* 
Han cohort. Dr. Doddridge, however, thinks that 
Mr. Biscoe (ap. Boyle's Lect.) has proved that the 
Italian Legion did not at that time exist, that this 
cohort was different from th^ legi6nary ones,, and 
(as Doddridge conjectures) was the life-giutrd of 
the Roman Governor. As to whether Cornelius 
was a Gentile, or a Jewish proselyte, most recent 
Commentators maintain that he was a pious Gentile. 
And so Valcknaer, who remarks that those among 
the Jews who, though of Gentile origin and un- 
circumcised, yet worshipped the true God of the 
Israelites, like Cornelius, are by St. Luke called 

VOL. IV. z 



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338 ACTS or THe APOSTLfiS, CHAP. X. 

Kar i^^x^Vy (pojSoJjxfvoi rov 0€oy ; and thus in Acts 13^ 
16. the Israelites Koi ^ojSovjxcvof rov 06^y are dis- 
tinguished. 

Here Wetstein obsen^es that he is called eia-efijjff, 
because he acknowledged one God ; (pofi^itevo^ roy 
©cov, because he regulated his life by the rule of the 
Law of Nature. 

That Cornelius was a Gentile is also decidedly 
the opinion of Dr. Doddridge, who maintains that 
the name proselyte was never by any antient or cor- 
rect writers (such as St. Luke) applied to an uncir- 
cumcised person ; and indeed he positively asserts 
(and meant, in a separate treatise, to prove) that 
there is no sufficient authority for the distinction 
generally admitted by learned men between prose- 
lytes of fighteausness, who by circumcision became 
debtors to the whole law, and proselytes of the gate, 
who, worshipping the true God, renouncing idolatry, 
and submitting themselves to the observation of the 
seven (supposed) precepts of Noah, were allowed, 
though uncircumcised, to live among the Jews, and 
converse familiarly with them. 

It is well observed by Chrysostom, that the Trea- 
surer of Queen Candace and the Centurion of the 
Italian band are not mentioned, because they were 
persons of rank and authority, but because their 
rank and official duties did not hinder them from 
discharging the duties of piety. He observes, too, 
that Cornelius, though not a Jew, nor a Christian, 
yet lived the life of a good Christian. Therefore 
(adds CEcumenius) toGtov i&ov o r^^ ^uijOe/iot^ o^JAaXjutos', 
dTi icaXob jx^v r^ ^pyoL^ P€KpiL §6, eri iritrrw ovk ?;f ovrot, 
aTO«-r^XX€i 3paj3€u(royTa roiy €pyo^9 ayyciov, W9 icaXiSj 
ofiXoGyra (rr€^0Lif(o(ra$ rji ^i(rr€$f where for etnjdeia^ I 
conjecture cJjt^fveiW. See Matt. 6, S. By the Xaoy 
is meant the people in general, both Gentiles and 
Jews. 

3. (TSfv €v opdcjxari, saw in a vision. Eichhom and 
others contend that this vision was presented in a 
dream. And this opinion is embraced by Rosen- 



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ACTS OP TH£ APOSTLB85 CHAP. X. SS9 

muller and Heinricbs, the latter of whom maintains 
tlMit it signifies no more than a mind joyful under 
the determinatkm of embracing the Christian Reli- 
gion, and sending for Peten And to this opinion 
Kuinoel strongly inclines. It is unnecessary tor me 
to point out the absurdity of this hypothesis, which 
scarcely merited the ftilf refutation it has received 
from Storr. Opusc. S, 181. There is nothing in the 
words that leads one to imagine a dream. The hour 
at which this happened was one of the hours of 
prayer, and that the most solemn of all. Cornelius 
was, doubtless, engaged in prayer when the angelic 
vision was presented to his view. It is well observed 
by Lightfoot, that ^v€pw9 is added, in order to sho^ 
that Cornelius was awake, and saw this with his 
corporeal eyes. On this subject the student .may 
also, with aavantage, consult Pricaeus. 
. 4^ areifia-as. See the note on Luke 22, 5Q. Ti 
iiTTi K6pt€ ; I am surprised that Dr. Doddridge should 
have recognized no more in these words than a sud- 
den exclamation and prayer to God to preserve him, 
such as " good God." Hiis, surely, is as objection- 
able as the Socinian interpretation of Thomas's 
words, ** My Lord, and my God.** It is moreover 
destitute of any authority/. The true one is that 
adopted by Beza, " quid me vis.** In fact, it is a 
popular form of respectful answer to the. call of a 
superior, though sometimes to that of an inferior, 
varying according to the tone bf voice with which it 
is pronounced. Kuinoel aptly cites Esth. 5, 1. n 
itrriv E(rdtfp ; So also Esth. 5, 6 & 7- 7, 2. ri cerriy 
^Etr^p ^oun7<i<nra ; ico) ri ri atrrifjLa tr^o; there is 
therefore ap ellipsis of some such word as aTnjfia or 
^ot/Xijcris'. It may be Englished thus : *^ what is your 
will, or business with me.** 

4. al irpwr€oj(ai <rou — evahriop tou 9€oS. The WOrda 
CIS* |xvt}jxo(rtivov must be pointed off from the rest of 
the sentence. Another example of the phrase di^ot* 
0a/y€iv iiHowiw to5 ©6o5 occurs in Apoc. 8, 4. avk&yi *— 
cvcoriov roG 06o5.. Some Commentators think there is 

z 2 



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340 ACTS or THB APOSTLES^ CHAP. %: 

reference to the Jewish opinion, that men*s prayers 
are carried up by angels to God in Heaven. Se^ 
Apoc. 8, 4. fob. 12, 12. But there is here no oc- 
casion to entangle oui*selves with Jewish ojnniana. 
If such a notion were really entertained, it must have 
been by the vulgar, and have aiisen from inter- 
preting figurative language in a literal sense. Most 
assuredly the words of the present passage have 
the same meaning as those further on in ver. 31. 
citf^icouerd)) <rau ij wpoo"€t>;^ Koi ayfi^ ivoiiFiw rw 0€oS. 
Kuinoel, too, adduces examples of this use of ova^ou- 
V6IV from 1 Mace. 1, 31. ri Kpauyrl r^y ^roXfo)^ aVfjQi) €1^ 
rov tipaiAft i. e. to God in heaven. £xod. 2, 23. koI 
KaretrrivoL^av oi uloi *I<rgoti)x axl r<Sif 'Itrpa^X airi rS9 

^i^. The p^/x^uvoy (continues Kuinoel) is equi- 
valent to yivtifufhy and the Latin monumentum. So 
the Heb. p*l3t denotes monumentum in Ex. 12, 14. 
28, 12. 30, 16. and Josh. 4, 7« Now since manu^ 
menu are set up for preserving and recording the 
memory of any person or thing, hence the Heb. 
\DSl in Exod. 17, 14. (where the Sept. render €h 
lupTifMcwov.) Neh. 2, 10., and Mai. 3, 16., also sig-* 
nified remembrance; and the Jewish writers so used 
jftwjfuKTuiw. See Sir. 45, 1. 10, 18. 35, 6. 1 Mace. 
8,7., and 2 Mace. 6, 31. 

5. Koi v3y, '* now then.*" An hortatory formula, 
examples of which* are produced by Eisner from 
Xenophon and iEscKines. Merax€[k4/ai, send for^ 
In this sense the word is used in the best Classical 
writers, especially Thucydides, and almost always in 
the middle voice, whose force we may here plainly 
discern. For oy iviKcCKwai Ylirfos many MSS. have 
fov cJTMcaXoJ/xeiw IlfT^v, which reading is preferred 
by MatthisB and Griesbach. To me it appears to be 
derived from the margin: and the less elegant 
reading seems here (as generally in the New Testa- 
ment) the truer one. 

- 6. ^€v/^€Tai xopA Tivi Sijuuovf ^upfT^i ** is a guest," &c. 
fiw^ai is by Hesychius explained ^ew^Zojfdirai. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. X. 341 

See the valuable philological illustrations of this 
word brought forward by Valcknaer. XifMoPi ^uptreTy 
J^imon a tanner i who is supposed, from ver. 28., 
to have been one of the Christians. By fiuptreb^* is 
not meant a currier (as some explain it), but a tanner^ 
one who soflens, and otherwise prepares jSo^ai 
(hides) for various uses ; regarded by the ancients as 
a very mean occupation. See Schoettg. Hor. Hebr., 
Wets, in ioc, and Walch's Diss, de Simone coriario. 
0. xap^ OaX^^rerav. Amongst the ancients, tan- 
ners used to have their houses and workshops apart 
from towns (on account of the fetid odour arising 
from the dead animals), and near rivers^ for conveni- 
ence of water necessary to the prepariation of the 
skins. So Artemid. 1 , 53. v^k^wv aTrrerai trwiiarcov o 
^i}^(ro8€^9f Koi T^y wi7i€a}9 axaJicia-Tai. Surenhus. 
Misch. T. 4, p. 64. Cadavera et sepulcra separant 
et coriarium l. cubitos a civitate. Nor is it (as 
Walch observes) certain, because St. Luke says that 
Simon's house was at Joppa, that it was situated in 
the city itself, since suburbs^ especially within so 
short a distance as fifty cubits, are reckoned as form* 
ing part of a city. (Kuin.) 

6. oSroy XaXiJo-f I trot ri tre hei xoi€tv. These words 
are wanting in some very good MSS. and Versions, 
and in others we have another simitar sentence. So 
difficult, indeed, is it to account for their omission, 
and so easy for their insertion, that I assent to Wets., 
Griesbach, Matthia?, and others, that they are de- 
rived from the margin, where they were noted from 
9,6. 10,32. 22, 10. 11, 14. 

7. C09 86 fltTT^xdcv oiyy0^o9. Heinrichs and Kui" 
noel, most unwarrantably, take these words to be 
equivalent to " finita ecstasi.*' AJo t£v olKerm auroS, 
Koi trrparioirriv eitre^rj. 'EucrejBi^ff must here be taken 
in the same sense as just before, where it was ap- 
plied to Cornelius, namely, a virtuous person, a wor- 

* The Attics used, not fivpaeis, skinner, but /ivp(Toii\lnts, I. c. a 
skin softener, coriarius, leather maker, tanner (which word comes 
from tain, cognate with the French teindre^ to ttgin). 



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34i4 ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLfiS, CHAP. X. 

shipper of the Supreme Being ; ** a very rare epithet 
of a soldier,** says Grotius. 

' 7- T«Sv wgo^icaprfpouvToiv atJrai, ** who attended 
upon him.** Pricceus here recognizes a parallelism : 
but without cause. He rightly, however, takes the 
word (as does Kuinoel) in the sense of " standing 
guard, or sentry ;** and aptly cites the Ovidian line, 
where, speaking of the lover and the soldier, the 
Poet sings : Ille fores dominae servat, et ille Ducis. 

8. Koi €^rjyri(raii€uo^ atJro?:? obrarra, ** having related 
all that happened, and told them what to do and say 
in the execution of their errand.'* At ir^ei^aa^oi 
subaud €1$* tI or (S(rr€. By the Scofxa many Commen- 
tators, as Jerome, Erasmus, Pricaeus, and Heinrichs, 
understand an upper room next the roof, such as 
those to which the Jews used to resort for prayer* 
But it was also the custom to ascend to the flat roof 
of the house for such a purpose : and certainly $cofxa 
suggests the idea of the latter more than the former : 
for in the Sept. and the New Testament it is perpe- 
tually used in the sense of roof; and so also in the 
later Greek Historians. That the Jews were accus- 
tomed to offer up their prayers on the roofs of their 
houses, is plain from 2 Kings, 23, 12. Jer. 19f 13. 
32, 15. Zeph. 1, 5. Neh. 8, 16. Tob. 3, 11 & 17- 
Dan. 6, 10. Ps. 55, 1?. So also Taanith, fol. 23. 
(cited by Wets.) Adscendamus in tectum, et implo- 
remus misericordiam — adscenderunt in tectum, et 
stetit ille ab uno angulo, et ilia ab altero— ciim de- 
scendisset, dixit. 

9. w€p\ mpay Zicniv. A usual time for prayer among 
the Jews. So Schabboth (cited by Wets.), comedunt 
omnes homines, h. V. operarii, VI. vero discipuli 
sapientum. 

10. wgwrreivoff, very hungry. The w^poy has an in- 
tensive force, like Kara, i, e. tcom down with famine. 
The word is very rare, and is said to occur no where 
else. One may, however, compare with it Karairf *yoy 
eiorcivoyi i^ur^^yo^f all which forms (and one in ijy) 
have the force of our old English word an hungered 



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ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. X. 343 

(from the participle hungered). At y€tJ(roMrOai subaud 
T^y Tpo^ri^ or 3pa>jxara)y, — a common ellipsis. Teu- 
^our^ai answers to the Heb. Q3^, to which is some- 
times added 1137. I am surprised that Dr. Dodd- 
ridge should have fallen into the common error of 
understanding this expression as denoting to take a 
slight refreshment. It is perpetually used of taking 
a mealy without reference to any precise quantity; 
of which examples in abundance are produced by 
Limborch, Eisner, Raphel, and Valcknaer. Now 
y€fj€<r6ai, by the force of the middle voice, signifies 
to oneselff to take, eat, &c. ''HOcX^ yeitraa-Qai must 
be rendered, " he was desirous of eating." After 
wa^ajTK^wt^iyrwv we must again subaud rpo^r^v from 
the context. This verb is perpetually used (as here) 
to denote cooking. 

10. iv€TF€(reif iir aMviKorra/n^. The word %K(rra(n$ 
properly signifies a removal of any thing from any 
former state: but it is especially applied to that 
alienation, or (as we call it) absence^ of mind, by 
which, even though awake, our senses are so far from 
conveying to us the impressions of external objects, 
that the mind seenis, as it were, to have retired from 
the body, and to be wholly absorbed in the contem- 
plation of internal and spiritual images or objects. 
So Doddridge, who observes that the word €KaTouns 
properly signifies such a rapture of mind as gives 
the person who falls into it a look of astonishment, 
and renders him insensible of the external ob- 
jects round him, while in the mean time his imagi- 
nation is agitated in an extraordinary manner with 
6ome striking scenes which pass before it and take 
up the attention. The reader may see some extra- 
ordinary instances of this kind mentioned by Gualt- 
perius, in his long note on this text. 

So iv iKO-Tourei Jvai infr. 11,5. 22, 7. Chrysostom 
explains the expression thus : TV€t//taTiKi5 ^^(opia y/- 
yov€v aiJTip; and adds, too cwimitos, m ay elirji T*y, 

We may render : *^ there fell upon him an ecstacy 



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844 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. X; 

or trance.** 'EmTArT^i, it must be observed, is d 
strong term, not ill rendered by Heinrichs ** vis 
numinis ingruit.** It is strange that Bolten and 
Eichhorn should have considered this iKirriuris as a 
deep sleep or deliquium animi : for (as Kuinoel ob« 
serves) had that been the case, the mental impres* 
sions could not have been so vivid as they were^ 
See Dr. Hammond. Lightfoot observes that there 
were seven ways in which God formerly revealed 
himself to men; 1. by dreams: 2. by apparitions 
while they were awake : 3. by visions while they 
slept : 4. by a voice from heaven : 5. hj the Urim : 
6. by inspiration, or auricular revelation : 7* by a 
sort of rapture or ecstasis; of all the other modes 
the most excellent, by which a man was snatched 
into Heaven (2 Cor. 12, 2.), and was in the Spirit 
(Rev. 1, 10.): and which is the one here meant, as 
in Gen. 2, 21. 

11. &€(op€7 riir oipayhf ai^coyftcvoy, i. e. ** Heaven 
seemed to him to open.** lie saw with the mind, or 
in a vision. (Pise, Hamm., & Kuhi.) Sic€t!o9, which 
comes from (ricea>, ic^d>, /e^o, signifies any vessel, 
utensil, or furniture. It seems properly to denote 
iasket. 

11. 'Ofiomjv. In trachig the origin of this word 
the Etymologists are much puzzled. Perhaps it 
comes i'rom ofia>, cognate with ofa>, to bear^ carry ^ and 
signified a sheet (from the Ang. Sax. shet^an to cast, 
tbroWi) or coverlid. Valcknaer, however, thinks it 
in vain to search for a Greek etymon, since the use 
of sheets came, together with the coverlid, from 
Syria. This may be very trile ; but still, as much of 
ihe Greek language can be traced to an Oriental 
origin, the above derivation may be thought not im- 
probable. Dr. Doddridge regards it as equivalent 
to a wrapper, or piece of linen, which things (says 
he) are wrapped. But I cannot find that the i6oi^ 
was ever used for such a purpose. The only signifi- 
cations it had were sheet, coverlid, shawl, and some- 
times vest. 



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ACTS or TBS^ AP08TLS8, CHAP. X. d4S 

Doddridge thinks the od^i^ was meant to he em-* 
blematical of the Gospel, as extending to all men. 
This is, too, the opinion of Wetstein, who considers 
the four comers of the sheet as typical of the four 
quarters of the world, North, South, East, and West. - 
But this seems very fanciful and precarious ; though 
it had the countenance of Chrysostom. Other Fa* 
thers, with as little probability, take it of the Church. 

11. recfrcLMTi^ ap-xpus ScScjxevov. There is no occa# 
sion (with Bowyer) to read &Kpoi^ ; for ap^ signifies 
the extremity of any thing of obloi^g form, sinc6 
each end may be considered either as beginning or 
end. The word was especially used of ropesy bond^. 
(See the numerous examples produced by philologi4 
cal illustrators.) Sometimes, however, it was ap- 
plied to other things of an oblong form; as, for in-* 
stance, in Exod. 38, 23., to the High Priests' breast- 
plate ; arid is thereforp very applicable to an o^irq, 
which was a square or oblong tteb of doth. But as 
a quadrangular figure may be said to have four 
&PXI°^t beginnings, or endsj namely, the Jhur angles, 
hence the word is here rendered by some interpre* 
ters angles or comers. This use, however, I have 
no where found in the Classical writers! See Mu 
chaelis, and especially Commentators on Eurip. 
Hipp. 772. and oh Herodot. 4, 60. Our learned 
Comknentators seem not to have recollected the fol-r 
lowing Interesting passage, cited by Wets. Oalem 
de Cbirurg. 2. Ka) ritriv i86^€p ap-^fk^ hr^itrfuov &Ko6€if 
ivri ro5 iripara" Koiroi yev^Koirepcp l(vofta r^ xipa^ itrrt 
r^y ap;^y, £9 Kcd UKarcbv i)fta^ dhi^^c, iriparu Tie/aoi 
cWi Koi r^P r€X€»T^v elirep o& iy^nopin y€nKeir€paM 
^po(n\yopia:p ovri r^^ &SiK^f iin<p€p€i9 t<6 Trpiy^MLriy nji 
jxev apyt^v i^etrri TJyeiv i^ijap Tr^gay, AcTrep icai T€X€aTi}y, 
ou JQWOV n'heyrrfp ap^p. 

1^. €P w uTrijpx^ xoLPra t6l r^rpaxoSa rrj^ yrj^. The 
TToiPTa is by Vatablus, Camerarius, and Piscator^ ren^ 
dered ommgena. So Kuin. omnius generis: and he 
re^s to Matt. 4, 28. Acts 13, 10. We majr com- 
pare the Hebr. 73, in Gen. 40, 16. The addition of 

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846 ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES^ CHAP. X. 

r^s* T^s* after rerpAjroia Vorstius and Kuinoe] accoant 
a Hebraism. It raay rather be regarded as charac- 
teristic of the copiousness of inartificial and popular 
diction. Besides, it better corresponds to the Trereivk 
roS oupovoS.Ihad forgotten to remark that Ka^^iuw^v is 
especially used of what is let down by ropes. W ith 
the whole of this passage I would compare a very 
curious one in Herodot. Sy 18. where he is describ- 
ing the table of the Sun : *H li rp&xe^a tow ijxioa 
Toi^Sc Tiy X^ycroi clvar Xfi/xaiv itm ev r^ irqocurrelfB 
^w/rXfoy Kp€W¥ c^OcSv Tavroiv twp rerpaxoSoiV i^ rw ray 
fjuiif vurray i7nT7fi€6ovras riflevai rob Kpia rohs iv riTie'i 
eKwrTou^ iovra^ rcSv atrrmUj T0L9 S^ rifUpas Saivtxrdai 
icpwriovroL riy 0owXo/X€Vov <pav€i Sc tou^ ixiywpUu^ raxna 
T7)V y^v auTiQv ayaSiSoVai cifocrroTf 13 p^v 8ij rpawe^a tou 
i]Xiou icaX€Oft^yi}, Xeyerai cTvai ronjS^. Also an elegant 
passage of ^schyl. Choeph. 576 — 584. ttoXXc^ fikv yot 
rpk^€i Ka) Sciva S^ijxarcov ayi}, novriai r ay^aXai 
icvoiSaXcov. 'Ayraiwv ^^(yrdi^ nXadootrr ^Tiotrroutn kcH 
T€$a/y|xiof Aa|X9raS(f TfSaogor Ilrava re ica} xf $o|3ajxova, 
Kav€fto€vr* oi* AiyiScov ^pwrais kotov. Where see the 
remarks of the learned Bishop Blomfield. So Pseudo- 
Orpheus Argon. 73. K^Tioiarw Se t€ flijpa^, ^'8' epreroL 

. The Apostles, while they thought that the dis-* 
tinction of clean and unclean animals and meats was 
to continue, had forgotten, or never understood, the 
contrary declaration of Christ, in Matt. 15, I7 & 18. 
for otherwise they would readily have conceived 
that the Gentiles were not to be accounted unclean^ 
but that an access was afforded them to salvation by 
Christ. Nay even our Lord's precept, '*Go prose* 
lyte all nations, baptizing them," &c. (Matt. 28, I9.) 
they had misunderstood, thinking that the command 
only applied to those who had previously embraced 
the Jewish religion: for which reason they had 
hitherto avoided the society of Gentiles, and had 
not communicated to them the doctrines of Christ. 
As to the removal of the distinction of meats, 
typified by the symbolical representation, that need 



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ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. X. 347 

not have seemed jstrange to the Apostles^ since we 
find from the Rabbinical writings tliat the Jewish 
Masters maintained that this would take place in the 
time of the Messiah. So, among the Rabbinical 
citations found in Wetstein, Midras Tillin on Ps. 
146, 7* Temporibus Messiae Deus omnia licita pro- 
nunciat, qiias fuere prohibita. — Sunt qui dicant, 
omnia animantia immunda in hoc mundo Deum S. B. 
munda pronunciaturum tempore future. 
. It is well observed by Doddridge, that this seems 
a general intimation, that the Jewish Christians were 
by the Gospel absolved from the ceremonial law, in 
which the distinction between clean and unclean 
formed so considerable a part. 

14. koipIp signifies properly what belongs to all ; 
as in Sap. 7* 3. koiv^s* A^p* But the Jews applied the 
term (like the Hebr. Tin) to what was profane, not 
holy^ and therefore of common and promiscuous use* 
So Ez. 42, 20. where it is opposed to ayiov. And 
Joseph. Ant. 12, 12 & 13. ra dcia cic^epciv eV) icoivou^ 
a^pohroo^. They also applied the term to what was 
impfir€y both naturally and legally ; as in Mark 7^ ^< 
compared with 1 Mace. 1, 47 & 62. Finally, it was 
used of meats forbidden, or such as had been pari 
taken of by idolaters, and which, as they rendered the 
eaters thereof impure, were themselves called koivo\ 
and oKodapTtn; terms indeed synonimous, though 
the latter seems added by way of explication^ 
(Kuin.) 

I 14. MijSafAcof. OtiSajxco^ and fArijSajtAa!^, nequaquam 
minime gentium^ an usual form of denial and repugr 
nance, are relics oS the old word ojut^^, which in the 
antient language signified aliquis. In the place of 
this formula is' sometimes used jct^ ycvoiro* Ahsit! 
So St. Paul and the best Greek writers. In this sense 
the Tragedians often use jtiWQ S^ra. (Valcknaer.) 

15, 16. & (dels eKoiAapitre, <rh jxiq ico/you, " hath de- 
clared pure^* or made so, by removing the law which 
forbad their use. By koIpou is meant, ^' do not ac- 
count or pronounce impure." So Hesych. (doubt* 



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348 ACTS OF THB APOSTLKS, CHAP. X. 

less from an antient Scholium): jx^ iKoAofroif MfJ^c.^ 
Kuinoel well observes, that in both the Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin writers, any one is said to do a 
thing, who declares and maintains it to be done: 
and thus (continues he) those are said to do any 
thin^ who say it is done, or think it done. Thus in 
Levit. 13,8. 13, I7. (where the subject is leprous 
persons,) he pronounces a person to be impure, is 
said oaiaiWiv, and, if he declares him pure, KaBap{§€t¥. 
So Theoph. 8, 4. xe^oiMt^la koL vaofutj^la viKmre^, i. e. 
relates victories. So also Plut. 2, 891. iw ijxioy Wijo-i, 
n^v Se y^v Kip€i. Philo, 946 D. ico) 01 if^deip^vres airh 
(r^ ico(r|xov) Xoyiic^ €heu trrwrnitruf* Eustath. on II. a. 
p. 18, ^. iuuSo9 Tous* i^ ^X^^ oyflpcosrour iK hpom Kot 
T^rpm ly€^va. Hor. Sat. 1, 10, 36. Turgidus Alpi- 
nxxsjugulat dum Memnonae. (Glass. Fhit. 216. Al- 
berti, Loesner, Valcknaer, and Kuin.) See more in 
the learned note of Kuinoel. 

15. TraXiv €K Set/r^^v, scil. iyiperc. There is an 
appearance of pleonasm in toXiv ix i€irripw : but such 
redundancies, (if indeed they be such,) as are found 
both in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages, 
are not unfrequent in the purest Attic writers, and 
those least addicted to pleonasm, as, for instance, 
Thucydides. Among these redundancies are found 
fr&kt¥ aZ and aSOif, aS xoXii^. 

16. €ir\ T^)s. I cannot assent to Kypke and Kui- 
noel, that there is here a redundancy of iirl. The 
preposition signifies unto, as far as; must always be 
understood^ and tends to invigorate the rph : which 
idiom is frequent in the Classical writers, from 
whom examples are adduced by Wetstein. There 
is however this diiiference, that in them the expres* 
sion is almost always as (though the hr\ occurs in 
Polybius). We may observe that the vision was re- 

* This sense is moreover confirmed by a passage of Schemath 
Rabba, sect. 19. fol. 118,3. On the words of J[ob 31, 3. "The 
stranger did not lodge in the street.*' <'Non enim Deus icoiyol^ 
pro^um jndicat quenquam hon^em^ ted omnet recipit*** 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLSS, CHAP. X. S49 

peated^ m order to infix it the more strongly in Pe* 
ter's mind, and indicate certainty. Hence oracled 
afod visions are generally repeated. The number 
three was indeed a favourite one with the Christians. 
See Acts 11, 10. 2 Cor. 12, 8. And not the Chris- 
tians only, but the Pagans : in illustration of which 
Bishop rearce aptly cites Virg. ^n. 2, 174. (speak- 
ing oi Minerva's image): terque ipsa solo (mirabile 
dictu) Emicuit. And he refers to 2 Cor. 12, 8. 
*Hhrice I besought the Lord/' The learned Prelate 
might also have compared Hor. Od. S, 22. 3. where 
of Diana it is said : Virgo auae laborantes in utero 
puellas Ter vocata audis. On the force of the repe- 
tition, as indicating cer/aiit/y^ Kuin. aptly cites Gen. 
41, 82. where we read that Pharaoh*s dreams were 
repeated^ in order to shew that the Lord would cer- 
tainly and shortly bring the things to pass. 

17» w 8^ €V couTiS hyjvopei o H^poy ri du (eIti rh 
SpaiMt i elSc. The ' Commentators aptly compare 
Joh. 6, 61. efW iv iatmi. And 11, 38. 6jui0gifiia>|X€- 
P09 h iatmp. Luke lo, 3. €hr€ Se h ia\yr&* Oh 
lia'nri^€i¥ see the note on 2, 12. T/ i» elri rl ipouia, 
u e. what it might mean. This idiom Kypke nas 
illustrated by the following examples. Xen. Cyr. €p 
(PpwrlBt ^v on 9rOT"6 cAj ratha. Joseph. Ant. 2, 3. 
T€TapayjX€Voy kol) rl vore €h\ t\ ^awa<rjxa xog' ifuavrtS 
fFKOvSif. Tab. Cebet. Siijyifjo-ai iJjmTv — ri rrori ia'riv o 
jxSdos*. Palaeph. de Incred. C. 32. p. 43. cdatJ/xaJov 
rl ap eiri to yeyoviy. 

It is well observed by Kuinoel, that Peter was in 
doubt whether by this vision God meant only to in- 
dicate that every distinction of meats was abolished 
by the Christian religion ; or whether something of 
yet greater importance was concealed under it; 
namely, that the Gentiles, who did not observe the 
distinction of meats, and had been hitherto ac 
counted impure, were no longer to be considered as 
such, and thus their society was no longer to be 
avoided ; and that the doctrines of the Gospel were 



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350 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. X* 

to be preached to them. That this latter interpce* 
tatioQ was the troe oiie» Feter was sooa cotmnced 
by the arrival of the messengers from the Centurion* 

17. Kou lioS. We may observe that the circum- 
stances are narrated with that genuine (and as it seems 
Oriental) simplicity, which we admire in the Old 
Testament and the very antient Greek Historians, 
as Herodotus : *Ejr€(m^<ra3f M riy 'jrvT^pa, " stood at 
the porch." See the note on Matth. 26, 71* 

18. ^vriira9T09j i* e. (as Wets, and Rosenm. think) 
the Porter. But as it is not very likely that the tanner 
kept a porter, we must understand some pronoun ; 
as TiW, namely those in the House. " The messen* 
gers (observes Kuinoel) did not choose to enter the 
house, as being that of a Jew.*' And he refers to 
ver. 28. 

19* MviMoiUvw — TO nvcSfiix. Heinrichs and Kui- 
noel unite in excluding the influence of the Holy 
Spirit. " For (say they) when Peter saw three men 
standing at the gate, he rightly judged that they 
were sent by God to resolve his doubts, and he de- 
termined to go with them wheresoever they should 
require. Now when he saw that his conjecture was 
well founded, he thought, and said, that he was Di- 
vinely admonished of this. And when he heard 
from them that Cornelius, a Gentile was desirous of 
embracing the Christian doctrine, he thence inferred 
that God had meant, by that vision, to declare that 
the Gentiles were no longer to be accounted impure, 
but to have the Gospel preached to them." 

The laxity of this interpretation I cannot too se- 
verely censure ; and indeed there is the less excuse 
for it, as the sense had . been correctly pointed out 
by Grotius: Dixit Deus non per visum, sed per 
afflatum, sive internam inspirationem. 

For ^dufAotift€vou some very good MSS. and Ver- 
sions, as also some of the Fathers, read SieydujxovjtAcyod, 
which is preferred by Kuinoel, and received into 
the text by Griesbach. The verb is occasionally 
found in the Greek Fathers, from whom examples 

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ACTS OF TtlE APOStLES, CHAP. X. 351 

are produced by Boissonade ap. St. Thes. edit. Valpy* 
And indeed all these examples prove that those 
writers read Sicvdujctoufjtivou in the present passage: 
but when I consider how few are the MSS. in which 
it is found, I cannot help suspecting it to be an 
emendation^ or perhaps a mere mistake made bj the 
scribe of some very antient archetype, in whose 
mind the Si in itripoyrriaamre^f just before, still re- 
mained. It is well known to critics how frequently 
similar mistakes arise from the very same cause^ by 
which the Lexicons (and especially the recent new 
edition of Steph. Thesaurus) have been enriched 
with more compound words than ever were received 
by the Classical writers ; which should put a Lexi- 
cographer on his guard. < t 

20. &K?ioL avouTTOLs Kara^ijfli. Wolf and Eisner 
render the oXXa igitur^ quare. But I assent to Loes- 
ner and Kuinoel, that it is a particula hortativa^ 
signifying age, agedum, of which they give several 
examples. Kuinoel refers to Devar. de Part. p. 3. 
Kuster on Aristoph. Eg. 202. and Warton on The- 
ocr. 2, 18. 

20. Mv^ZhhuiKfiviik/^os, doubting not. The phrase is, 
from its brevity, somewhat obscure. Kuinoel sup- 
plies, "because they are not Jews, but Gentiles.*' 
On the sense of hoKprntrdai see the note on Mark 
11, 23. AioTi eyto oLTCtrraTiKa, "I have caused them 
to be sent." A sort of Hebraism. 

21 — 23. The words rtw a7r€<rraXjxevous' a^ro roo9 
KopveTiiov irpo9 ourov are omitted in so many MSS., 
and one may account so much more easily for their 
addition than their omission, that they are with rea- 
son suspected by Mill and Grotius, and have been 
rightly expungea by Griesbach. 

22. MapTvpoifjLevo^thro oXou roG Iflvouy, tvell spoken of. 
See the note on fi, 3. 'E^ptiiMtritrQrjy "was admo- 
nished in a Divine vision." See the note on Matt. 
2, 12. TA pnfuiara here signifies mandates, orders. 
So ver. 33. Trdvra rA TrqotrrerayiUva <roi viro roS 0€ou. 
See the note on Luke 3, 2. 

23. TyJ he hraiptov o lierpo^ e^xdc trvv axnm. Now 



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352 ACTS or trb apostles, chap, jh' 

Joppa was nine mites from Caesar^a. On the day 
that the Angel had appeared to Cornelius, when 
fasting and praying, he. sent messengers to Peten 
(3 — ^7.) The messengers, on the second day, are 
received with hospitality (ver. 23.); and, on the 
third day, they return with Peter to Caraarea* On 
the fourth day they approach to Ceesarea (ver. 24^ 
3a) Kuin. J^ that tl^ rji iraup^w in ver. £4. miist 
mean the marrow (after). When Ruinoel speaks of 
nine milesy he must be understood to mean nine 
German miles, or above forty English. It is 
reckoned .fifteen hours distance from Caesarea to 
Joppa, which would require more than one day: 
though Peter and his companions would arrive pro^ 
bably by mid-day of the second day. Thus the 
messengers had travelled tbe distance in a day and 
a half. 

SS. Koi tIv€s r£p ^S€X^(Sv, and some Christians: 
in number six, as we learn from 11, 12. These 
Christians, who had been Jews, Peter took with him 
for very wise and prudent reasons, namely, (as Chry* 
sostom suggests,) (Sa-rc clvai luaprvpoL^ ftera radra, 0^ 
cnroXoycio^ai Seoi Il/rpov. See also Doddridge. 

24, 26. xgo<rSoMmy, anxiously expecting. See Luke 

1, 21. and 8, 40. Tou^ a^ayicaiW ^/Xovf. Kypke has 
here a very learned annotation on this sense of 
iifayK€iio99 and the Latin necessarius, of .which I shall 
give the heads. 

The sense here is intimate friends. Now the 
the terms ovoyfcaioi and necessanus denote, 1. rela* 
tions by blood ; 2. by affinity ; 3. those connected 
by the bands of friendship. Sometimes the word 
comprehends all these three senses. Thus Demosth. 
p. 570. says an invitation to a marriage is given to 
ot wayKaioraroi. See also 673. Lys^ 478 & 310. 

2. 'AmyKoJoi are affines; as in Eurip. Andron. 67I. 
where Menalaus says to Peleus : roiaGra XourKevs rouf 
omyKcuotj^ ^/Xot/y. By avayKoioi are however fre- 
quently denoted relations, both by consanguinity, 
and by affinity; as in Lys. 535. Hence Dionys. 



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ACT$ OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. X* 353 

Hal. p. 85. speake of avyy€ifiK$fi ayayKouor^Tij^, which 
may be UDderstoo'd equally of consanguinity and 
affinity. And so Polyb. 5, 7I. and Isocr. 577. 
3. It very frequently happens that by avayKam ^i^ot 
are meant intimate Jriends, conjoined only by the 
bands of love. Thus in Joseph. Ant. 7, 11. David's 
a»otyK&Lm ^thtn are said not to have invited Adoniah 
to the feast. And in 10, 1. Hezekiah sends to Rab- 
shah Tp€?r rws avaryKotiorarov^ ^/x«uy. See also 5, 334, 
350, 375, 378, 379, 447, & 1015. Dionys. Hal. A. 
L. p. 161 & 482. Plutarch de Discr. Adul. et. Am. 
p. 51. gives a reason for the use of this epithet: 
9cadh §€ Kol Xeyerai 'ru^ kol) S^arog 4>/Xoy avayica/ore- 
po9 €lvai. (Kuin.) The learned Commentator might 
have adverted fo the expressive gnome of Solomon, 
Prov. 18, 24. "There is a friend that sticketh closer 
than a brother." To this may be subjoined the fol- 
lowing passages cited by Wetstein. Xenoph. Hell. 
5. ovayKoioti |xoi 01^0^ Ka) iirirrjielw* Isocrates : 2f(roi 
jttwjS' ii^iut (rtryyef€la9 ?;fovT€y, oiic6ior€pou^ <r<pAy atitrohs 
iv Tot^ trufx^paif toJv avayKaiwv ^rapeo-pfov. Berosus 2. 
jxerol Twv o'vyye^a^v fcol apayKaieov ^iTuov. Athen. 4. 
p. 154. T^79 &vayKam9 ^/Xoi^ SiotSa>gi^a|X6yos*. De- 
mosth. in £vag. oifccioi, ^ (nryyevtis, "^ ivayKalou I 
would also compare Eurip. Orest. 804> 794. roSr* 

otrrif rpAroiO"! (ruvraici), dtipaioy cov, Mupicov K^^ifrtrwi^ 

25. (09 S^ €7€i^ro €}<r€Xd€Ty. Subaud roG as depend- 
ing upon €y€Ka, which is added in several MSS. ; but 
probably from the margin. Hea-m M roo^ or^W, 
iFpwr€Kxiin\<r€v. Yl^wrKwfw denotes a total and reve- 
rential prostration of the body to the earth : a mark 
of profound respect which the Jews, and other Ori- 
ental nations, rendered not to kings only, but also 
to persons of high dignity. But the Romans yielded 
this homage to the Deity only ; and therefore Peter 
declines it, by saying K&ym avris avdpawpoy €iftl. Yet 
it does not follow that Cornelius meant to have 
transferred the honour due to the Deity to Peter ; 

VOL. IV. 2 A 



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3S4f ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. X. 

for he was cJ^cjSijy Koi ^o^yLev^^ rhf ©coy (ver..2.)f 
but, struck with reverential awe at the sight of a 
Divine legate, he could not preserve the due dis- 
tinction between the honour to be rendered to the 
Ambassador and the Principal. (Kuin.) The same 
view of the subject is also taken by Chrysostom. 
There is no reason to suppose, with Grotius, that 
Cornelius took him for an angel, whatever the inha- 
bitants of Lystria might do (14, 11 & 13). More- 
over, if Peter was justified in declining this mark of 
profound respect, knowing that among the Romans 
it was reserved for Divinities only, yet the Centurion 
may be held, in some degree, excused for offering 
it ; knowing, as he did, that the custom of the East 
allowed of such reverential homage being shewn 
from man to man ; though Peter, most judiciously, 
discourages it, as leading to evil. St^yoju^iXcov, con- 
versing with him. See the note on Luke 21, 14. 

2S seqq. ad^juiiToy i^rtPy unlawful. This use of 
the word is copiously illustrated by Wetstein ; ex. 
gr. from Herodot. 3, 57. er^xde §€ ical is rmv Ko^iom^ 
Toi' i^v, €9 TO oti Q€[JHTov 6<rTi €<n€vai aXXov y€ ij rov ^pea. 

Ana 5, 72. waXiv x^P^^ /*^^' ^^*^* ^^ ^^ ^^y ®^ 7^ 
d€fiiiroy AMoi€i<ri waqtiva^. Aristoph. Thesm. 116^ 
ainpouTiV oi oeairov €\<roqav opyiU freiM^ decuv.' Dion vs. 
Hal. 07. ft>ff ou Q€[iiTop aurois* €<p l€pw xa^ivai — x^iy 
a^otncia-ourdai ro jxiW/xa. It not unfrequently occurs 
in the Apocryphal Books of the Old Testament. 
KoXXacrdai signifies to use familiar intercourse with, 
as in 5, 13., and xpoo"6p;^€(rdai, to enter any one's 
house. There is a sort of climax; so that we may 
insert, **or even.'' And so Wetstein, who aptly 
compares Plut. 2, 94 d. hh Sci |x^ pahiws TrpwrUx^tr&ou 
[ji^rfie icoXXao^ai ro7p ivruyy^avotJtn. I am not aware 
that icoXXaerdai occurs in the antient Greek writers 
in this sense : but I have remarked some not dissi- 
milar metaphors used by them : ex. gr. Eurip. Orest. 
804, 794. otrns rpmonn truvroKfi. So Hesychius ex- 
plains €UT€TriK€v by eyvcicoXXtjrai. 
'AxXo^wXop must here, from its being opposed to 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. X. 355 

*lo(iSa/tt> signify a Gentile. But in the Sept., Philo, 
and Josephus, (as Kuinoel observes from Krebs, 
Wolf, and Loesoer,) the word occurs in a double 
sense, so as to denote not only such as are distin- 
guished from JewSy but from all others, neither Jews 
by birth nor by religion (as in Joseph. 9, 5, 3. Philo 
909 c. Judg. 3, 3.)j and elsewhere styled $fvol, and 
aXKorpm. See Joseph. Ant. 9, 5, 3. Philo 714 b. 
Is. 2, 6. Schoettgen and Michaelis observe that 
there is no command found in the Law of Moses 
forbidding familiar intercourse with the Gentiles,* 
but that this was an interdict of the Jewish Doctors, 
who had burthened the Mosaic Law with many 
added injunctions. Bp. Pearce here cites Joseph, c. 
App. 2, 28. Touy (scil. aXXo^Xoup) iK irapipyw irptHri" 
pyrafaya/tiyyua-dai raTy (Tui^fleiaiy ou#c iii'Krjtre, qui verA 
(scil. alienigenae), non nisi obiter ad nos, atque aliud 
agentes accederent, eos in consuetudinem penitus 
admitti noluit : those strangers^ who came to us on 
any other account but that of religion^ he (Moses) 
permitted not to be mixed with us in any familiari- 
ties. And 36. Ant. 16, 1, 1. Tacit. Hist. 5, 5. 
(speaking of the Jews) : Apud ipsos fides obstinata^ 
misericordia in promptu, adversus omnes alios hostile 
odium. 

Kai is fpr icaiVoi, and (yet). Kuinoel refers to ^ 

* It is I'emarked by Schoettgen, that even t)ie Jews acknow- 
ledged that God would not wholly reject the Gentiles. And he 
cites Schemoth Rabba on the words of Job 31, 3^2. *' The stranger 
did not lodge m the street.'* '* For God doth not account any one 
profonc,, but receiveth all. The gates are open at all hours (com- 
pare Actor. 14, 27.)> ^^^ be that will, may enter.*' 

" Now (says Schoettgen) considering that the above tradition 
was not unknown among the Jews, it may justly be thought strahge 
that Peter should have been censured by the rest of the Jewish con- 
verts for having associated with Gentiles (11,3.) But to thb it 
may be answered : that the truth in question, though, beyond all 
doubt, known to the more antient Jews, was afterwards choaked 
by the pride and arrogance of the Pharisees, of which our Lord hO 
often complains. This pernicious prejudice, therefore, the Jewish 
converts having first contracted from the Pharisees, still retained." 
(Schoettgen } 

2a2 



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356 ACTS OW THE APOSTLES, CHAP. X. 

Joh. 6, 7. 7, 4. Matt. 7, 26. where see the notes, 
Gataker on Marc. Ant. Q^ 7m and Eisner on Joh. 

6,70. 

28. cfto) h 0€of SfSci^c, 60^ hath shown unto me: 
namely, by the heavenly vision sent from God. M13- 
iim Koivov 1^ &KoAoLpro9 yJye^v oMfmroPy *< to call (i. e. to 
account) none common, or unclean; and conse- 
quently hath permitted me to hold society and inter* 
course with them.'* 

29, rivi y^iyio, on what account? Subaud er). 
Now Uy^, like the Heb. nST in Gen. 19, 8. and Jer. 
38, 14. denotes thing and cause ; as in 1 Cor. 15, 2. 
rin Tiiyip ctJyycXKT^^aijv JjxTv. (Kuin.) Kypke, how- 
ever, stiffly maintains that this is not a Hebraism. 
But he onlv succeeds in proving it to be a Grecism ; 
as Raphel had done before him. So Iph. Taur. 358. 
rm My to Topdft^uerc. Yet as the idiom (like many 
others) is common to both languages, so it is not 
difficult to conceive from what quarter the New 
Testament writers derived it. As to the quibbling 
query proposed by some, namely, •* why did Peter 
ask the reason of his being sent for, since he had 
been informed of it by the Divine communication ?** 
we may answer (with Chrysostom), that he did so 
because he wished them to make confession, and 
become engaged to the faith. Ruinoel, too, ob- 
serves that this was done for the information of his 
comfanions. And so Doddridge, who, with his ac- 
customed good taste, observes that the repetition of 
the circumstance gives a dignity and spirit to Peter's 
succeeding discourse beyond what we could other* 
wise so sensibly perceive. 

30, 81. a^W€ra£Tijy — -^jx^v vi}o-reticoy. Some Com- 
mentators, as De Dieu, Morus, and Heinrichs, take 
these words to express that Cornelius had fasted 
from the time of his vision to the present hour. 
But I entirely assent to Grotius, Beza, Pearce, Kui- 
noel, and Doddridge, that it must signify : " four 
days ago, when I had been fasting, up to this very 
hour ;" i. e. about the ninth hour, at which time 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. X; 357 

Peter probably arrived. Tlie other interpretation is 
refuted at large by Kuinoel ; but it is so manifestly 
false as scarcely to deserve dwelling upon. 

S3. icoXcof iTf^iy^tras. A common form of expres- 
sion denoting approbation and praise, frequent both 
in the Scriptural and Classical writers, of which 
examples, in supei*fluous abundance, are produced 
by Raphel and Wetstein. 

35. '£ym7riov roS 06oG. I am surprised that Gro- 
tins, Bengel, Moms, Rosenmuller, and Griesbach 
should adopt the reading of one MS. and some an- 
cient versions (rot7, the origin of which is manifest, 
namely, from the abbreviation of 0€ou. Besides (as 
Kuinoel observes) the common reading, which is 
defended by almost all the MSS., has the greater 
appearance of genuineness, as being the more diffi^ 
cult one. 

34. ovoi^af Se Ilerpo^ ri o-rofxa, clircv. The dis- 
course of Peter consists of two parts ; namely, a 
twofold proposition : the Jirst declaring that the . 
Gentiles are no longer to be accounted unclean 
(ver, 34 & 35.) : the second containing an annunciar 
tion of the Gospel, (ver. 36—43.) (Schoettg.) 

34. *Eir' oCKyfi^ias ifaraXaft3avojxai, i.e. ** I fully 
comprehend, and am thoroughly persuaded.** By 
9rpo<raiToXi73m}f is meant one who is partial in his at- 
tentions, and shews his favours with preference to 
rank, dignity, or other grounds of external superi- 
ority, to the neglect of those who are destitute of 
these advantages. See Jam. 2, 1. and the note on 
Luke«0, 21, 

35. &hW hf iravrl fdvci o ^ol3ot;/x€yoy, &C. *o3otJftfyoy 
Tov €klv is a periphrasis for a pious person. Petejr 
ha$ reference to the prayers, alms, and other works 
o^\ righteousness, by. which Cornelius had become 
acceptable to God. *Epy«^€o-fla< SucaiexrJvijy is by the 
Sept. used to express the Heb. nttjy,as in Ruth 1, 8. 
Toi^trai ?X6oy. Sir. ^, 9. cgya^fcrflai oXiJflciay & 51, 
8. ipya^etrda^ ^isZtos, and as by npTX the Hebrews ex- 
pressed virtue in general, so they join it with ntt?y ; 



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358 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. X. 

as in Is. 56, 1 & 2. This the Greek interpreters 
translate sometimes by cgyaJeerOai $i#caio^uvi]v (as in 
Ps; 14, 2.), sometimes by xoteiv Siicaio<rut^y, as in Ps. 
105, 5. And so the writers of the New Testament ; 
as Joh. 3, 7. where it is in ver. 8. opposed to 
TOf€iy TTiV ofiMprla^f and Matt. 7» 23. €pyaj€<r6ai avo- 
fuai^. (Kuin.) There seems an idea of habit involved 
in the terms 7W3f and xoi^iv. With the phrase wci^ip 
hKouwnivTiv we may compare the more elegant one of 
Herodot. 1, 96. outk^w ZiKaiwrirrflf. So Ps. 15, 2. 
Is. 64, 12. Nor is this use of ipyd^etrdou unknown to 
the Classical writers : we have something similar in 
Lycoph. 128. ipydrrif S/io^y. See Doddridge and 
others, cited in Mant*s Family Bible. 

36, 37. rhf Xrfyov oy arcWeiXc — 'Itt>awijy. With 
the construction and (as depending thereupon) the 
interpretation of this passage, Commentators have 
been much perplexed. They generally unite in 
supplying Karat before riy Xoyov : but in determining 
the sense thence arising they are by no means agreed. 
Now an ellipsis of Karit is usually filled up by quod 
nttinet ad : but that is not suitable here. Others, 
as Thaleman and Rosenmuller, therefore explain 
*^ according to'^ It might, however, be better ren- 
dered, *' in accordance with^ Doddridge wanders 
too far when he renders : " And this I apprehend 
to be the meaning of," &c. Indeed, to ascribe any 
such extensive signification to elliptical words is 
precarious and uncritical. This method is, however^ 
adopted by Beza, Grotius, De Dieu, and UEnfant ; 
and is somewhat sanctioned by Chrysostom and 
other ancients. Thus pi^/tta will denote the uwrds of 
Christ, including both miracles and doctrine. Those 
Commentators, too, are of opinion that Peter has 
reference to the saying of Christ in Matt. 8, 11. 
Joh. 10, 16, Matt. 28, 19.» and declares that he 
now recognizes their Juller sense, namely, that the 
doctrine of Christ was not only to be announced to 
the Jews^ but that Gentiles were to be received into 
the Christian communion. See Doddridge's para* 



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ACTS OP THE APOSTLES, CHAP, X. 36i)t 

Ehrase^ which indeed yields a very plausible sense ; 
ut loose paraphrases are little to be trusted. I 
therefore agree with Kuinoel^ that the above inters 
pretation is to be rejected, from the harshness of the 
ellipsis, the consequent obscurity of the sentence, 
and the want of connection between verses 36 & 97. 
Kypke and Wetstein take icupio^ adjectively ; and so 
indeed it is used by the best Attic writers, as Thu- 
cydides : but I see not how this helps the interpre- 
tation. Passing over rash emendations, and unau* 
thorized critical conjectures, I must confess that I 
accede to the interpretation of Erasmus, adopted by 
the authors of our English Version, Schmid, Heu- 
mann, Bolten, Beck, Heinrichs, and Kuinoel, who 
refer rhv Xoyov to ufKei^ oUar€, and put a stop after 
o}Sar6, by which to ycvojxcvov may be said to be in ap* 
position with rhif Xoyoy, and the words oSro^ itrn 
TonfTtop Kupiof are to be put in a parenthesis. The 
sense thus arising will be as follows : ** The doc- 
trine which God caused to be delivered to the Isrsel- 
ites, announcing salvation by Jesus Christ (he is the 
Lord of all) you yourselves know ; the doctrine, I 
say, which was promulgated through all Judea,'' &c. 
Aoyoff (observes Kuinoel) is the doctrine of Christ ; 
as infr. 13, 26. ufuv h Xoyoy r^r (rarmpia^ ratJr^y arocr- 
ToXij. At aT€<rr€iX€ we must repeat from the con- 
text S^. Now cbrexrr^Xciy here signifies to deliver, 
give; and in the Sept. corresponds to V\2 in Jer. 37, 

14. and rhvi in Ps. 10?. 20. See ^1. V. H. 1, 15 & 
21. and the remarks of Perizonius on that passage ; 
as also Alberti on Acts 27> 30. Compare, too, Sir* 

15, 9. 

In the place of a^wrciXe roTy mots ^Wpo^Ts, — a9r€(r* 
T€iX€ Trplf roth oiouy ^Itrpa-^'K would have been better 
Greek. But we have a kind of Hebraism. For the 
Hebrews add 7 to verbs of motion. See Nold. 
Concord. Partier. 

S6. EuayyfXiJofii^yoj elpr^iojv. Some explain this of 
peace between Jews and Gentiles. But the context 
shows that this word has here a more extensive and 



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S60 ACTS OF THE AP06TLBS, CHAP. X. 

figurative signification. Compare v^r, 43. and Is. 
40) 9.> ^hich passage Peter seems to have had in 
mind. 

36. OM9 itm irarrm¥ icupio^, i. e. all, both Jews 
and Gentiles. These parenthetical words are of 
great weight; and were meant to prove that what 
Christ preached to the Jews was equaUy applicable 
to the Gentiles. For, as Lord of all he must alike 
intend the salvation of all. See Rom. 10, 12. St. 
Pete/ seems to have urged the argument in this con* 
cise and covert manner, that he might give no of* 
fence to the Christian Jews^ his companions. (Dr. 
Owen ap. Bowyer.) See Joh. I7, €♦ Kuinoel takes 
•uTvforo^; as in 8, 26. Luke 2, 36. 36^ 37- 7, 12. 
and refers to Storr's Obss. ad Analog, et Syntax. 
Heb. 119* But this seems inconsistent with the 
parenthesis which Kuinoel himself supposes. 

37. bik€is ol^are. The interpretation of Erasmus 
and others is most vulnerable in this quarter : and 
Doddridge has attacked it with some effect. ^^ 1 da 
not see (says he) how Peter could reasonably take it 
for granted that Cornelius and his friends were ac- 
quainted with the message of peace and pardon sent 
to Israel by Jesus Christy that is, with the Gospel^ 
which if they had known, there would have been no 
necessity for his own embassy to them.*" But this 
obiection is rather plausible than solid, and proceeds 
(like many such) upon a too minute pressing on the 
sense of a single term ; which, in interpreting po« 
pular phraseology, is highly injudicious. OlSare is 
(as Kuinoel suggests) to be here taken in a circum- 
scribed sense, not as denoting full and accurate 
knowledge, but, in a popular way, signifying " hear 
and know;*' as in 2, 22. 5, 7. 9, 13. Now at 
Caesarea (continues Kuinoel) where there lived many 
Jews, the Gospel had already been preached bv 
Philip (8. 42). Cornelius, therefore, together with 
his family and friends, had undoubtedly heard and 
known of Jesus and his doctrine ; though they now 
required a fuller instruction and confirmation in the 
faith. 



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ACTS OF THB APOSTLES^ CHAPr X. 36l 

37. prifML IS here for Xoyoy, doctrine; as in Rom. 10, 
8. Eph, 5, 26- Heb. 6,5. Job, 3, 34. 'Ap$afA€voy <i»-i^ 
commencing from. 

38. *l7j<roSv Tov awo Na^aper, ci^ e^pitrev aurovo 0€o^, 
This is put for {oUaTe) oJf 6 0€off rov *Iij<ro5i^ ^XP^^^' 
Tbere is a similar transposition of co^ in Rom. 12, 3. 
1 Cor. 3, 5. 7, 17. ; and aJrov is, by a Hebraism^ 
redundant ; as often. (Kuin.) I do not quite ac* 
cede to this view of the subject. *Q9 has here the 
narrative force, and (as Pearce observes) is put for 
on. See his note on Mark 6, 15. to which he here 
adds examples from Longin. de subl. § 32. a^ro^;^ 
roL he^T^wiUvoL, (69 ftcyoXai ngv f J<riv eltrh ai r^oir$Kai, 
Koi 009 w^^OTToilp al [lera^opai, Koi on 01 xadcriKoi jca) 
^pcM'TiKoi KaroL TO TrXcZrrov ^oupowr$ rosror these in- 
stances are sufficient to shew that figurative expres- 
sions are naturally great, and that metaphors contri* 
bute to the sublime, and that they are best employed 
where the subject is either the making descriptions or 
raising the passions. Sect. 80. on ij ray Kuptw^ ko) 
ju^aXoT^xcDV oyojxara>v 6KX071} Oauftao^cof ayet icai kw* 

T0LKrfK€7 TOUy OlCOUoWof, KOfi W9 XOO"* pl^TOgOTI, &C. thut 

the choice of proper and grand words wonderfully 
takes and pleases the reader, and that among orators, 
&c. 

38. l^pUtf properly signifies to sprinkle, anoint 
with oil| or unguents : and since anointing formed 
a solemn rite of inaugurating and appointing kings, 
so it came to denote generally, create, appoint, &c. : 
and as the unction was supposed to confer certain 
powers, so the word came to mean, as here, invest,, 
efidue with power. In xvcujxan ay/a>, kou Soyoftfi, we 
have an hendiadis for *^ the powers and endowments 
of the Holy Spirit.'* 

38. *Oy SnjXGcv €i€py€rw¥, who traversed Judea^ 
&c. A very expressive term. *Empyerm. What 
is here meant by this general expression do good 
is unfolded in the following words. Thus the 
noun ei€pY€<ria is used of the healing of the sick in 
4, 9. We are, however, to understand it as referring 



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362 ACTS OF THB Af»OSTLES, CHAP. X. 

to soul as well as bodi/. See Tillots. ap. Mant. Ra- 
Ta!itmurr€ti€$¥ signifies to press down (Kara), over- 
power, tyrannize over. The word often occui's in 
the Sept, Josephus, and Philo, and is used by the 
later Greek Classical writers. Examples are ad- 
duced by Krebs, Loesner, and Wetstein. The per- 
sons here described as icara&iVflWTfwoft^voi url tou 
SiajSoXou are the same with the Saf|xavi^o|x€voi, demo^ 
niacs. *'Ori o 0€off h v^r aurou, for God enabled him 
to work such miracles. 

39, 40. irayra>v oJv iwotritreUy for iroofrcov a i7roir^tr€K 
The verb is here to be understood emphatically of 
what Christ effected ; including (as some think) the 
doctrines which hepreached. 

39. ov ay€iXov. The best MSS. have ov koI aveiXoy, 
and the /cal is rendered by some tamen or denique. 
It may be expressed by also or even. On ^'xov, cross^ 
see the note on 5, 30. "ESoiice is a vox prcegnans for 
**gave him (power), appointed," &c., which Vor- 
stius, Leusden, and Kuinoel think is derived from a 
similar use of |h3. 

41. 0(5 irarr) t£ Xacp. This is not a place for indi- 
cating the wisdom and righteousness of that dispen- 
sation of providence which ordered that Christ should 
not appear publicly after his resurrection. Many 
valuable writers have done it at large, See Mr. 
Ditton on the Resur. Part 3, § 60—70; Bishop 
Burnet's Four Disc. p. 6^—56; Dr. Svkes, of 
Christianity, chap. 10. p. 164. et seqq. ; Idr. Flem- 
ing's Christol. vol. 3. p. 494—498. ; Bp. Blackwall 
at Boyle's Lect. Serm. 4. p. 25, 26. ; Sermons de M. 
Superville, torn. 4. p. 9 — 12. ; Bishop Atterbury's 
Posthum. Serm. vol. 1. p. 182—190.; and Miscell. 
Sacra, Essay 2. p. 77, 78. I shall only observe, in 
one word, that as God was by no means obliged to 
give that perverse people, the Jews, the highest and 
most striking degree of evidence that could be 
imagined, (supposing this would have been such,) 
so it is certam that the evidence which he gave of 
this fact, by the miraculous gifts conferred on the 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. X. S63 

chosen witnesses in general, in a much more con- 
vincing manner than Christ's appearance in the 
temple for several succeeding days could have been. 
(Doddridge-) 

41. frpox^tqoTopelv is by Kuinoel regarded as the same 
with the simple ;f^iporov€iv. But I cannot agree with 
him in this. It denotes not only appointment^ but 
previous destination. X^iporoveTv signifies properly 
to extend, or raise the hand, and then to chuse, ap- 
point by suffrage ; as in Acts 14, 23. ; and finally 
to appoint, he. generally ; as here and in Herodot. 
2, 10 & 16. 3, 6. 5, 7. 10, 3, Philo 1028., besides 
other passages cited by Loesner and Kuinoel. 

" This was (says Doddridge) declaring, in the 
strongest terms, how entirely their happiness de- 
pended upon an humble subjection of soul to him 
who \yas to be their final Judge." 

41. *HjxTy — 6IC V€Kpcoy. The last words ftera to 
araorr^vai atJrov €k veKpwiu Cameron- and Bengel think 
are to be joined with the words of ver. 40. and those 
of 41 ., namely ckJ Travr) rto Xa^ — o'uv67rio|X€y aurco to 
be included in a parenthesis. ' They moreover deny 
that Jesus drank with his Disciples after his resurrec- 
tion, since that is no where mentioned, and Jesus, at 
the conclusion of his last Paschal supper, declared to 
his Disciples that he would no longer drink with 
them the fruit of the vine. See Matt. 26, 29. Luke 
22, 18. On the contrary, it is urged by others, that 
Jesus, after his resurrection, did eat with his Dis- 
ciples (Job. 21, 12.); and (say they) that he also 
drank there can surely be no doubt ; though both 
actions were done in order to satisfy his Dis- 
ciples of his being really a body.*' (See Chrysostom 
in loc.) But with these far-fetched modes of expli- 
cation we may very well dispense, if we take (r»jv6$a- 
yofiev Kou ,tnjve7rio[i€v as a popular phrase denoting 
familiar intercourse. See the note on Luke 13, 26. 
(Kuin.) The same mode is also adopted by Came- 
rarius. I cannot, however, but consider it as in- 
volving great uncertainty. 



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864 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. X. 

42,43. Koi 7rapiyyy€i>€v ijpv — hofMLprtipatrQou. I 
cannot agree with Kuinoel that SiaftaprogoMrdai sim- 
ply signifies to teach. The hd. communicates an 
intensive force. It is well observed by Chrysostom : 
'Evratida Koi ^o^^ei^ (Ttt^v, Tva ftt) (yaxriy €1^ ayvoiav 
/cara^uyfiv, ko} oJic elrey, on ocJroy corlv o uJof tou 0€o3, 
aXX' juuxXio-ra at/rotiff €$oj3ei, on auro^ 60T"«y o oi^io'ftcyof 

Aoup, i. e. openly and without restriction to both 
Jews and Gentiles. 

43. toJto) TrauT€9 oi ^go^^rai oapru^ooo'iy. On these 
words Schoettgen offers the following remarks. '* Sas- 
pe numero miratus sum^ quod quidem ex scriptori- 
bus homileticis tarn valde desudant, ut ex scriptis 
Frophetarum, quae exstant, comprobent, Jesum esse 
Messi^m, et qupd per ipsum omnibus credentibus 
peccata remittantur. Certe ex Obadi^ et Jona nemo 
id comprobavit, nisi verba Spiritus S. fidiculis eo 
torquere cupiet. An enim hi, quorum vaticinia 
habemus, sunt omnes ProBhetce 9 An vero illi, qui 
nihil scripserunt, Samuel^ Iddo, et reliaui, de Christo 
muti fuerunt ? Imo omnes de Christo vaticinati 
sunt, quam vis non omnia ipsorum verba litteris 
mandata sunt.*' This, however, seems too fanciful 
a device to be satisfactory. It is better, with most 
modern Commentators, to take Tavrcy in a restricted 
and popular sense for very marty,* The Jewish 

* The same view of the subject was also taken by the pious and 
]eai*ned Dr. Doddriiige. "It is obsetvable (says he) that in this 
discourse to an audience of the Gentiles, the Afxistle Peter first 
mentions Christ's persons^ miracles, and resurrection, and contents 
himself with telling them in the general, that there were many 
Prophets in former ages who bore witness to him, without entering 
into a particular enumeration of their predictions. And Limborch 
recommends this as the best way of beginning the controversy with 
the Jews themselves, as being liable to least cavil. — It would, how* 
ever, have been easy to have proved the truth of what the Apostle 
here asserts, from several testimonies of the Prophets, (had it been 
proper for that audience,) as will appear by comparing Isa. 53, 11. 
Jer. 31, 34, Dan. 9, «4. Mic. 17, 19. Lech. 13, 1. Mai. 4, 2. The 
latter part of the above remark seems to have been derived from 
Chrysostom, whose words are these: Aia r< hk firiiky iiyatrraf 
kvoiritre tnifieioy, AW iil^aye ical ftrocev} ore Ka\ oir^ if ity^trrans 



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ACTS OF THfi APOSTLES, CHAP. X. S65 

Karaites, indeed, maintained that all the Prophets 
testified of Christ. (See Trigland de KaraeiSj p. 121.) 
But these deserve no more attention than our mo« 
dera fanatics. 

In jxogrugeiy rm there is a dativus commodi, and 
the expression signifies to bear testimony in any 
one*s favour, or to his honour ; and is therefore 
aptly employed of the testimonies of historians or of 
prophets. 

44, — 46. ^xi XaXoSyrof toS Tl^rpw t. p. r. hrhrefre 
TO nvdipx, &c. Here I cannot but severely censure 
the latitudinarian spirit evinced in commenting on 
these verses by many continental Commentators, as 
Noesselt, Heinrichs, and Kuinoel, who seem to la- 
bour to bring down the extraordinary and preter- 
natural circumstance here recorded to the level of 
common occurrences. They interpret the illapse of 
the Holy Spirit (as usual) of the being seized with a 
religious fervour. ** Thus (says Noesselt) they 
could not refrain from expressing their pious feelings 
in their own phraseology, and in their own lan- 
guage, namely, the Roman. Therefore the Jews 
present, struck with amazement at so unusual and 
unheard of a thing, never expecting to hear the 
praises of God and Jesus expressed in foreign lan- 
guages, attributed it to the afflatus Dei ; as also did 
the Apostles and St. Luke.'^ But can any thing be 
more far-fetched and absurd than this interpreta- 
tion? To omit many other obvious objections, I 
must observe that the manner in which the narration 
of the illapse of the Holy Spirit is introduced, is ma- 
nifestly such as conveys, and was meant to convey, 

icaO* ^avTTly fjiiya ffrjfieioy Jjy ravrijf ik ohh^y ovtvs eh itwoiet^ir 
fAeiSoy^ ws to ipayeiy Kal ir/ecv. I can only refer my readers to the 
masterly obeervations of Dr. Paley on this subject, as they are found 
in Bp. Mant*s Family Bible. It is further remarked by Chrysostom : 
Elra fi icvpia (read xaipia 4) icarao'revi) Kal iifrb TQy Tpo^^kiy (/uc^^ 
yaXr/v yap €l\oy b6^ay cKeiyoi) tovt^ nayres oi T/oo^^rai fiaprv- 
poverty' ore rf <p6^f Karitreiaef t6t€ iwaytt rrjy avy\wpiieiy, oh imp' 
avTov Xcyofiiyriy, &\Ka irapa rwy vpo^iinay' Ka\ to fAcy ifto^pvy^ 
Tap avTov* TO ilfiepoy b^ uwo rwy wpoi^viTwy. See the note of Bp. 
Sherlock ap. Mant. 



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966 ACTS OF THB AFOSTlMSf CBAP. X« 

something preternatural, and the same with that 
previously vouchsafed to the Apostles on the day of 
Pentecost, 2. What room would there have been 
for the extreme amazement felt by the Jewish Chris- 
tians at hearing the praises of God and Christ ex- 
pressed in foreign languages. That was no more 
than they had witnessed in the Hellenists. 3. How 
can we be justified in interpreting yTuotrtrms^ " in 
their own languages.'' That is surely an unwarran- 
able license. The scop^ of the context, and a com- 
parison of the exactly parallel phraseology at C, 2. 
j^xes the meaning of this otherwise undeterminate 
expression to " various languages, and foreign to 
them/' Indeed, it was to be expected that some 
miraculous interposition of the Deity would be ex- 
erted, to remove the deep-rooted prejudices of the 
Jewish Christians, when the partition wall was to be 
broken down between Jews and Gentiles.* Besides, 
Peter just after says : " Can any man forbid water, 
that these should not be baptized, which have re- 
ceived the Holy Ghost as well as we ?"* And in 11, 
l6. ** Then remembered I the word of the Lord, 
how that he said, John indeed baptized with water, 
but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit." 
Now as to the mode in which the Apostles received 
it there can be no doubt Peter must therefore be 
understood as meaning that tliey had received the 
miraculous effusion of the Holy Spirit, as had he 
himself and the rest of the Apostles. 

47. fA^Ti TO itecof KwTSMrai — TouToup. There is here 
a remarkable bracnylogia (not, however, unexampled 
in the Classical writers). KcoXucii/ is a vox prcegnans^ 
signifying to hinder any one from taking or using 
anything. So Luke6, 29. MvicaiXtienj rotSoip. Ovid 
Met. 6, 349. Quid prohibetis aquas ? The idiom 
is, however, not confined to Z^p^ but applies, mutatis 
mutandis, whenever Kwy^^tia) takes an accusative of 

* It is well obsen-ed by Cbryeostom that this oeconoroy was 
adopted for the sake of the Jews. See Doddridge^ Pcarce, and Light- 
foot ap. Mant. On the astonishment of the Jews see Schoettgcn. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP« X. S&J 

the thing ; as in Gen. 23, 6, Sir. 4, 6, Xen. An. 4, 
S, 15. €Kai\tjw r&9 irap^ovSi and other passages, which 
I forbear to notice. Chrysostom points out the 
energy imparted to the language by the interroga^ 
tive here employed. The student, too, must notice 
this pleonastic use of the negative, which is not un- 
frequent in the Greek language after verbs of for- 
bidding ; though, in the Classical writers, it is more 
usual in the nominative than the genitive. So 
Thucyd. 3, 1. etpyou, to jtij ^rgoeliovray t£u o^rXcov ra 
iyyvs T^y ToTiews KoucwpyeiPj where Haack compares 
Eurip. Phoen. 5, 1185. ipyadetv — to jiatq ov kut aKpmp 
irepyofuoif eXeiv^roXiv. 

48. Tpo<r€Ta^€ t€ atiToup ^aw^icrd^vai, &c. Dr. 
Whitby here raises a difficulty very needlessly, by 
enquiring whether it was the Gentiles that Peter 
commanded to do this, or his companions only per- 
mitted to baptize in case of necessity. He there- 
fore concludes that we must understand the words 
of St. Luke to mean that Peter commanded water 
to be brought him, and himself baptized them. Dr. 
Doddridge manifestly adopts, this view of the sub- 
ject, since he thinks we may conclude from hence 
that affusion^ not immersion ^ was employed. But 
the foundation is insecure, and consequently the 
superstructure must fall. There is no good reason 
for supposing it was not his Jewish companions. 
The ancient Greek Commentators seem to have been 
generally of that opinion ; as also Lightfoot, Eras- 
mus, and Grotius. To suppose, however, with 
Lightfoot, that they were ministers^ is too arbitrary, 
and proceeds on the mistake of confounding this 
with the later periods of the primitive Church. It 
is truly remarked by Grotius, that the Apostles rarely 
themselves baptized. (See the note on Job. 4, 2, 
and 1 Cor. I, 14.) Besides, as Dr. Doddridge sen- 
sibly observes in his paraphrase, he chose to make 
use of the ministry of his brethren in performing that 
rite, ratlier than do it with his own hands, that by 



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366 ACT! 09 THB APOSTLES, CHAP. X. XI. 

this means the expression of their consent might be 
the more explicit. 

48. rdT€ i}par^(ray, &c., " then ptayed they him to 
tarry certain days{' which, as we find from what 
follows, he did; though St. Luke does not posi- 
tively say so. This, however, seems to be, in some 
measure, included in ripmrfyra^ift by a sort of idiom 
not unknown in our language. *• Thus (observes 
Grot.) he emphatically shewed that he held himself 
loosed from the ritual precepts. He seems, how- 
ever, not to have used forbidden meats ; for of that 
there is not a word in the charge made against him 
in the following Chapter ; nor does it appear that 
any converted Jews did so until their final disper- 



sion." 



CHAP. XI. 



1. Kara n^v louWotv, in Judea* This use of the 
preposition is found also in the Classical writers; 
though not (I think) with proper names, and, if 
common ones, only such as mXi9 and dKy^r. See 
the examples produced by Munthe and Kuin. 

2. Sieic^ivovro ^rp^r at!roy. The word $ia<cpiV€0^oti 
answers to the Heb. S""! in Aquila and Theodotian's 
Version of Jer, 15, 10., and signifies to dispute, 
litigate, to be at difference with, expostulate with. 
(See Schl. Lex. Vet. Test, the note on Judg. v. 9.) 
So Eurip. Hipp. 767, SS. itrr^ Ao6Kw>.y^v icaiTiyfiawjv 
i^r aXX^jAoif Sia^gaid^vai, where I would read oXXijXouf, 
which will suggest the true interpretation of that 
passage. 

2. 01 he TrepiTofti}^, scil. Xyrey, i. e. ** the Jewish 
Christians.'* These Kuinoel thinks are to be dis- 
tinguished from the Apostles. But I see not how 
any such distinction can be founded on the words of 
St. Luke. Whether the Apostles were among the 
number of expostulators is uncertain. Most pro- 
bably they were not; nor need we understand by 
ol €K TTfgiTOjtA^f a/l the Jewish Christians, but only 



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ACTS OF THB APOSTTLBS^ CHAP. XI. 969 

a certain number, and those perhaps of more zeal 
than knowledge. 

Kuinoel here adopts a notion too common among 
lucent foreign Theologians, namely, that the Apos- 
tles often omit much of what is said or done, which 
must be supplied from the nature of the circum- 
stances. Now this is a very precarious, and indeed 
dangerous principle, little reverent towards the sa* 
cred writers, and unsafe in application. Here there 
can be no need to resort to it. For though Peter, 
in his reply, does advert to more than is expressed 
in the accusation, yet the expostulators seem to have 
spoken after the popular manner, in which much is 
left to be understood. 

In 6kri)Xd(f KcCi (Tvui^aye^ atiroT^ is meant to be in- 
cluded what followed from this intimacy and eating 
with them, namely, familiar intercourse, and a re- 
ception of them into the Christian society. Besides, 
we may suppose an aposiopesis after auroTp, caused 
by Peter^s cutting short their expostulation, and pro- 
ceeding to an explanation. 

4. a^aiuvos — i^eridero^ expounded, explainedj nar^ 
rated: a signification found in the Classical writers, 
from whom examples are produced by Wetstein. 
*Ap^afh€tfo^ is here said to be redundant. It is, how^ 
ever, not without elegance. The rest of the expla- 
nation or apology is thus stated by CEcumenius. 
*^ Peter shows that he has no where been the cause 
of any thing that has been done ; but every where 
God. For (says the Apostle) it was He who threw 
me into the ecstasis : it was He who showed me the 
vessel. But I contradicted, and did not render 
prompt obedience. God sent me, but I did not go : 
God told me to baptize, but I did not even then 
baptize. It is God that hath baptized them all, and 
not I. For as I was yet speaking, the Holy Spirit 
fell on them, and they spake with tongues,*' &c. 
On the rest of the verses to 15. see the notes on 10, 
30. seqq. 

12. Twi aySpof. Though this may not sound well 

VOL. IV. 2 B 



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S70 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP^ XI. 

to our ears, yet the ancients applied awjp and vir to 
persons of the greatest consequence : in illustration 
of which Wets, cites Virg. Mn. 4, 3. 

17. €1 but if (as he did). See the note on 4, 9. 
Toiy iria-rejo-ownv must not be referred to ijjtuv (us, 
the followers of Christ), but to aiiroiy, namely, Cor- 
nelius and his family. (Kuin.) *Eyci he nV ^jutijv 
Suvariy Ka>xGo-ai rov 0€ov, ** who then was I that,'' &c. 
This is a spirited, and, at the same time, popular 
expression for " How could I oppose," &c., or " I 
could not continue to oppose," &c. Wetstein aptly 
compares Lucian Dem. 12. ripcorarov A^jjitajvoticTa, riy 
wv ;fX€ua^oi tSl auroC ; and so Plaut. Pers. 1, 1. (cited 
by Fricaeus) Diisne adversor? quasi Titani cum Diis 
belligerem, quibus sat esse non queam ? "'H/xtqv is a 
form of the common dialect for ^v, and occurs not 
unfrequently in the Sept. So Moeris : ^v 'ArTiicaJr 
^fti}v* 'E7^7\,7iv$Km. Ai is not (with fieza and Simon) 
to be thrown out, on the authority of some MSS., 
since it is not unfrequently thus employed in inter- 
rogative sentences. See "Raphel and Sturz. Lex. 
Xen. in 1. v. ^ 18. (Wolf, Valcknaer, & Kuin.) 

18. ijVuyao-av, thej/ silent It/ acquiesced; i.e. (says 
Doddridge) till the controversy was renewed by 
some fiercer zealots (C. 5, 1 — 5). Schleusner com- 
pares 21, 14. /xij ^eiflo/xtvou hi auroy, yi(r\}ya<r(xjtL€v^ and 
observes that ijVupfiav €;^€«v occurs in Uiis sense in 
Demosth. Philipp. I. 

Meravoia properly signifies change of mind, and 
may very well denote (thought not, in the theological 
sense) the abandonment of one religion and the em- 
bracing of another. We have also S/Sovai fAcroyoioi^ 
in 5, 31. Wetstein here compares Appian. Hisp. p. 
458. ftoyijp hi (hHk r^px^y hihws roi^ Kao"Taicaio»p /xeray- 
vcomi. Bulkley cites Plutarch de Ethic. Virt. Kouyotp 

18. Els' Jonjv, i.e. ^*in order that they might thus 
be put into the way of salvation.'* 

19. There now follows a narrative of the propaga- 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAlP. XI. 871 

tion of the Christian Reh'gion beyond Palestine 
among the Gentiles, and first of all at Antioch. 

19^ ol (X€V ouy hounraq4vT€9. In the particle fiep oZp 
we have an epanalepsis, or resumption of what had 
been before said in 8, 4. *A^ is for &7ro, and denotes 
cause. An idiom sometimes found in Herodotus, 
Thucydides, and Xenophon, Wetstein cites Thucyd. 
1, 24. &7ro xoXefxou — iipddptjiray. Hermogen. Me- 
thod, c. 35. on the passage of Thucydides : otiMs^ y&p 
Xeyd airo xoXejxoti €^Qa§ri<rftu. Liv. 1, 1. ^neas ab 
simili clade domo profugus. And he refers to 
Apoc. 9, 18. 

19.*E?ri Xre^dvip. Some would render the eV) propter 
(as it is done by the authors of our English Version, 
and Doddridge) : others contra. But both these 
modes of interpretation Kuinoel rightly accounts 
harsh. Others, (with the Vulgate) render it sub, " at 
the time of." But to this it is objected by De Dieu 
and Alberti, that that sense would require Sr^^aVou, 
which, indeed, is found in some MSS., and is agree- 
able to the usage of the writers of the New Testa- 
ment. And so infra 28 & 29. Mark 2, 26. Luke 
4, 27. But the dative might be taken for the 
genitive. Many modern Commentators, however, 
as Drusius, Vatablus, Wolf, Alberti, and Rosen- 
Inuller render it post. And this mode of interpreta- 
tion Kuinoel approves of. " For (says he) the per- 
secution which arose after Stephen's death, cannot 
Well be referred to his time ; and therefore iw), with 
a genitive, may denote time. Yet (as it is observed 
by Valckn.) the noun must be one of office, (such as 
King, Magistrate,) according to which periods are 
reckoned. 

This signification post is frequent in the Classical 
writers. On 'Avnefpfeia see the Geographical writers, 
and Mr. Horde's Introduction. 

20. i\&Kotj9 wpo9 Tovs 'ExXijvKTTa^, ^* spoke (the 
word of the Lord) to the Hellenists.'* This passage 
involved no little difficulty. By •ExxijvKrTai some 
interpreters^ both ancient and modern, have under- 

2b 2 



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872 ACTS OF THE APOSTI^BS, CHAP. Xf. 

stood Jews speaking Greek : biit, as it should seeiQy 
erroneously. For the Hellenists are, at ver. 19.» 
opposed to the Jews ; and if Jews roeaking Greek 
had been meant, the Cyprians and Cyreneans men*- 
tioned at ver. 00. would nave done nothing else than 
what those Jerusalemite Christians had done, who 
were dispersed after the death of Stephen (among 
whom were many Hellenists^ (ver. 6, 1,5.), and who, 
passing over to Pbenicia, Cyprus, and Antioch. had 
taught the Jews only, i. e. the foreign Jews speaking 
Greek, namely, the Hellenists. 

Other interpreters, however, observing this objec- 
tion to the above explication of *Exx>}vi<rTai, adopt 
the opinion either that 'ExXtjyio-rai must be taken in 
another signification, or the reading be changed. 
And Drusius and Wetstein maintain that by *Exx^- 
vitrra) are to be understood Gentiles. But this sig- 
nification cannot be established on good grounds. 
(See the note on 6, 1.) Schmid and others under- 
stand proselytes of' the gate. But they adduce no 
proofs to confirm this signification. According to 
the opinion of Wolf and others, by 'ExXijvierToti are 
meant ** Gentiles by birth, but proselytes of the 
Jews,*' who had received circumcision. This inter- 
pretation, however, is also at variance with the usus 
loquendi; for such proselytes were always reckoned 
.with Jews. Abandoning this opinion, Grotius, Ben* 
gel, Rosenmuiler, Heinrichs, and others, maintain 
that ''Exxifiyaf, which is found in some very ancient 
MSS. Versions and Fathers, is to be adopted, as being 
confirmed by the whole context ; since Luke, after 
having narrated the conversion of Cornelius (ver. 
19. seqq.), goes on to say that, from this time, the 
Christian doctrine was more widely propagated 
among the Gentiles, and first at Antioch. Thither, 
after the martyrdom of Stephen, certain Jerusalemite 
Christians had come (8, 1.) ; but preached the doc- 
trine of Christ to the Jews only. Ailterwards^ how* 
ever, when the conversion of Cornelius had been 
noispd abroad, some Cyprians and Cyreneans^ con- 



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ACTS OF THE AfOSTLE9) CHAP. Xt. 373 

verted to Christianity by these Jerusalemite Chris- 
tians, came to Antioch, and, as being Hellenists 
dwelling among Gentiles, and thus so much the 
more disposed to tolerate and admit pagans, they 
communicated the doctrine of Christ to the Gentiles 
dwelling at Antioch. 

How the reading *Exxijyi<rTfli^ arose, is obvious. 
(See Kuin., from whom the substance of the above 
annotation is derived.) Dr. Doddridge observes 
that the common sense would induce us to adopt 
''ExXTjvotp. See Chrysostom and CEcumenius. 

It must be observed that aSrcSv is not to be referred 
to the ha(nroLpiin'€9f but to the 'louSa/w^ in ver. 19. 

21 — 23. Koi ^u ;fflp KupUo fuer aurwv. An Oriental 
expression, denoting help, assistance. It may be 
rendered thus: ** the power of the Lord co-operated 
with them.*' Chrysostom understands this of mi- 
racles: and so does Archbishop Newcome. IIoXu^ 
is put for lUyoLt. See the note on Luke 16, 10. 

22. i^KoxHT^ — €1^ rk (iroL rijy eKH^rjtrla^. Aay^9 here 
signifies f^mour, report. Eiy ra c3ra is considered 
as an Oriental redundancy, fiut perhaps the sen* 
tence i3 more significant with than without it ; and 
the idiom is also found in the Classical writers. 

23. Iharu rrif ;^a§iy to5 06o3, Grotius and others 
understand by this the increase of the Church ; (as 
in Eph. 2, 8.) the cause (says Kuin.) being put for 
the effect.'' 

23. 7rap€Ktk\€$ varra^ rff xptAiirti r^s kxh^iol^ tt^w- 
pjiy^iv r£ Ku^icp. Ilpod€(ns^ signifies purpose or inten* 
tion ; as in Acts 28, 13. and frequently in St Paufs 
Epistles. Now the addition of t^^ tcaplHlots has (by a 
iiebrew idiom) the force of an adjective. The phrase 
therefore denotes ** a hearty purpose ;" and Grotius> 
Schleusner, and Kuinoel refer to 2 Tim. 3, 10., but 
(I think) without reason. (See the note on that 
passage.) So Alberti Gloss. Gr. N. T. p. 8?. r^f 
irptAitrecor t^9 erxooS^y. Wolf compares Herodian 1, 

Y\pwriUy€iv properly signifies to wait for ; as in 



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374 ACTS. OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XI.. 

Thucyd. 6, 44. ; but here, and in Joseph. Ant. 14, 
2, 1. (cited by Rosenm.) " to wait, stay by, adhere 
to, remain attached to.'' 

24. on ^9 at^p ayado^, Heinrichs and Ruinoel 
think that these words assign a reason why the 
Christians at Jerusalem chose fiarnabas for the mis- 
sion to Antioch. And certainly the on may have a 
causal force ; and thus the words ts va^y^iif^^ms — 
tA KOfiix^ may be regarded as parenthetical ; and the 
oTi be referred to ^^aWcrrciXav. The sense of a^^p 
ayahh is best to be understood by a reference to the 
usage of our own language, in which we have a very 
similar idiom, whereby the notions of integrity, be- 
nignity, and gentleness are united. Heinrichs is 
the only foreign Commentator who has discerned 
the true sense. Wetstein adduces some examples; as 
Joseph. Ant. 12, 9, 1. op ayafloy <oy avr^p. and 18, 
5,2.; and Hor. Epist. 1, 9) 13. Scribe tui gregis 
hunc, et fortem crede bonumque. But this last is 
scarcely apposite ; and still less Thucyd. 5, 9- oi^g 
ayod^p y/yyot>, where nothing more is meant than, " act 
the part of a brave man:'' a signification of ayaOop not 
unfrequent in that author. 

24. ^rX^pjp ZIveujuuxToy ayiou. This phrase is, as 
as usual, explained away by many recent Theolo- 
gians, so as to mean no more than a man well affected 
to religion. But surely, as applied to so eminent an 
Apostle, it must have it&fulljorce^ including all the 
Divine helps necessary ror so arduous a work as he 
had to accomplish. 

We may observe that Barnabas took Saul as his 
colleague, both as being known to him, and from his 
being an Hellenist peculiarly fitted to assist him ; as 
also in consideration of his eminent abilities, his high 
mental acquirements, his eminent piety and zeal; 
and, above all, his extraordinary conversion^ which 
seemed to point him out as an instrument in the 
hands of God, fitted to accomplish the most impor-r 
tant purposes, in bringing over the Gentiles to the 
profession of the faith. (See, however, Dr. S. Clarke 



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ACTS OPTH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. XI. 875 

ap. Mant and D'Oyley-) Stmx;^?mi were united 
together in the bonds of fellowship. 

is here used in a sense quite unusual in the Classical 
writers, among the earlier of whom (as Valcknaer 
observes) it signifies to dispatch business ; but among 
the more recent ones, to so dispatch business as to 
thence obtain a name ; and hence it at length simply 
denoted to be called, or named. Of this signification 
many examples from Josephus, Philo, and other 
writers are adduced by Valcknaer, Raphel, Kypke, 
and Loesner j as also by Wets, on Romans, which 
establish the sense in question ; after all, however, 
there is a sort of catachresis in the expression. 

Xpio-riayour. It has been matter or enquiry whe- 
ther the followers of Christ gave this name to them- 
selves, or received it from others ? That they first 
applied it to themselves, is not only devoid of autho- 
rity, but may be disproved by many weighty argu- 
ments. For, in the first place, if they had appro- 
priated the name to themselves, they would have 
thereby excited a greater enmity against themselves. 
Again, if the Antiochian Christians had done so, 
Luke, in recording this origin of the appellation, 
would undoubtedly, in the rest of his work, have so 
employed it ; which he has not done. On the con- 
trary, he calls them the believers, the disciples, the 
brethren, &c. ; the very same names by which he 
had, in the former part of his book, designated them. 
Furthermore, if at the time when Paul was teaching 
at Antioch, Christ's followers had voluntarily taken 
this name, he would have used it in his Epistles ; 
whereas he always employs other terms. 

Finally, whenever, in the New Testament, the 
name Christians occurs, it is applied by* persons not 
professing the Religion; as in Acts 26, 28. and 1 
Pet. 4, 14. '• If ye be reproached for the name of 
Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of 
God resteti) upon you : on their part he is evil 



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570 ACTS OF THB APOSTLBS^ CHAP. XI. 

spoken of, but on your part be is glorified ;** and 16. 
^* Yet if any man suffer as a Cbristain, let bim not 
be ashamed,** &c« The name, therefore, seems to 
have been then meant for a reproachful appellation. 
Was it, then, given them by the Jews ? Certainly 
not. By them they were called Nazarenes (Acts 
£4, 51.) : and, indeed, they would have called them 
by any name rather then that which would seem to 
admit the pretensions of Jesus to the Messiahship. 

Beyond all controversy, the name was given them 
by Gentiles^ and, very probably, the Romans dwelling 
at Antioch ; as indeed the very Latin form suggests: 
for by that were characterised the partizans of any 
great man ; as Csesariani, Pompeiani, &c. Now by the 
Antiochians (who, as we learn from Zosimus, p. 258, 
iind Ammian. Marc. ^, 14., and other writers cited 
by Wets., were not a little prone to scofb and coarse 
jokes) they were called Chrhtiani in derision of the 
pretensions of Jesus to be King of the Jews. Taci- 
tus, Annal. 15, 44. says : Nero — quaesitissimis poenis 
afiecit, quos, per fiagitia invisos, vulgus Christianos 
appellabant. Auctor nominis ejus Christus (u e. a 
duds sui nomine traxerunt hoc nomen)^ Tibeno im- 
peritante per procuratorem Pontium Pilatum suppli- 
cio afibctus erat. The Christians, however, felt no 
aversion to the name, but rather reckoned it an 
honour, and therefore retained it. (Kuin. & Wets.) 

In this view of the subject I must, upon the whole, 
acquiesce. The common opinion however is, that 
they applied the name to themselves, or had it given 
them by Barnabas or Saul, or Euodius, the first 
Bishop of Antioch. But this is destitute of autho- 
rity. I must not omit to notice a strange mistake 
into which Doddridge has fallen, misled by Benson, 
who explains ;fpi}ptaTi<rai " was done by Divine direc- 
tion }'* conformably to which mode of interpretation 
he translates : " were, by Divine appointment^ first 
named Christians at Antioch." Into such errors do 
those Commentators run, who, without attending to 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XI. ^77 

the ustis loquendif dwell on some fancied etymologi-^ 
cal sense. 

I must conclude with observing, that from Phi- 
lostr. Vit. Ap. 8, 21. it appears the Greeks called 
the disciples of ApoUonius A^roTcXoiy/oi. 

27* 'jrpo^ijrai. Commentators are not quite agreed 
on the exact sense to be here attached to ^go^rai. 
The term seems to denote teachers, who, with more 
or less of the afflatus Divinus applied themselves to 
both public preaching and teaching, and appear to 
have occasionally foretold future events. Kuinoel 
refers to Koppe s third Excursus on the Epistle to 
the Eph. p. 152 seqq. Now these were in dignity 
inferior to the Apostles, but superior to other teach- 
ers. See Ephes. 2, 20. 3, 5. 

28. i(nj[JLaif€y he (fore) showed^ predicted. This 
term seems to have been applied of prophecies and 
auguries, both by the sacred and profane writers. 
So Joseph. Ant. 7j 8. (speaking of Nathan): <nj/tai- 
veov ngy « rou ^raiSop erofievriv hrmtrip. It occurs also 
in Euripides and Xenophon. See Sturzii Lex. Xen. 

28. fUKkav €<r€<r6ai. The student will observe this 
use of fii€XX6iy with the future, which is found in 
the best writers, especially Herodotus, Thucydides, 
and Lysias. 

By -j oXij ij oiKoufievri most modern Commentators 
unite in understanding, not the whole world, but 
Judea only; as in Luke 2, 1. where see the note. 
Bishop Pearce here observes, that in proof of this 
dearth being in Judea only, it appears from ver. 39» 
40. that it was not expected, and probably was not 
^Miod in Syria, where Antioch was : for, if it had, the 
Christians there would scarqely have been able to 
relieve those of Judea. ** Besides (continues he) 
when Joseph, in Antiq. S, 15, 8. and 20, 2, 6. and 4, 
2. speaks of this dearth in Claudius's reign, as hav- 
ing happened in Judea, he not only says nothing of 
its being elsewhere, but he tells us that large quanti- 
ties of corn were sent up to Jerusalem from other 
countries, for the purpose of the feast of unleavened 



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SJS ACTS OF THB APOSTLES, CHAP. XI. 

bread."* ^ See also Dr. Lardnefs Credibility, and 
Doddr. in loc. 

* KuiDoel, in order to prove that the words must be understood 
of Palestine only, adduces descriptions of ihe four famines which 
happened in the reign of Claudius, from the original Historians. 

I. The^-ie was that which afflicted Rome, and fell on the first 
and second year of Claudius. So Dio Cass. p. 949. edit. Reimwr. 
\ifxov itrx^pov yeyo^eyov, oh ^6voy rfjs ly rf roTf ifap6vTi &fdoyia$ 
Ttay Tpo<^^y, &XXa Koi rijs Is ir&yra roy fiera ravra aliaya xpdyoiay 
hroiiiaaro* Aurel. Vict. Cses. c. 4. Annonse egestas sub Claudio 
nimirum eomposita, quam Caligula induzerat, dum, adactis toto 
orbe na%'igiis, pervium mare theatris curribusque damno publico 
efficere studuit. 

The principal cause of this famine was the difficulty of importing 
provisions to Rome by sea, during the winter season. (See Dio, ibi- 
dem); which induced Claudius to form, at a great expense, the 
port of Ostia. 

II. The second famine came on towards the end of the fourth 
vear of Claudius, and especially afflicted Judea. It was alleviated 
by Helena Queen of Adiabene, who had embraced the Jewish reli- 
gion. (See Scaliger, Anim. on Euseb. 19^. and Weaseling, Obss. 1, 
9. p. 28.) Of this mention is thus made in Jus. Ant. 20, 2, 6. Xi/iov 
ahrUfy ri^y nSXiy Kara roy Kaipoy ^Kelyoy wie^ovyros Kol iroW&y vw* 
eybelas iiyaXwfi&Twy ^Setpojjiiyiay, ^ fiatrlXurtra 'EX^viy iri^wei riyas 
T^y iavrrjsy rovs ^^y eU r^v *AXe{av^f>ecaK, ToXi/y tnroy wyrf^rofii' 
yovh y^pfificLTuty, rovs bk els Kvwpoy ltr\abwy ^dprov oltroyras, 

IIlT The third famine afflicted Greece, in the ninth year of Clau- 
dius. So Euseb. Chron. I. p. 79. (edit. Scaliger): Xifiov Kara rfiy 
*EXX&ba yeyoy6ros fjiey&Xov, 6 rod trirov fiSbios c? bibpaxftt^y 
lirp^dfi. 

IV. The fourth took place in the eleventh year of Claudius, and 
afflicted Rome. Sd Sueton. Vit. Claud. C. 18. Arctiore annon^ ob 
assiduas sterilitates detentus, quondam medio furo a turba conviciis, 
ac simul fhigminibus panis ita instratus, ut segre, nee nisi posttco 
evadere in palatium valuerit. Tacit. An. 12^ 43. Fruguni egestas 
et orta ex eo lames in prodigium accipicbatur. 

From what has been said, it is sufficiently plain that we must 
suppose the words of St. Luke to denote that famine which, in the 
fourth year of Claudius, overspread Palestine ; and that we must un- 
derstand, not the Roman Empire, but Judsea only; for whose 
relief the money was gathered at Antioch. (Walch, Krebs, Mi- 
chaelis, and Kuin.) 

Archbishop Usher has endeavoured to prove that the famine in 
the fourth year of Claudius was universal : and Mr. Biscoe ap. 
Boyle s Lect. p. GO— 66. thinks that there may be a reference to all 
the famines. But all put together would not make up half the 
Roman Empire, much less the whole world : not to say that the 
singular Xtfioy cannot apply to all those different famines. Besides 
(as Dr. Doddridge remarks) the ])er8ons with regard to whom it is 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. XI. 879. 

29. KoAws ijWopeTro n^y &c. I entirely accede to 
the mode of interpretation adopted by Grotius, 
the authors of our English Version^ and many other 
Commentators, namely, " pro modo facultatum/' 
** in proportion to the respective ability or wealth of 
each." Nor need any one object that this would 
lead us to suppose all the Antiochian Christians 
were rich, or that the rich only were contributors ; 
for €inrop€i(rdai, like many such words in all Ian- 
guages (ex. gr. our wealth)^ is a comparative term, and 
we must here subaud ;fp^|xara>v. It is an elliptical 
expression for ** in proportion as any were wealthy, 
(or not)." Now this is all that needs be borne m 
mind by the reader, who may consult the long anno- 
tation of Kypke ; in which, however, the sense is 
rather obscured than illustrated by the numerous 
Classical citations adduced. Among these there is 
a curious one from Musonius : aXX' euTo^oi -/^prt^iMrmv 
oyre^* rms Se /cai TXou<rioi. But this is not to our pre- 
sent purpose. The rest have the ellipsis of yp)]fiara>y 
filled up. He might more aptly have cited Thucyd. 
6, 44. KOii (is iKcurroi ^uTro^traw where there is the 
Jirst mentioned ellipsis. The sense is, " just as any 
had power to make the coast (or not).." The stu- 
dent will bear in mind that eiiropos does not of itself 
signify TrXoucrioy (as is plain from the passage of Mu- 
nonius just cited), but rather, according to its ety- 
mology, one (as we say) " well to do, in good cir- 
cumstances." So Ammonius (cited by Wets.) ^rXoiJ- 
(r40St ToXtioutrioy, toXXi)v €;fa)V oi}<r«aV EuTopoy Se, o 
9rpoy ro^y iv) SaXXotJ^ay tu;^ as* av€v8e>)$' — ewopoi, icav /xij 

To pass, however, from tvords to things^ I conclude 
by adducing a passage of Dionysius Corinthius ap. 

here mentioned were so much more concerned in the first of these, 
which appears to have been the most extreme, that the prediction 
seems chiefly to refer to that which was the dearth in which Helena, 
- Queen of Adiabene, so generously relieved the Jews with com and 
other provisions from Egypt and Cyprus, which by the way prove« 
that the famine was not universal at that time. 



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SSO ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XI. 

Euseb. H. E. 4, 23. reited by Wets.) ۤ oj^?^ yo^ 
ijftiy ?6op itrri to5to, Tartar ft€V ^K^dus* TdiiwXaiff ^icp* 
7€T€iy, €i«fXij^iaip re ToXXaiy rajp icarok Tdtrap Wxiv 
€^$ia TTf/xTreiVy <£$€ |x^ r^v rcSv SeoiUvcov iteviay a$fw^ 

yoGvraf. 

29. ciqtfrafy determined^ resolved. The word pro- 
perly signifies terminare, determinare^ to determine 
limits. 2dly, it denotes determine generally^ decree^ 
in which sense it is frequently used in the New Tes- 
tament ; especially in the writings of St. Luke ; as 
Luke 22, 22. Acts 2, 23. 10, 42. 11, 29. 17* 26. 
16, 29. So also Prov. I6, 30. hpl^ei icavra rot kolkSl. 
Heb. 4, 7. Schleusner refers to a passage of Diodor. 
Siculus ; but he might have cited a more apposite 
one from I'hucyd. 3, 82. h W rot ^icotWpois' xo5 &fl 
q*Sov^y Jfpfov opi Jovrai, determining cmd appointing (pu^ 
nishments)y just according to our own pleasure. 

29. Ei; haKoviaVy in subsidium. So Theophylact : 
tj hcucovia erriv tj rcSv ;fp73jxara>v hri^copr^yla. In the 
same sense Sioucovoy is used in Heb. 6, 10. Sioicoy^- 
frarr€9 roTs* ayioiy. * Vitringa has shown at large (de 
Synag. Vet. 809 — 1 1 0« that it was common for the 
Jews living in foreign parts to send relief in times 
of distress to their poor brethren at Jerusalem. And 
it is observed by Grotius, that the Jerusalemite 
Christians were, for the most part, poor, and for 
that reason they were commended to the benevo- 
lence of the Achsans and Macedonians. 

30. aTooT^/XavT^f irpls^ rowy 7r^fO"|3ur^pouf . This is 
the first time that there has been any mention made 
of elders in the Christian Church, which was (as 
Vitringa and Casaiibon observe) formed almost 
wholly on the model of the Synagogue. Dr. Ham- 
mond has here a profoundly learned, curious, and in- ^ 
structive annotation on the origin and various uses of 
this important word, in which he proves that these 
elders were the same in office with those called m- 
cKiicoi : and he thinks there is no certain evidence 
from Scripture that the name of elders or presbyters 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. XI. XII. 881 

was given so easily to another order between them 
and deacons. 

The extreme length of his annotation forbids its 
insertion here ; and therefore I can only refer my 
readers to it» whose trouble it will abundantly repay. 

CHAP. XII. 

1. kolt" hcetvoif Se rhf Katpop. Valcknaer observes 
that icar hceTvo rou Kodpou (as in Thucydides) would 
have been better Greek. Yet very pure Greek 
writers use the common form, examples of which 
Wetstein produces from Joseph. Ant. 6, 44, 1. & 
7 9 2. It IS further remarked by Valcknaer, that 
instead of iwi^aXe r^ y€ipas the Classical authors 
would have written ^9r6;(£i/>i}0'6 (as in Luke 1, 1. 
Acts 9» 39)* Those writers, however, sometimes 
use (VijSaWdai in tliis sense without x^^^* And 
so Diog. Laert. 6, 2, 4. e^^iSaXf repcri^eiy. (See 
Kypke on Mark 14, 72.) It appears to be Helle- 
nistic Greek. Thus we have in Oeut. 12, 7* €u<p^ay- 
d^€<rd€ iirl iratriy oTa cJv hn^&Kyir€ rk^ j(!^pa9. See 
also 15, 10. The Classical writers also use €xi3oXi) 
in the sense of entetprisei as Thucyd. 3, 45. #ca) o 
p.6y n]v art^TSiv iic^qoMrl^' where the Scholiast ex- 
plains iinyeifnt^trw. 

1. 'Hpa>dt)s> 3a«-i7i€up, i.e. the Herod who is by 
authors styled Agrippa^ and also major. This He- 
rod was the grandson of Herod the Great, son of 
Aristobolus, who was destroyed by his father (as we 
learn from Jos. Ant. 18, 5). See more in Deyling's 
Obss., !Elsch. Prolus., and Krebs. Kaic^ai to afflict^ 
ill treat; as in Acts 7, 6. 18, 10. 14, 2. and often 
in the Sept. and Josephus. (See the note on 7, 6.) 
The St just aft,er may be rendered imo etiam : and 
we may observe a sort of climax. It is neatly re- 
marked by Wetstein, that ^* this persecution was 
commenced by the Priests, continued by the people^ 
and completed by the Prince."' 



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382 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Xn. 

2. aveiXf, i. e. " beheaded him.'' For he had the 
power of life and death, as had the Roman prociK 
rators before him. Wetstein here cites SaBbedrim 
53, 2. Decollatio ignommiosissimum apud Judseos 
mortis genus habebatur. '* The accuracy of the 
sacred writer Tsays'Dr. Paley ap. Mant) in the ex- 
pressions which he uses, is in this instance remark- 
able. There was no portion of time for thirty years 
before, or ever afterwards, in which there was a king 
at Jerusalem, a person exercising that authority in 
Judea, or to whom that title could be applied, ex- 
cept the three last years of this Herod's life, within 
which period the transaction here recorded took 
place." See also Walch's Dissert, on the captivity 
of Peter, p. 6. Doddridge here notices, with appro- 
bation, a remark of Clarius (derived, however, from 
CEcumenius, and by him from Chrysostom), namely, 
tliat this early execution of one of the Apostles after 
our Lord's death, would illustrate the courage of 
the rest in going on with their ministry, as it would 
evidently show, that even all their miraculous 
powers did not secure them from dying by the 
sword of their enemies. 

3. Koi IScJv on af€<rriv itrri roTs* TouSoioip, ** when he 
saw it was acceptable to the Jews." Some confine 
'louWois* to the Sanhedrim; and in that sense the 
word is often used by St. John ; but it here seems to 
have a general signification, including both the 
Rulers and people. 

3. xpoa-^^en o-uXXajS^fv, '^ and he proceeded to 
take." A Hebraism, on which see the note on Luke 
20, 12. 'Hijo-av ii ijftepai rcov a^ujxcov, i. e. the paschal 
week, during which they were to have no leaven in 
their houses. See Deut. 16, 6. Ex. 12, 18. Matt. 
26, 17. These words (as A. Lapide Menochius, and 
Lightfoot observe) are added in order to show haw 
it happened that Peter was not immediately put to 
death ; and 2dly, to place in a strong light tne ob- 
stinate malice of the Jews at a holy season, when 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAf>. XI t. 38^ 

they ought to have given themselves unto religious 
duties, and purged away the leaven of malice and 
wickedness. 

4, 5. viOLtras eO^ro fip ^x/KaKr^v 'TroLpaZoh^ retnrapir} 
rrrgoSioif frrparuorm* Herod had his own soldiers in 
the city (see Joseph. 19, 7> 1)> and they guarded 
Peter in the mode usual with the Romans, whose 
customs (except in matters of religion) Agrippa, 
who had been educated at Rome, studiously imitated. 
See Joseph. Ant. 19, 7, 4 & 5. 19, 8, 2. Amongst 
the Romans the night watch was distributed among 
quaternions, or detachments of four soldiers, each of 
whom watched three hours ; and since Herod chose 
that Peter should be watched by font* soldiers, of 
whom two should be in the prison, and two be sta- 
tioned at the gates, it was necessary thatybwr qua- 
ternions of soldiers should be appointed for that 
purpose. See Veget. R. M. 3, 8., and Fisch. Pro!, 
de Vit. Lex. N. T. 452. 

Terpaiiov, a quaternion^ the regular number for a 
guard, as 2Ljile is with us. So Polyb. 6, 33. SiSoaeri 
^uXaic6fa 8uo, r^ ^ ^uXoKf loy itrnv €K rerrapoiv &v8pwp. 
Philo in Flacc. 981. trrparidTriv 8^ riva rm iv rm 
rerpo&iois ^uXo^oiv, &c. 

4. ^ovXojx^yos' (X€rA t\ T^wryoL avayayciv otur^v rcjS 'hOL&. 
Tiw\ifji^09f meaning. 'AvayayeTv, for TpoayayeTv, bring 
him forth for trial and punishment, as we say, 
" bring any one up for trial." 

5. irqoirejx^ Se ifv iicreyi^f. 'EKreinjy is properly used 
of a rope at full tension, and signifies, 1st, extensus^ 
then intensuSf continual, fervent. So 1 Pet. 4, 8. 
ayoTn^y iicTeyii. Acts 26, 7* ^y iKxev^ia Xar^oov. Luke 
22, 44. iKT€V€(rr€pov 7rgoaT]u;^€To. This metaphor is 
also to be found in the Sept. ; ex. gr. Judith 4, 7- 
av6^orJO•ay irpls rlv 0€ov iu 6KT6V€ia jX€yaXiQ. See 2 
Mace. 14, 38. Jon. 3, 8. Joel 1, 14. K€Kpa^aT€ Trgis* 
Kopiw €KT€v£y. See Dr. Hammond's note. 

6. ?jtt€XX€y aMv icpoayeiv. Subaud €h iKK'Ky^triav or 
€fp S//a}y, which words are supplied in Joseph. Ant. 



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S84 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. 

16, 11, 6., Vit. §. 11., and Bell. 1, 27, 2. And so 
the Latin prodo ; as in Cic. £p. ad Fam. 12, 4. pro^ 
ductus in concionem, and in ver. 5, 6. ad necem 
producere. (Krebs.) Kuinoel refers to Valckn. on 
Eurip. Phoen. 219. 

a-ert Stxr). It was the custom of the Romans to 
fasten the prisoner with a small and light chain to 
some soldier, who was appointed to guard him ; one 
end of which chain was lastened to the right hand 
of the prisoner, and the other end of it to the left 
hand of the soldier. To this custom Seneca alludes, 
when he says, in Epist. V. Eadem catena et custo*- 
diam et mUitem copulat; et De Tranquil! . C. 10. 
Eadem custodia universos circumdedit, alligatiq; 
sunt etiam, qui alligaverunt ; nisi tu fort^ leviorem 
in sinistra catenam putas. I find, too, in Plin. 
Epist. 10, SO. Rogo, Qomine, consilio me regas ha&- 
sitantem, utrum per publicos civitatum servos, quod 
usq; adhuc factum, an per milites asservare custodias 
debeam : the latter was the custom of the Romans, 
the former that of the province where he then go^ 
verned. It seems to have been for the better se- 
curing of Peter from any escape, that they bound 
him, as here described, with two chains to two soL 
diers. (Pearce^) To these passages may be added 
Lucian Tox. Tcateq by Pricaeus) : T^^ ijft€pas o icXoi^ 

It is interesting to notice how entirely this faithful 
servant of God resigned liimself to the Divine care, 
and slept soundly an the niffht before that day which 
was probably to terminate his life. With this Wet- 
stein aptly compares the sound and composed sleep 
enjoyed by Socrates on the night before his execu- 
tion. 

6. €TiJpouv rr^if ^iyKoLia]y. Raphel would render 
^uXoici^ watch : but the word signifies prison, both 
here and in ver. 4., as also in Matt. 26, 10. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP* XII. SS5 

7* i^ol) iSou, ayyeXo^ Kopiou iTretrrri.^ Many recent 
German Commentators, as Eichhom, Hezel, and 
Heinrichs, entirely deny the reality of this angelic 
appearance, and account for Peters release from 
natural causes. 

Hezel thinks that the light here mentioned was 
lightning, which melted Peter's chains, and caused 
the doors to open, &c. ! ! Heinrichs suspects that 
the gaoler was a favourer of Christianity, and so 
somehow contrived to let Peter escape. 

It is unnecessary for me to point out the extreme 
absurdity of these conjectures, which (as Kuin. ac- 
knowledges) are inconsistent with the manifest in- 
tent of St. Luke. Heinrichs, indeed, observes, that 
in whatever way this escape took place, it must be 
ascribed to a Divine providence guarding Peter*s 
life for important purposes : but in the way in which 
he supposes it to have been effected, it could hardly 
appear, either to the Apostles or to his followers, 
that there was the hand of God in his deliverance. 

7. Ofioj/xa is for Sio-ftoiri^^toy, by an euphemism 
frequent with the Athenians, who (as Helladius 
Christ. 22. and Pollux 9, 45. observe,) call bad things 
by good names. (Kuin., from Alberti and Kypke.) 
In addition to this, 1 must observe that Thucydides 
seems to refer to this in a very fine passage of 3, 82. 
1, 496- edit. Bekker. koa n^v elw^iaif o^icoo-iy rcSy ovo- 

ykp aXoywToy ovSp/a ^iXeraipos' iw^if^itr^^ jX€XXijo-i$' 8c 
xpofirid^s SeiXia euTr^cnQ^, ro S^ o-a>^goy roS avovSpoti Trpoc- 
;^jxa, Ka) rl vf^ avav ^uverlv ex) ttolv apyiv. On this 
principle we may account for eitiyx^iuis and many such 
words among the examples of this signification ad- 
duced by Kypke, in Thucyd. 4, 47. ^ogaXajSoWep 11 

* 'E^iWi;/ie is frequently used of sudden appearances; as here and 
in Luke ^, 9. £yyeXos Kvpfov kirivTri ahrois. Ibid. S4, 4. Acts 93, 
11. iwierras airr^ 6 Kvptos. And so it is employed in the Classical 
writers; ex. gr. Herodot. 3. c. 141. ol d<$£ac ly r^ 6\j/€i eTriaravTa 
Tov deov daptrvyeiy Ibid. 5, 56. Achill. Tat. 1, 4. p. 919. Dion. 
Hal. 7, 67. Anacr. Od. 3, 31. (Schleusner.) 
VOL* IV. 2 C 



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S86 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. XIL 

uiroi 01 K€picupaM €$ olicrifia yjiyoL icadei^^oy. The 
learned Commentator, however, was deceived by the 
Latin translator, Portus ; for oTiojixa there signifies 
no more than cedificium ; as appears from the want 
of the article, and the addition of ft^yot. So Thucyd. 
L. 2, 4. €<nriWou(riy €9 olicrifjM [j^eya' where it is rightly 
rendered cedificium^ and Diodor. Siculus, too, para- 

fhrases it by oiiciav. It is strange, however^ that 
bilux should have taken it to mean prison. But, 
besides that the article is required (which is found in 
all the examples produced by Wetstein), the door 
could not have been open ; nor could the oIkv^im have 
been large in such a small place as Plataea. Indeed, 
I am not aware that the word ever has in Thucydides 
the sense of prison. 

Kuinoel remarks that on the situation of this pri- 
son there has been much discussion among the Com- 
mentators; though nothing can with certainty be 
determined, since St. Luke has not very particularly 
described it. '^ That it was not (continues he) the ptU^ 
lie prison, is clear from the expression ^y 1^^190-61 Sijfto- 
<ria.*' Lightfoot thinks it was without the city; which, 
however, Wolf has shewn to have been contrary to 
custom. He conjectures that it was in the city, and 
near to the Judgment hall; and that by the iron 
gate, mentioned at ver. 10., is to be understood the 
outer gate of the prison. De Dieu and Fessel sup- 
pose (on the authority of Adrichomius) that this 
prison was in the court of Herod's palace, and that 
it was his private prison. From this area and prison 
(as Fessel thinks) extended a street, through which 
was the outlet from the palace to the city, and, as it 
seems, closed by an iron gate. 

Walch observes, that from the Jewish writers, we 
find Jerusalem was surrounded by three walls, of 
which the interior and most ancient had sixty towers ; 
the exterior one ninety; and the intermediate one 
fourteen. In one of these towers^ namely, of those 
belonging to the intermediate wall, he supposes Peter 
to have been confined : and the iron gate (he thinks) 
was at the entrance of the tower. An opinion (as 



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ACTS PF THE APOSTLES^ CH4P. XII. 387 

Kuin. thinks) not improbable ; since it is ascertained 
that jails were formerly in totuers, which seems to 
account for our old word gate-house. See the 
Scholiast on Juvenal 6, 57- 

By priao» must be understood that part of it in 
which Pteter was coi^Bed^ 

7. irara^oLs rrlv 7r7i€t)poaf row TUrom^ swsude Peter on 
the side : as is usual (observes Grotius) in rousing 
persons from sleep. See the examples adduced by 
rricaeus and Wetstein. 

7. i^arerov — al dCKvceis^ With the whole of this pas- 
sage may be compared Eurip. Bacch. 443. seq. (cited 
by Wets.) ay V au <rv V^oK'xa^ clp^ay, d^avvripTrafraSi icaSij- 
o-ay €V SetTjxoMri TavSigjDiou o-Wyijy, ^pouoa) y 6/cfivaf, X€Xu- 
jx€vai Trqls o^ya^as XKipTwtr^f ^poiJi^iof avaicaXoufte/otf d€hf, 
auTOfioLTOLf 8* atiraiip Sctrjxflt Si^Xtidi) toScov, /cX^Scy r ay^ay 
Buq€Tp avcw A^T^s" X^P^^^ H^ ^'^^ quotes Ovid. Met. 
3,696. Solidis Tyrrhenus Acoetes clauditur in tec- 
tis, et dum crudelia jussas instrumenta necis, ferrutn- 
que ignesque parantur, sponte sua patuisse fores, 
lapsasque lacertis sponte sua^fama est, nullo solvente, 
catenas. Philostr. Vit. ApoUon. Tyan. p. 8I7. ۤe- 
yaye rl o'K^Xo^ rdG ^o-ftou — rore Ttpwroy i Aoftiy ^(rh 
oKp^fiaif ^tmivai T^y *A?roX7uoyiou ^ua-ew^f ^ri Qeia re 
€tji Ka) Kpelrrcov avflpawrow ui} yap Qotravra^ {ir£9 yoLp 4if 
Seo-pnnj^io) ;) /X138' €(i$ajX6yov ri, ftijTf cwoWa icaraycXa*- 
<ra4 ToiJ 8€<r/xo5. 

8. cravSaXia. See the note on Matt. 10, 10. and 
Pricaeus in loc. It is a beautiful circumstance (as is 
noticed by Chrysostom and Pricaeus,) that the aneel 
bids Peter fasten his sandals ; which, in a hasty flight, 
would be usually neglected ; and this in order to hint 
to him, that his deliverance is certain, and no dan- 
ger wiH attend the attempt to procure it. 

On Trept^oHratsee the note on Luke 12, 35. arid on 
iftar/ov, cloaky see the note on Matt. 9^ 20. 

9. €SoK€i he ipaiut 0X€ir€iv, i. e. ^' he thought he was 
in a dream." Wetstein refers to Ps. 126, 1, 2 & 3., 
and compares Curtius 4, 1, 23. Somnio similis res 
Abdolommo videbatur. 

2c2 



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388 ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. 

10. Ai€Xdoyr€^ ie vpcirr^v ^T^oucijp. By the ^Xoic^ 
are here to be understood the two soldiers, of whom 
one guarded the entrance to the prison ; the other 
stood guard at the iron gate. 

10. xv'K'^v njv TiStjpay. Wetstein compares Horn. 
II. 9. 15. evda (riiripclai t€ TuXai, Kai yAkK€os oSSo^* and 
Pricaeus cites a beautiful passage irom Calpurnius» 
Declam. 4. Video carcerem publicum saxis ingenti- 
bus structum, angustis foraminibus tenuem lucis 
umbram recipientem : in hunc conjecti robur TuUia- 
num prospiciunt, et quoties ferrati postis stridor ex- 
citat, exanimantur; et alienum supplicium exspec* 
tando (read aspectando) suum discunt. 

We need not suppose the gate to have been of 
^oUd iron, but only cased over with iron. 

10. auTOjxaTij ijyo/p^fiij. Aurofxarof properly signifies 
Mlf'tnoved; and is used both of persons^and things. 
Wnen applied to the/oroier, it may be rendered of' 
his own accord ; but not so in the latter case Tas is 
done by the authors of our English Version), in 
which it should be translated self-moved. Numerous 
examples are adduced by Raphel, Kypke, Munthe, 
Loesner, and Wetsteinr, on Mark 4, 28. and by Pri- 
caeus and Wetstein on the present passage. * 

The circumstance of the gate being caused to 
open of itself, without the intervention of the angel, 
was meant to impress the mind of Peter still more 

* Of these the following are the moet apposite. Horn. U. e. 749. 
iLVTOfidrai bk wvXat ixifKov ovpavov. And 8. 393. Xen. Hell. 6. mc 
ol T€ v€w wovref ahrdfiaroy kveiityovTO, Virg. ^n. 6« 81. Julius 
Obsequens. Nocte, cum valvae cubilis clause essent, $ud iponte 
apertse sunt. Petron. 16. Sera, sud sponte delapsa, cecidit, reclu- 
weque subito fores. Dio (speaking of Nero) 63. Ai dvpai d/ii^e- 
paif at T€ 70V fiytffAelov tov 'Avyovareiov^ jcac ai row KoirHyos rov 
iKeivoVf ahrSfiarai ey r^ ahrp yvKTi ^yettt^dtitray. Artapanus ap. 
Euseb. p. 9, i7' els ^vXaic^v ah-oy KaOeip^ai, yvKTOS bk ewiyiyofiirris 
T€u re Ovpiis watras avTOfAarbis &yoi\dfiyai rov iefffuarriplov — l^eX- 
B6yra bk roy Mkn/affy ixl ra fiatrlXeia iXdely, Apollonius Rhod. 4, 
41. (speaking of Medea): r^ bk Kal ahrofjULroi dvpk^y vrdeifay 
ox^ies uKelais Axl/appoi iiyadpkKrKoyres itoibaU. Besides many other 
passages, from which it appears this was a fipequent phrase mth the 
Classical writers. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. 389 

Strongly with a sense of Divine interference. For 
it appears to have been both by the Jews and Gen- 
tiles regarded as a jprodigy indicating the presence 
of the Deity, So Callimachus Hymn. Apoll. 6. (cited 
by Wets.) aJroi vSv jcaroy^es" avaKTilverQe m/KatoVy aura} 
Si icXTj^fy' yap Ow oJicen jxoicgav. Nonnus Dionys. 
7, 313. (speaking of Jupiter,) aiiro/taroi ^uXfaJvos' 
amx,^r)(rav o;^€y. Targum on Ps. 86. Quo tempore 
Salomo filius meus introducet arx^am in domum Sanc- 
tuarii, aperient sese portoe; ideo videbunt adversarii 
mei, te mihi condonasse. 

11. Ka) Uerpo^i yei^ofx^i/oy ip iauTip, i. e. having 
come to himself, (for he had thought it was only a 
dream, and that he was not really liberated,) and, 
shaking off the stupor and astonishment, having recol- 
lected himself. The pi) rase iv iaurw y€V€(r6ai occurs 
in Xen. CEcon. 1, 5, I7. Polyb. 1,49. Liban. Ep. 
319. See other examples in Wetstein and Kypke. 

11. v5v olSa aXTjGcSy. Now, and not before^ he felt 
(says Grot.) that there was fulfilled in him the saying 
of Is. 21, U. 

11. *E|€iA€To. On this word see Alciphron. ap. Schl. 
Lex. Ilaenjs' rij^ vpoa-ioKia^ row XaoG rdiv 'IouSaia>v, of the 
Jews; a great number of whom were assembled at the 
feast. In TrpotrhoMas Vatablus and Kuinoel suppose a 
metonymy for the thing expected, and Tcafrr^s (as Pri- 
cseus observes), by a sort of Hellenistic hypallage, 
properly belongs to XaoS ; by which the sense of the 
words will be this : " hath delivered me from the 
punishment expected by all the people of the Jews.'* 
Or Tcwnjy may be taken for tovtois'. The Syriac 
Translator, who renders, ** de omni machinatione,'' 
seems to have read ^-poXop^iW* a word not to be found 
in the Lexicons, but which probably was formerly 
in use, since the cognate 7r^oXo;f«^a> occurs in Thu- 
cydides and other writers. 

12. KOA (Txivihov. Casaubon renders it, "etsciens;" 
and Kuinoel, ^* conscious of himself, having returned 
to himself But this, after the preceding ycvofi^evos iv 
iaxniS, would be unnecessary j and leads, indeed, to an 



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390 ACTS OF THB APOSILES^ CHAP. XII. 

unauthorized sense. I prefer, with Erasmus, Vata- 
blus, Beza, Piscator, Grotius, Wetstein, and Dod- 
dridge, **after reflecting upon his situation, and other 
circumstances;" numerous examples of which signi- 
fication are adduced by Wjetstein. 

12.hr) T^v oUlav MoLaias^ &c. xatne to the house of 
Mary^ the mother of John, whose surname was Marh 
That this was Mark the Evangelist, is a general, and 
indeed highly probable opinion of the Commenta- 
tors. npo(r€t>yofji€vo<, praying, i. e. (as we may sup- 
pose) for the aeliverance of Peter. 

13. K^0{Hra9T09 * 8^ ro3 Wrpou — ^'PoSij, By Ot;p<» ro3 
^ruXcovos* is meant the porch door. (See 10, 17.) Dr. 
Doddridge (from Dr. Shaw) takes it to be the gate- 
way of a large house, by which, if there be an area 
surrounded with buildings, any one may enter it : 
and he thinks it could not be a small house, from the 
many assembled. But the poverty of the Jerusaleqiite 
Christians forbids us to suppose any thing like a por- 
tal. riaiS/crio} is by the Commentators taken to mean 
portress : and such an office was often performed by 
females. (See the note on Matt. 26, 69. Mark JS, 
34.) But, considering the narrow circumstances of 
these persons, it may be more rational to understand 
by xa»8i<nnf) a young woman, or maid-servant. Thus 
Pollux, 3, 76. (cited by Wets.) notices this -Attic 
idiom, and seems to censure its uncextainty, as not 
determining whether it is to be understood of sex or, 
condition; and he cites from Lysias, kq^ i^e^Aawra 
% Taiiia-Kti, rryv dvpav avotyvtxn. But there the article 
sufficiently determines the sense to be maid-servant ; 
whereas in the present passage, as there is noUe, it 
should seem to mean simply young woman. 

18. TToicoGerai, listen to, attend on the sound of the 
knocker, to enquire who was there. Now this is a 
voxsolennis de hdc re ; as appears from the examples 
cited by Alberti, Eisner, and Kypke ; ex, gr. Xen. 
Sympos. 690. Kpoitragr^v Qupav, €tir€ r£ iirotKowrarri cicay- 

* In the ant lent authors Konreiy is ased in preference to Kpovttv; 
biu in the later ones vice vend. These two terms exactly corre- 
spond to our knock and rap. 



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ACTS OP THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. 391 

y€iXai, i(m9 t€ €lri. Lucian. Icaromen. p. 292. 6i«wr- 

vo/xa €K7n^aft€vo^. Plaut. Trucul. 1, 2,2. where a maid 
servant says to the porter, *^ ad foras auscultato, at- 
que serva has aedes. 

Bp. Pearce was therefore under a mistake in here 
fancying extraordinary caution. I suspect that igra* 
Koxm came at length to mean little more than to 
mind the door^ attend to the door; as in Theophr. 
Char. Eth. 4. ica) ico\|/avro$' t>}v dupav if7roLKo6<rai atJrop* 
where see Needham. So serva has cedes^ in Plaut. 
just cited. 

The Grecian name of this girl seems to denote 
that she was an Hellenist. 

, 14. ical fTiyvotira n^v ^a»y^v to5 IleTpou, and hav* 
ing recognised the voice of Peter ^ which, as is appa- 
rent from the joy she felt, was well known to her. 
'ETiyivcoVico) is in this sense used with an accusative 
both of person and thing. See Mark 6, 54. Matt. 
14, 35. Luke 24, 16. Acts 3, 10. 4, 13. 27, 39. 

14. airh Tijy pfapas' ouk i^voi^f t. t. i. e. not knowing 
what she did, out of joy, she neglected to open the 
door, but went to tell the news to the assembled 
Christians ; both circumstances being (as Bp. Pearce 
observes) the effect of her joy. 

15. fAflivTj, " thou are beside thyself." A popular 
idiom, use^ of any one who utters what is absurd, or 
incredible. Price compares the ac^paiWy McvcXae of 
Homer, and refers to Joh. 10, 20. and Acts 26, 24. 
Beza, Mill, Bengel, and Griesbach, take it interro- 
gatively, but (as Price and Kuinoel observe) with- 
out any necessity. 

15. 8iiVryupi^6To, "solemnly, positely asserted it.** 
The Siais intensive. Wetstein cites Synes. Wytip/^o/tai 
hkj (69 ia-rhj ow rmv i€QcSv 0»0Xia)V dfoy raSra Xeyci. See 
Kypke and Wets, on Luke 22, 59. 

15. S,yy€Ko9 atJroS ernv. By ayy^T^os Cameron, 
Hammond, Clarius, Sir Thomas Browne, Basnage, 
Amelius, and others, understand a messenger sent 
by Peter from the prison to inform those assembled 



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392 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. 

of his condition, and who, in order to be admitted, 
had used the name of Peter. But (as Kuinoel ob- 
serves) it is by no means credible that the collected 
Christians would be inclined to believe that Peter, 
who was so closely confined and watched in prison, 
had sent a messenger at midnight. Besides it is 
scarcely possible to suppose but that the girl must 
have known Peter's voice. To say more would, how- 
ever, be a waste of words, since the common inter- 
pretation, (which supposes that they either thought 
It was an angel who had assumed the form of Peter, 
or that it was his tutelary angelj) is sufficiently well 
founded, for the Jews believed that such were ap- 
pointed to all men.* See the note on Matt. 18, 10. 
" The assembled Christians (says Kuinoel) knowing 
that Peter was most closely confined by a bitter 
enemy of Christianity, in order to his immediate 
execution, and not being able to persuade them- 
selves that he had escaped out of prison, thought 
that his guardian angel had appeared, and had pro- 
nounced the name and imitated the voice of Peter, 



* This was an opinion held by the Gentiles also. To this pur- 
pose Kuinoel cites (from Lightfoot, Wets., and others) Censorin. 
dedie Natal, c. 3. Genius est deus, ci^us in tutela ut quisque est, 
Tivit. And a little after he says ; Genius ita nobia assiduus observa- 
tor appositus est, ut ne puncto quidem temporis lont^ius abscedat f 
aed ab utero matris exceptos ad extremum vitae diem comitetur. 
Martian. Cap. L. 9. p 39. Genius — tutelator fidissirausque €cenna- 
nus animoe omnium mentesque custodit. See also Macrob. Saturn. 
}, 19. It was moreover (continues Kuinoel) a received opinion 
among the Gentiles, that the Gods assumed the figure of thb or 
that man, and also borrowed his voice. So Hom. II. y. 43. (speak- 
ing of Neptune) : 'AXXa Hotreibakty yacZ/o^osy Ivyoffiydtot, 'Apyeiovs 
ioTpvpe (iadeias ^ AXds iXdijy, 'lS,itrdueyos KdKxayri iifias xal aTci- 
p4a tp^oyriy* See also <p. 6*00. and Odyss. a. 105. And the Jews had 
the same persuasion respecting Angels. Thus Debbarim Rabba, fol. 
290, 4. Scriptum est : liberavit me a gladio Pharaonis. Bar 
Kaphra dicit. Angeliis descendit in similitudine Mosis, et fugere 
fecit eum, illi ^utem qui venerunt, i|t apprehenderent Mosen, puta- 
runt angelum esse Mosen. Midrat Coheteth, fol. 87, 4. dicit Sanc- 
tus Benedictus; Istitiae dixi, quidnam hsec agit ? quidnam agit 
htcc corona in manu tu&? descendit an^Ius in specie SalonM>nis 
atque insedit in throno ejus. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. SQS 

for the purpose of presignifying that he would die, 
and of forewarning them of it, in order that they 
might pray that he should meet death with firmness.** 
It is, however, very uncritical to suppose all this ; 
since it is merely founded on conjecture, and there- 
fore cannot but be considered as extremely preca- 
rious. 

16. Karatr^l^as he auroTy rfi )^€ip\ triyav. K^arourcloo 
denotes to shake down, move down ; and was espe- 
pecially applied to making a motion with the 
hand by waving it down, an usua^ mode of en- 
joining silence. (See Acts 12, 19. 13, I6. 22, 40.) 
In this sense the word occurs in the best writers. 
Among other examples, Wetstein produces the fol- 
lowing. Persius 4, 6. Ergo ubi commota fervet ple- 
becula bile, Fert animus calidae fecisse silentia turbse 
Majestate mantis. Lucan 1, 298. Dextraque silen- 
tia jussit. Herodian 1, 9, 8. rtp rij^ )^€<pi9 vfupxri 
rlif oriiJLW Karounyoura^. Ovid. Met. 1, 200. Postquam 
voce manuque murmura compressit, tenuere silentia 
cuncti. Joseph. Bell. 2, 3, 2. hr) Trvpyov ava^ks 
KaT€(r€i€ Toiip €y t£ riyiutri a-rparmrm^. Virg. ^n. 
12, 692. Significatque manu, et magno simul incipit 
ore. 

17. €TogeJ0i3 €Jy ?r€^ov tostov. PHiat place this was 
Luke does not tell us. Some imagine Ccesarea; 
which however is not agreeable to the context. 
Others, with much less probability, conjecture Rome. 
The most probable opinion is that it was Antioch. 
(Kuin.) It was convenient that he should withdraw 
from Jerusalem ; but it is utterly incredible that he 
now went to Rome, and made that abode of twenty- 
five years there which the Popish writers pretend. 
The absurdity of which pretence has been abun- 
dantly demonstrated by many Protestant writers, and 
by none more pertinently, in a few words, than by 
Beza on this place. (Doddridge.) 

18. ^v rapoL-xtiS ouk i'Kiyos €V Toiy o-Tjaricoraiy. So 
Sext. Emp. (cited by Wets.) ouV iv ox/yo) KeifUvcov 
rapaytD rwif Feca/xer^y. 

18. Vi Aqa liergoy kylvero. This is a somewhat ex. 



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994 ACTS OF THE APOSTLBS^ CHAP. XII. 

traordinary idiom, of which no very satisfactory ac- 
count has yet been given. One thing seems certain, 
that it cannot have the sense ascribed to it by Eras- 
mus, which implies that they supposed Peter to be a 
magician. The context seems to confirm the inter- 
pretation adopted in the £. V. ** what was becomel 
of Peter.** So the Vulg. **quid Petro factum esset,** 
"what had been done with Peter." This mode is 
indeed followed by most recent Commentators ; but 
the passages which they cite in proof are not all to 
the purpose; as, for instance, Joh. 21,21. (where 
see the note), and Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 12. The most ap- 
posite are the following. Thucyd. L. 11. (cited by 
Kypke): o! avdpatToi oJic iywres o, ri y^wwvrai. Jos. 
Vit. p. 1021. Of Zi fTicocriy ^lirev pfpueroT — ri ytyoyacriv ; 
and Ant. 17> 14. e^rj^a^e v€q\ *AgioTo3ouXow ri Koi 
yeyivoi. Theocrit. Id. 15, 51. 'ASiVra FopyoT, ri 
y€ifoifjL€$a. Longus Pastor. 4. p. 186. ri yeywa^ jxoi, 
huyirpiov; oipa ica) (rtj ^e^?; what has become of thee? 
what has happened to thee? 

19. €K€>^u(r€v caray^ifou ^Avay€iv is a vox solennis 
de hdc re, or word peculiarly used of those who are 
led away to prison, or to execution. Ely dgicnjv and 
eiy Oavarov, or M 6avar<p^ are usually expressed ; but 
sometimes (as here) \eh to be understood. And so 
Esth. 12, 3. Ka\ €^r€(r€ vo ^o^iXeur roup 8uo (uvoup^ouy, 
icoi ofMXoyi^Vayrey aan^ydijeray. Philo de Josepho, p. 
558 II. [Jiafi^Tore rouro eipyouraiixn^if aV rod^ovrow oira- 
y€ip ivo9 afujtgrovTos'. See Theophr. Char. 6, 2. 

Thus the Latin ahducere is used either with ad 
supplicium, or ad mortem, or without. (Kypke and 
Loesner.) See Wakef. Silv. Crit. 2, 131. It has 
been debated whether the punishment inflicted was 
death, or something short of it. The former seems 
the most probable opinion ; Ist, from the cruel dis- 
position of Herod ; 2dly, from the greatness of the 
crime thought to have been committed, which, in 
ancient times, was usually accounted a capital of- 
fence; 3dly, because tlje term aTO;^va» is almost 
always used of capital punishment. 

After h4rfi^€v subaud €/c€?. (See 14, 3.) It is. 



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ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. 305 

however, supplied in Joh. 3, 22, 11, 54. Acts 14, 
28. 25, 14. ; insomuch that Markland thinks it has 
here slipped out. But he does not enou^ allow for 
the variety and elliptical nature of Hellenistic phra- 
seology. 

20. ^v hi *H^Si)^ dup>fjia;^a>y Tu^iois'. Commen- 
tators are not agreed on the sense of the word du/xo- 
{UA-xjEWj which properly signifies " to be ill inclined 
towards, to be at variance with," and also " to he at 
war with.'' Some, as Markland, adopt the latter 
signification, and maintain that Herod was at war 
with the Tyrians, or at least meditated hostilities. 
This they endeavour to prove from the expression 
iJtoSvto flpi^vijv, which occurs just after. But this po- 
sition cannot be established on sure grounds ; for 
the Tyrians and Sidonians were allies of Rome, and 
therefore that power M'ould not have suffered war to 
be carried on against them by Agrippa. Nor is 
there any thing here said of theii- having been con- 
quered in battle, but only of their seeking peace, 
because their country was supported by the king's. 
And moreover there exists no vestige of any such 
war, either in Luke, Josephus, or any other writer: 
0up>|xax<Sy is therefore to be explained *^ was at 
variance with^ ill affected! towards." And in this 
sense the verb is used in several passages of Poly- 
bius, Diodor. Siculus, and Plutarch, cited by Grotius 
and Kypke, the latter of whom observes that peace 
is opposed not only to war^ but to oKarcurrouriai in 
1 Cor. 14, 33., 4;o ftapf €(rflai private quarrels^ and 
ahK^lv in Acts 7, 26. : and €\fn/\in^v ^x^tKri i^, in Acts 
9, 3., said of those who live in quiet and tranquillity. 
(See Heinsius Exerc. S. p. 290.; 

Now there seems to have been between Herod 
and those cities a misunderstanding arising from 
commercial jealousies. A port had been formed at 
Cssarea by Herod the Great, adapted to the recep* 
tion of a large fleet, and therefore well fitted for 
commercial purposes. Hence it might very easily 
happen that Herod, at the complaints of the Caese- 



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396 ACTS OF TH£ APOSTL£S, CHAP. Xlf* 

reans and of his other subjects, should take offence 
at the Tyrians and Sidonians, whose interests inter* 
fered with theirs. (See Ranisch Comment, de Luc« 
et Josephi in morte Herodis Agrippae consensu on 
Acts 12, 19.» and Joseph. Ant. 19, 7- p. 7.) Now, 
since the territory subject to these cities was far too 
limited to be able to supply such a population with 
food, they were necessitated to import a considerable 
quantity from Judaea, Galilee, and other provinces of 
Herod. See 1 Kings 5, 9. Ez. 27, 17- and Mi- 
chaelis on this passage. Agrippa was, it seems, highly 
offended from some cause or other, and having it in 
his power to straiten and vex these cities, had, per- 
haps, threatened to do so. In order, therefore, to 
conciliate this king, they send ambassadors to him 
while he was, opportunely, sojourning in their neigh- 
bourhood. 

Of this embassy Josephus says nothing, but only 
relates that Herod celebrated solemn games at Cae- 
sarea. Nor does he make mention of this misunder- 
standing with the Tyrians, since it did not seem of 
consequence enough to deserve recording; espe- 
cially as the celebration of the games formed the 
principal object of his journey; whereas Luke, 
whose intention it was to show how signal a punish- 
ment God inflicted on Agrippa, and what was the 
cause of it, relates only the oration, because it was 
that which brought on the punishment, and there- 
fore premised a reference to this affair of the Tyrians. 
(See Ranisch. p. 9.) (Kuin.) Nearly the same view 
of the subject is taken by almost all the recent Com- 
mentators, to whose opinion I must accede.* At 
the same time I would compare Luke 14, 32. ^g6<r- 
fieiav aTo<rr€iXay ipana rk vpi>9 rip^yijv. Wetstein, 

* Markland, however, thinks the expression ^ovvro elpffvriv 
seems to imply something more, and that they had been at war : 
and he cites Plutarch in Demetr. p. 898 o. ovb^y &iioy \6yov irpdr- 
rutv 6 ^fjfiiiTpios, ofiias edvfiofiaxei vpos avrovsy on, &c. He would 
therefore translate ^v QvfiOfiax&v Tvplois, &c. " was at war with 
the Tyrians and ^idonians out of some pique/' 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. XII. S97 

too, aptly cites Servius on Virg. ^En. 1, 39. Moris 
erat, ut de public^ pecunid Phoenices, misso a rege 
auro de peregrinis iTumenta co^merent. Dido autem 
a Pygmalione ad hunc usum paratas naves abstulerat. 
Urbs erat magna, regio exigua. See also Bp Pearce 
in loc. 

20. ojxodupxSov, conjointly f i.e. both Tyrians and 
Sidonians. Kai v€ia'avr€9 3Xa(rrov, &c. Iloda) is 
here a vox prcegnans^ and signifies " having per- 
suaded Blastus to be their friend in the business."* 
It often, as here, denotes to attach to one's interest, 
either by entreaties or gifts. See the note on Matt. 
S8, 14. and Eisner on Gal. 1, 10. On ^Xoerro^ the 
reader may consult Wetstein and Schl. Lex. 

20. Toy e^r} roG icoircuvo^ . . Subaud wif or rerayfjiiyo^ ; 
as in 8, 27. iir) r^y yajijy. It stands for icotrwn^mi^^ 
cubicularitASj chamberlain. See Wessel on Diodor. 
Sic. 1,457. 

20. ^Airl rij^ 0ouriXi/c^y. Subaud x<*>g"y, which had 
just preceded. So Thucyd. 8, 46. €v tj i3a<rfX(a>s>. 
The complete phrase occurs in 8^ 58. 13' x^ipa ij 0a<ri- 
X6a>^. See Raphel in loc. 

21, rtwTji ht'jii€qaf i. e. ** on the day appointed for 
the formally giving audience to the ambassadors.*' 
OSros>, it must be observed, is often used with words 
of time. (See Wets.) 

It was the second day of the games which were 
then celebrating in honour of Claudius Csesar. So 
Joseph. Ant. 19, 7> 2. iorripct Se rwy QcwpuSy 'J/xe^ 
OToTiT^v €v8uo'aft6vos' €$ OLpyupiof} 9rexof9)ft€y)]y Too-ay, ei^ 
dauoocrioy 6^i}y 6lya<, xap^xdey tis* fltarpoy apX'^F^^ 
rjfj^pa^* €v6oL raiy v^torai^ roSv 9)X»aica>y oucrivwv 6T<j3oXa?p 
apyvpo9 icarouyoo'deW dotvfjLOuriw^ air€<rriK^j lutppLaipmp 
Ti ^ofi^pop Koi To?4' eiy auTov arey/^ouo-i ^^iiceoSef . 

The stole was a robe reaching to the heels, worn 
by Oriental Kings. See the note on Mark 12, 38. 
(Kuin.) 

21. Koi Kadltra^ M tou jSijpxToy. By jS^fux is here 
meant, not tribunal (as in Matt. 27, 19.)> hut a raised 
suggestus, presenting the appearance of a throne, ii^ 



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398 iters OF the apostles^ chap, xiu 

the theatre at Cassarea, from which Hei*od both 
viewed the games, and delivered the oration. In- 
deed, ^iML often, as here, denotes a suggestus ora^ 
tortus for Kings, magistrates, or orators. See Isocr^ 
de Pace 1, i^. (&tt.)» aod Xeiu Mem. 3, 6^\. 
It may be observed, too^ that the custom of holding 
orations in the theatre was a Greek one. See Cic. 
de Flacco. C. 7«> Demosth. pro Coroh. C. 53., and 
Acts 19, 29. (Kuin.) 

21. kZr^iuff^ip€i vp^ aurou^. Glass, Ranisch, and 
Markland would refer vf^? otxnw to the people^ be- 
cause they are just afterwards mentioned. But this 
is a harsh, and, indeed, inadmissible mode of inter- 

f^retation, being neither permitted by propriety of 
anguage, nor by the context. Aij/xi^yop^iy nas here, 
as often in the later Greek writers, not the original 
sense, ^^ address a speech to the people^* but simply to 
harangue, ** deliver an oration.'* See Munthe, who 
cites Diodor. Sic. 332 d., 289 c, and Herodian 6, 
3, 5. 2, 8, 2. 

22. Se S^jxof eT€^iDWf, *^ the people made accla- 
mation.*' By the people Grotius would understand 
the courtiers and other flatterers, set on for the pur- 
pose. And, indeed, some of the numerous citations 
brought forward by Wetstein seem to countenance 
this ; especially a passage of Josephus. Eisner, 
however, is of opinion that by &5jxo^ are meant the 
ambassadors and their companions, ipcludihg other 
Gentiles, of whom great multitudes inhabited C^- 
sarea. 

21. 06otJ $eot^, KoHi (Ak wAqaivw. It was the evil 
customs of those times for kings and emperors to be 
called Diif not only after death, but while yet alive.* 

* In iHustr&lion of tbia WeUtein produces numerous passages, of 
*which the following are the most apposite. VIrg. ^n. 1« 331. 
Namque baud tibi vultus mortalis, nee vox bominem sonat, Dea 
certe: and 5, 647* Tacit. An. 14, 15. Hi dies et noctes plaosibus 
personare, ibnnam prindpis, vocemque Deam vocabulis appelkuntes. 
Horn. Od. i. 160. rov ym, Beov As, rtpvoiieff av^jf. Aristid. Plat. 
1. p. 55. ^s h^ hfi&v Ik rijs UtfXov irpos rok irepor fiiiropa koI 
fiaviKia roy Mcv^Xoov, 6 i$kv TeXc/uaxof its Oeov ^lytfiF itKoimy 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP* XII. 399 

It is plain, from Josepbus, that these persons (who 
were probably of both the classes above mentioned, 
but certainly not JewSy) did here profess to regard 
Herod as a god. So Joseph. 1,1. (cited by Kuin.) 
eudu^ Se Of icoXo(ic€^ rk^ tiitXk €K€iv<p ^r^of ayadou, aXXo^ 
aXXodcy ^cavay avejSoeot^, 06oy T^o<rayop€uovr€y, €tJ/X€ViQy r€ 
cJfij^, 65riX€yovr6^, « ical ftcpfpi v5v aJy av^panrov c^ofiifdij- 
jX€v, aXXa ToJyT€u9€V KpeirTOva <r€ fljmjr^y ^00*60)^ ojxoXo- 
7ou/xey. Krebs, Ranisch, and Kuinoel observe that, 
though Josephus seems to attribute their hyperbo- 
lical expressions of admiration to the sight of the 
splendid robe, and Luke to the eloquence of the 
orator, yet there is, in fact, no discrepancy, since 
both causes doubtless operated, and in such cases 
historians select and dwell upon whatever is most 
suitable to their purpose. 

23. Taoa^^fML 8^ iirara^€¥ aMv ayyeXoy Ku^/ou. 
By struck is here meant ** struck him with a mortal 
disease.*" The word is often, in the New Testament, 
used of striking with deaths or a violent malady. 
See Schl. Lex. Josephus (ubi supra) makes no men- 
tion of the angely but proceeds thus : avaicw|/af S' o3y 
jx€t' ihiyWy Toir jSoujSoiva t?^ eowrou K^^aTsSi^ inr€pKad€§6' 
|X(yoy et^ev hr) trj^omov rivoy* oiyyeTiOU re roSrov eJdu^ 
ivor^trev Kcucmv dvai, roy Koi mte rm ayadcov yevifsjevw 
KcCi houcap&ioy etr^ev oSuyi}v* afipwv Se aurS r^ icoiXiW 
vpwr4^tKr€v aXyijfta ftcrA o-ipoSponjroy ap^of^eyoy. ** An 
owl» it seems (says Kuin.), was observed upon the 

ripT€<r6ai tov MckcXoov. Dio Cass. p. 174 & 158. Plin. Paneg. 
Tnyan. 2. Plut. 2, 45 f. Eunap. Proaer. p. 146. ra trripvn ^ov 
aoifltrTOV 7r€pt\i')Qiti<rafJi€voi KaOairep iiy^XfiaTOS kvBiov irdyres 
01 wapdyres, oi fikv v6has, oi 8^ Koi xeipas trpotrcKi/yovp' oi 
ik Oeor ii^aaavy ol bk 'Epfiov \oylo vrviror. I add, Pseudo-Eu- 
ripides in Rheso, 297. ^p^ 8i "Pfitrov, Aare haifiovay Icrutr*, &c. 
Eiwap. Profiercs. p. 120. xal ro Bedrpov (io&y re h^pi\yyvTO. kclX oh" 
ith ijy hs ovxi Oioy vireX&fjifiaye. See also Eunap. p. 163. sub init. 
Appian. 1. 635, 77. speaks of Antiochus as having gi?en him by the 
Mileaians the surname of The God. And that he commonly re^ 
ceived this appellation we may infer fh)m the commencement of an 
Epbtle to him from the Samaritans, preserved in Josephus, Ant. p. 
53d. 'BatriXei *Ayri6xf, O^ "Ewi^vti. See ako Athen. 213 c. 



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400 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. 

rope * abov^ the suggestus, which soon settled on 
the king's head. Now the prodigy mentioned by 
Josephus in 1. c. corresponds to wliat is related in 
Ant. 18, 18. All this is, with reason, thought by Heu- 
mann, Michaelis, Morus, and others, to savour of fa- 
ble ; yet there are no grounds for thinking it/abricated 
by JosephuSj who is a favourer of Agrippa, but rather 
by the Jews^ who were incensed with Herod for re- 
ceiving the adulatory acclamation. j* Josephus has, 
however, brought it forward (together with some 
other facts of this kind), in order to court the favour 
of the superstitious J [which, however, seems doing 
injustice to the motives of the illustrious historian. 
Edit.], and because the fable was in the mouths of 
all. It is therefore useless labour to endeavour to 
reconcile the narration of Luke with that of Jose- 
phus, by supposing, as some do (from Euseb. H. £. 
% 10.), that Josephus indicated the angel of death 
as sent under the form of an owl, or (as others) that 
the owl, as the angel of God, was the author of the 
death (see Wolf), or (with others) that Josephus has 
narrated what fell under the view of men, but that 
Luke has followed the mode of thinking and speaking 
usual among the Jews. Nay, indeed, the historicsQ 
faith of Luke is exceedingly confirmed by his 
making no mention of this fabie. (Kuin.) 

As to the cause of Herod*s death, many recent 
Commentators, as Eichhorn, Heinrichs, and Kui- 

* This rope (as Ranbch remarks) was one of those by which the 
%ela were stretched out over the heads of the spectators, duriog the 
heat of the day. See Lucret. 4, 73. and Plin. H. N. 19, 1. 

t That the Jews thought his disease was brought on by his im* 
piety in receiving Divine honours, is plain from Joseph. 766» 10. 
(edit. Hudson): koX yap hri bia riiv riXfiav ai/riiyy wap* & iiffy6' 
p€vev 6 y6fJU>Sf r^« Toc^o'ccifS, rd re &Xka avrf avyTV)(€iy ol strapa to 
eliados Tov iLySpwirov hterpifin, Kal hrj koX rriv vdvoy. And 768, I7. 
IkiytTO oZv VTO T&v deiaiovTiiiVy koi ols ravra icpoaico^Qkyyeedai 
90^iq. irpovMiTO^ iroiviiv tov ir6)0<oo bvaae/iuts TUVTfir 6 Seos elvw&v 
9€9dai irap6, rov fiaaiXiku, 

i So Ovid. Met»5^ 549. (speaking of the owl); Volucreu ven- 
turi nuntium luctus^ dirum mortalibus omen. 



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ACTS OP THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XII. 401 

noel, are of opinion that what is here said is all to 
be understooil by a reference to Jewish opinions; 
that, in fact, Herod died of a dysentery brought on 
by cold taken through incautious exposure to the 
piercing air of the early morning, and that mention 
is made of the angel, according to the Jewish mode 
of thinking, and in order to shew that Herod^s death 
might be attributed to Divine interposition. 

Yet, with glaring inconsistency, they maintain 
that the very words following, kcu y^vo^uvos (rKw7\.r^K6^ 
^pcoTo^f ii^€^^€Vy clearly show that the death was not 
brought on by Divine interposition. " The last 
words of the verse (says Kuin.) were meant to more 
exactly define the nature of the disease.** And he 
adds, that the Hebrews were accustomed to refer all 
things, whose causes lay concealed, to invisible 
agency, to name even the sudden and unusual affec- 
tions of nature angels of' God, and to maintain that 
all grievous diseases were produced by an angel.** 
He then refers to £ Sam. 21, 16. seq. and his note 
supra, on ver. 7* > ^^^ he compares a similar passage 
of 1 Mace. 9, 55 & 56. iv no Kaip£ €K€h(p ^^X^yij ''Ax- 
icaio^, Koi €V€To8<VSi} tA ipya auroS, Koi oTre^payrj rl 
trriiM/t ourou, icai ^ro^Xudi], Koi oCk e^vvaro In XoX^ai 
Xayov, KOii €UT€i7iOur6ai ireoi toS oIkov auroS* ical oreflavey 
''AXicijttoy €if rm KOuofD fxera jSowravoG fxcyaXijf • 

But this hypothesis can by no means be admitted, 
without sacrificing the credit, and impeaching the 
veracity of St. Luke ; nay, without convicting him 
of ignorance, superstition, and even inconsistency. 
For my part, I see not what we have here to do with 
Jewish opinions, or mthJosephus (though the account 
of St. Luke is, by no means, at variance with his). 
The historian narrates the secondary cause of 
Herod*s death; the Sacred writer considers the pri* 
mary one, even the immediate interposition of Hea- 
ven. And this will hold good^ whether we take the 
ayfXXoy literally, or metaphorically : though it seems 
safer to take it (as does Dr. Doddridge) of the real, 
yet iuvisible agency y of a celestial spint. He refers to 

VOL. IV. 2 D 



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404 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. Xlf. 

2 Sam. 24, 16. 2 Kings 19, 35. It is plain, by the 
words ovhe €K€iva^ irph^ ayadoS, and others, that Jose- 
phus himself (notwithstanding that he was favour- 
ably inclined to Herod, and speaks respectfully of 
his memory,) regarded his death as the effect of su- 
pernatural interposition. 

23. y€viii,€9ii9 (rK(o\riKo^pa)ro9j consumed hy toorms. 
Of the same disease diea Antiochus Epiphanes, who 
had endeavoured to abolish the worship of God ; as 
we learn from 2 Mice. 9, 5. eXa0ei' atJriv datf^K^frrts 

On this disease consult Bartholin de Morbis JBiblicis, 
c. 23. and Mede de Morbis Biblicis, c. 15. Many 
critics of great name, as Beza, Can>erarius, Eras- 
mus, Eisner, Kuhn, and Moras, are of opinion that 
by trKcoTir^Kofipmro^ is denoted the morbus pedicula- 
ris, or the being consumed with vermin, of which 
many tyrants are said to have died. * Josephus, in- 
deed, makes no mention of worms, but seems to re- 
fer all to a dysentery. That however (as is well ob- 
served by Lightfoot, Heuman, Lardner, and Dod- 
dridge,) may be attributed to the delicacy of the 

"^ On this Welstein produces numerous examples : as Werodot* 
4, 205. ov frijv olbk ^ f^eperlfiri c^ t^v io^v ifar^Xefe— 5wMi yap 
€h\iktv i^iSeae' 4»s Apa iivOpinroiffi ai Xirfv Itrxypal Ttfim^tu xpos 
de&y iwlipOoyoi ylvovrai. SuidHs, of Pheretina : Avff iv iipafre, 
ilKas Itnae, Sioaa yap i^eietrey ehXaikty, 6 ktrri trKuXfiKtiy, Alistot. 
h. A. 5, 31. iyiois bk avajiaiyei riHy &ydpunn»>y ydtnifia, 6ray vypa- 
irla iroXXi) ev rf frwfiari 17, icac bi€<^6Stprfaay tivcs ifhri roirov tov rp^- 
TOVy ilnnrep 'AXioiava hk ^airi roy TcaiTi^y^ ic«i ^ep€/cv6t|v rov 2^u>k. 
Ka^ ky ydaois ck run viVera^ irXfiQos ^eip&y. Pausan. BcBOt. 7> 
(speaking of Cassander) : ov fii^y ohbk avros x^^P^^ ^^^ P^^^ *«- 
ri(TTp€\f/€' lirXiiffdti yap vbip^, rat Aw' ahrov $&yri kyeyoyro €h\a\, 
Theophr. H. P. 3, 12. Lacian. Pisend. 59. (speaking of Alexander 
the Impostor) : htfiBaytv^wsHobaXtipiovvlhsy hiaaaireis roy w6ba 
ixixpt TOv fiovfiSfyoSy Koi vKhikriKtay $€ffas. Euseb. H. liT. 8, 16. 
(speaking of Valerius Maximus) : &Bp6a fxky yap irepl ra fiioa r«v 
uirofi^TWy rdv a&fxaros &ir6<nains ylyyerai avrf' et6t fkxos iy pAdti 
trbptyyi^bef. - Koi TovttMry dyl^ros yofjiil'Kara f^y hvborhtm trwKkyy^ 
v^y' h^ &y -RXeirr<^ re irX^^ mctMiiCvy>fip^iy, 6avor^i| bi obfjify 
i^onyieiy, Lactant. de Mort.' Pbrsecut. 33. Kepercussis medutlis 
malum recidit inlrorsus, et interna comprendit, vermes intus crean* 
tmr. 1 tKkl Athen. '^9. 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. KH. XIII. 40S 

historian, who wished to cooiceal the odious truths 
wit of regard to Herod and his family. 

23. ayfl' coif fiuV l&oic€ Trju 8o|av rm 0€c5^ i.e. because 
he took to himself, or permitted to be given tt) himi, 
the honour due to (jrod alone. '£§e4^|6v, expired^ 
Though it appears from Joaephus, that Herod died 
after five days illness, yet this is not inconsistent 
with the account of St. Luke, whojonly says that he 
died of the disorder, but not how soon. 

24i, 25. St. Luke now goes on to narrate the fui^ 
ther propagation of Christianity. What we read at 
ver. 25. has reference to 11, 29. seq. j and ver. 26. 
exactly coheres with c. 3. 

24. 'O 8e Xoyoy to3 06o3 rfi^oofe Koi iir'kirfi^vero. 
Now the deliverance of Peter and the death of He- 
rod would both tend to promote the increase of the 
Christian Religion. Nor would the miseries of the 
severe famine, which succeeded, he imfavourable 
thereto; since such awful visitations draw men to 
religion, f n 7]u^av€ xai erT^Quvero Kuinoel recognises 
a metaphor derived from fruits ; and he takes oVcer- 
rpe\{/av, which occurs just after, in a pli^rfect sense, 
understanding, to Antioch. Compare 11, 27 & 29 
seq. 1^, 1. " For (says be) they had returned to 
Antioch before Peter^s imprisomnenl and the death 
of Herod.'* But see Doddridge. 

25. 7rys,vip(o(ravT€9 rfiu Siomcoi^/om*, *' having fulfilled 
their office of ministering to the distresses of the 
poor." nx>3goa) is not unfrequently used of accom- 
plishing any tvork. See SchK Lex. 

CHAP. XIII. 

From this Chapter, to the end of the Book, St. 
Luke narrates the journies of Paul among the Gen- 
tiles. 

^ The following is a summary of what is recorded iii 
this chapter. 

Paul proceeding with Barnabas through Seleucia, 
and from thence to Cyprus, directs his way to Sala- 

2 D 2 



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401 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XIII. 

mis and Faphos, and there chastises a certain magi- 
cian, who nad opposed him (1 — 12). From thence 
he goes to Perga in Pamphylia, and to Antioch in 
Pisidia. The events which there took place are nar- 
rated in 13 — ^fin. 

1. KaroL r^tf owrav €KKXr^(riap. Subaud €K€i: a very 
frequent ellipsis ; as in Acts 1, 4. Matt. Q6, 13. 22, 
1^. Mark 8, 1. Philem. 2. 

On 5r^^i]Tai see the note on 11, 27- to which I 
add, that the word occurs in the sense oi sacerdos in 
the Classical writers ; as, for instance, Herodian 5, 

Kar €ice7va rk j^wpia Tpo^r^reuovre^' where the Editor 
refers to Sext. Emper. p. 227. Lucian. 1, 391. Diod. 
Sic. 199. Herodo. 555-49. Hemsterh. ad Aristoph. 
Plut. 357. 

The hhdtTKaTioi are also mentioned in 1 Cor. 12, 20. 
and Eph. 4, 11. where see Koppe. These were per- 
sons, who, for their wisdom ana eloquence, wgre ap- 
pointed to the oflBce of teaching in the Church. Of 
Simeon we hear notiiing further j but of Lucius 
mention is made in Rom. 16, 21. 

1. Mavaijy. This corresponds to the Hebr. DniD, 
consoler. That the Heroa here mentioned is Herod 
Antipa«, and not (as Grotius supposes) Agrippa the 
second, son of the Agrippa whose death was re- 
corded in the last chapter, has been proved by Walch, 
in his Dissert, de Menachenas.* 

* For Agrippa Junior had, when his ikther died» scarcely reached 
his seventeenth year, (as we learn from Joseph. Ant. 19, 9.) and on 
that account Claudius had denied him the succession to his father's 
kingdom, and committed him, for education, to his uncle Herod, 
King of Chalais. At whose death, which happened four years after, 
Claudius appointed him to his kingdom $ and when he had reigned 
four years, Claudius, after having taken that kingdom from him, 
and probably apportioned it to Syria, set him over the tetrarchies of 
Philip and Lysanias. See Luke 3, I. Acts 12, 1. Joseph. Ant. 20, 
7, 1. But although this Agrippa had received two tetrarchies from 
Claudius, he did not bear the title of teirarch, but kingi because, 
before those tetrarchies had been given to him, he had been King 
of Chalais : and for that reason it is that he is never called by any 
other name than king by Josephus and Pftul (Acts 26, 9, IS, 19 & 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XIII. 405 

1. ro5 rer^oppfou trtim-po^of* The word o-Jvrjo^or 
is properly an adjective, denoting "brought up, edu- 
cated with :** but it here seems to be a substantive, 
formed like our words foster-brother, name-sake, 

^bed-fellow, &c. See Ach. Tat. 5, 353. cited by 
tVetstein. So also ojxoyaXoicrof, explained conlacta- 
neus in the Glossaries, and here used by the Vulgate. 
Many other examples of the word may be seen in 
Wetstein. Thus it denoted, 1st, foster-brother; 
2dly, one who took his food with another, tahte-fel- 
low ; 3dly, school-fellow. The term was especially 
applied to children who were brought up as compa- 
nions to kings, princes, &c., and shared their food 
and education. Of this we find mention in Diodor. 
Sic. 3, 10. p. 240. (edit. Wess.), and 1, 53, 62. 
2 Mace. 9, 29. (See Munthe, Raphel, and Wets.) 

To which of tne above classes Manaen may be 
referred, is somewhat uncertain. Erasmus, Grotius, 
and others, fix on the second; Heumann and Walch, 
with more probability, on the first. See his Dissert, 
above referred to.* 

2. Before the conversion of Cornelius (as we ob- 
served at 10, 1.), the Apostles had received only 
circumcised proselytes into the Christian society; 
nor had they preached the Gospel to the Gentiles. 
But when Cornelius, a Gentile, was, by the provi- 
dence of God, received into that society, and thus 
the Jerusalemite Church had acknowledged that the 

91), by Feslus the president (at 95, 24 & 96), and by Luke (Acts 25, 
IS, 14. 26, so). Whence it is clear that the Herod here called tetrarch 
18 not the same with the Agrippa whom in thb book Luke calls 
king. (Walch) 

* Waich remarks that the <rvyTp6<^i used to be of nearly the . 
same age ; which, if we suppose the Herod here mentioned to be 
Agrippa the second^ would make Menaen hut seventeen, an age unfit 
for the weighty office of teacher in the Church ; whereas the age of 
Herod Antipas would be very suitable to what that office would re-^ 
quire. He moreover observes, that Herod is here called tetrarch^ 
though he had already been deprived of his tetrarchy, and sent into 
banishment ; by a custom frequent in Scripture, namely, of giving 
persons any title of dignity which they have once borne, and generally 
denominating any thing from its pristine state. 



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406 ACTS OF THE AFOSTLES, CHAP. XIII. 

instniclion of the Gentiles was agreeable to the will 
of God, some Cyprians and Cyreneans bad commu* 
nicated the doctrine of Christ to Gentiles of An- 
tiocb (11, QO), and the Church at Jerusalem had 
sent Barnabas and Saul thither, that they might for- 
ward the work so happily begun (11, 22 & 25). And 
these sojourning there a year, taught both Jews and 
Grentiles promiscuously^ But now the Christians 
were anxious that the Gospel should be more widely 
propagated among the Gentiles ^ so that from the 
congregatidn at Antioch other congregations might 
be generated, as from a common parent. Therefore 
the chief teachers of the Church met together, in 
order to chuse from among them some who should 
sustain the weighty office of promulgating the 
Christian doctrine among the Oentiles. 

2. Xcir^u^youmraiv. Some antient interpreters, as 
Chrysostom and CEcumenius, understand by this 
preaching the Gospel. But (as is observed by Kui- 
noel) there is no proof that the congregation was as- 
sembled. Now 7i€iroopyta properly denotes the dis- 
charge of some public office, whether religious or civil. 
In the Classical writers it is almost always employed 
of the latter ; in the Sacred writers, of the former. 
Hence it is used in the Old Testament, and some- 
times in the New, (as Hebr. 10, 11.) to denote the 
ministration of the Priests and Levites. Here we 
may understand by this term the whole of Divine 
worship, especially prayer; since fasting is added, 
and the two were frequently conjoined. See Matt. 
17,21. and Luke 2,37. Kuinoel, however, takes 
the vr^trrejovToov to have merely the effect of raising 
the signification of X^itow^ouvtcov (as in 14, 23.. xpo- 
o-ftJpfeo-flai ft€Ta yijerrcicSv), and thinks it may, like many 
similar phrases, denote only to pray fervently. But 
this seems explaining away the sense. According to 
this mode of interpretation the following words, totc 
)n\frr€6iravT€s kcu Tqo(r€tj^ay.€>oi must be similarly un- 
derstood ; whereas loja-TctJeiv there evidently means to 
appoint a fast. 



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ACTS OF TH£ APOSTLE^, CHAP. XIII. 407 

S, a^^<raT€ S19 moi tIp re BapydtjSoy Koi rlv XaO^if^. 
The ^ IS by Valcknaer thought to have (as often) 
an hortative force ; and he would render it quGeso. 
It seems to stand for ^Sij. Our word now is similarly 
employed. 

This use of juloi, too, deserves to be noticed ; which 
is found with phrases of commanding. So Thucyd. 
% 200. Bekker. c^KT^^l t&9 ^Jxay rts &psiy4r(o ejftoi* 
where I shall adduce numerous examples of this 
idiom. The ftoi is sometimes elegantly pleonastic : 
but here it signifies ^r my service; and the following 
words €iy TO €pyop are added by way of explanation. 

As to elxe ri vy€o[jLa rl dym Kuinoel tells us that 
the communication was made by the mouth of some 
one of the congregation, probably one of the Pro- 
phets. But that is more than he or any one else can 
tell. 

The epyov evidently denotes the oflBce of preaching 
the Gospel to the Gentiles. 'A^og/^eiy signifies to 
separate from, chuse for, designate, destine unto, 
&c. (See Schl. Lex.) At o there is an ellipsis of 
eh ; and Kuinoel remarks that prepositions are omit- 
ted before the relative oy, when the substj^ntives or 
pronouns demonstrative, to which they are referred, 
n^ve them adjoined; as in Plato, Phaedr. 21. ri iv 
rouT«> ano'KKufuu (Stnrep Koi Xa|u^3ayoft€V, (where see 
Fischer), and Nepoa, Vit. Cim. S, 1. Incidit in ean- 
dem invidiam quam pater suus. 

IIpoa-KcicXisftaf is by Kuinoel taken for K€icX>}|Ltai. 
But it appears to have more force than the simple 
verb, and signifies to call to any office, destine, de- 
signate^ and appoint toit. 

8. vri(rT€v(Favr€9 ku) vpoa-ej^afievoi. Kuinoel ren- 
ders the words, " peractis precibus atque jejunio.** 
But why should he put the fasting ajier the prayer, 
which in the original stands Jirsi ? Besides, it would 
have been better translated, ** indicto jejunio.*' 

Kuinoel observes, that by this imposition of hands 
they did not receive the authority to evangelize the 
Gentiles ; since they had before taught at Antioch 



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408 ACTS OF TUB APOSTLES^ CHAP. XIII. 

(11, ^2 seqq.) ; but that by this ceremony they only 
implored the blessing of God upon their labours. 
And it is true that imposition of hands sometimes 
implied no more (see the note on 8, 15), but it not 
unfrequently denoted designatian and appointment 
to any office. I therefore agree with those Com- 
mentators, who assign that sense to the word here. 
Besides, the a^opi<roLT€, just before, seems to require 
it ; also the following, fKr^juu^dcvre^ uirl rw IlveJftarof 
Tou ayiou. 

We may observe; that they were especially dedi- 
cated to the systematical evangelization of the Gen- 
tiles. 

3. oTT^Tiwrav. This word has no particular sense, but 
id oJFlen found in sentelnces of this kind. It may be 
rendered, " and so dismissed ;*' as in Acts 15, 30. 
oi fthf oZv aToXuflcWcy and ver. 22 & 23. So ver. 33. 

4. X€'K€t}Kia. A city of Syria, situated at the 
mouth of the Orontes, and opposite to Cyprus. See 
Wetstein and the Geographical writers, including 
Maursius, Cypr. 1, 21, p. 56 seq. 

6. SifXfloWcff — oixfii Ila^ou. Paphos was a city on 
the west coast of Cyprus, where the Proconsul held 
his residence. It was famous for the worship of Ve- 
nus, to whom a most splendid temple had been 
erected. Hence the epithet Cypria and Paphia, 
often given to Venus. See Hor. Od. 1, 30, 1. Virg. 
^n. 1, 415. Tacit. Hist. 2, 3, and Menes. on Cypr. 
p. 42. 

Barnabas and Saul therefore traversed the whole 
island : for Paphos was situated on the west, and 
Salamis on the eastern coast. Hence in some MSS. 
oXif]v is found added, which has been received by 
Griesbach. It, however, savours of a gloss. (Kuin.) 

6. €ugov Tiva fMLyov — Ba^iV)<roS9. By ftayoi were de- 
noted persons versed in the knowledge of natural 
philosophy, but who too often, from avarice or am- 
bitious motives, abused it to deceive the vulgar. 
(See the note on 8, 9.) Hence this Baijesus is called 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, CHAP. XIII. 409 

>}w8wrfo4JijTT)y, either because he falsely pretended to 
b^ a Divine Legate (8, 9.)> or ^s being one who pre- 
tended to predict future events and the fortunes of 
men, from the planets, stars, and other celestial 
signs. See Propert. 4, 1. (Kuin.) Bapiritrod^ signi- 
fies son of Jos/ma. So Bartimeus in Mark 10, 46. 

7- iff y <rinf r£ aydorario, " who was then with 
(i. e. visiting) the Proconsul.** Kuinoel renders ** in 
ejus comitatu,** and refers to Mark 2, 26. Luke 24, 
44. and Acts 4, 13. 7,2. Beza, Grotius, Hammond, 
L'Enfant, and others, say that the title avduTraros^ 
was improperly applied to the Governor of Cyprus, 
(as they suppose) by way of compliment, while he 
was only ai^ierr^r^yoff. But (as Doddridge rightly 
observes) Dr. Lardner has with great learnmg vindi- 
cated the accuracy with which St. Luke speaks, and 
shewn from Dio (L. 53. p. 504 a. and L. 54. p. 523 
B.) that they who presided over the Roman Pro- 
vinces by the appointment of the Senate, (and Cy- 
prus was now of that number, though it had once 
been Praetorian,) were called Proconsuls, though 
they had never filled, the consular chair ; which (as 
appears by the Fasti Consulares) was the case with 
the governor in question. 

Kuinoel has also, with great diligence, completely 
justified the accuracy of St. Luke in here using the 
term. 

7. By opriq <rwf€Tl9 is meant a man of intelligence, 
abilities, a clever man. So Thucyd.1,74. and 3, 
37. et saepe. This corresponds to what Galen, Anat. 
1. (cited by Wets.) says of the proconsul here men- 
tioned : To3S€ To3 jw iirap^wi rJjy ^PcofxalooVf woXeoiy avSp^^ 
r A TaPTa 7rgaiT€t5oyTo^ €pyot9 re Ka\ Xoyoi^ roly if (piXoco^/a, 
Xepylou IlauXou urarou. And de Prasnot. X^pyw re 
KOii IlaSXos', 69 ow ftira ttoXuv ypo¥W €vap)(o^, ijv rJjy 
iri\€a}9, icoi ^Xa3«or— €0^€wwo$' he irepi t^ ^ApurTortTious 
^fXoo'o^iiav, Anrep ku) IlaSXor. From which it ap* 
pears that he was well versed in natural philosophy ; 
and probably for that reason (especially as he must 
have seen the folly of polytheism), was cultivating the 



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410 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. XIII* 

aociety of Bar-jesus^ who, beside comKnuoicating in- 
formation on the principles of natural philosophy, 
could instruct him in the knowledge of one true 
God, a3 contained in the Jewish Religion* His 
sending foi* Paul and Barnabas, the preachers of a 
religion which professed to be an improvement upon 
Judaism, was what we might expect from so curious 
an investigator of truth. 

8. Luke does not positively say that they gave 
Sergius the detail of Christian doctrine which he re- 
quired, but it may be inferred from what follows. 
This kind of brachylogia is very c^reeable to the 
popular style ; and we have already had several in- 
stances of it. 

8. oyd/rraro auroi^, opposed^ contradicted them; as 
inGal. 2, 11. 2 Tim, 4, 15, 

8. *Exv|xa^, ftayo9f Loesner well remarks, that 
there is here an ellipsis of tout* ia-nv, as 'A^^a o irarrip 
in Rom. 8, 15. For Elymas (from the Arabic Ali^ 
man, wise) aigniiies magus. And this (as Kuinoel 
observes) was the name given to the magi in 
Arabia.* 

8. haa-rpey^i. Valcknaer would read aTFotrrpey^fai. 
But this conjecture is unsupported by any MSS., 
and the present reading is confirmed by Exod. 5, 4. 
(Sept.) ivaTi hourrpeHfere rlv Tvoov cbri rwp tpyaov ; So 
the Latin per-verto. 

9* SaSxo^ Sf, Kcti Ilad\%9. Henceforward Saul is 
called by Luke Paul, though before invariably Saul. 
Some are of opinion that he had from the beginning 
two names, of which Saul was given him by his 
parents, at his circumcision *, and the other (Paul) 
was add^d in illustration Qf his being a Roman citi- 
zen. But (as is well observed by Witsius, Mel, 
Leid, p. 47,) Luke h^d hitherto invariably called 

^ Thus our old word wiz-ard coooes fmm wise, and its termina* 
tion ard seems to have been an augmentative^ like the one of the 
Italians. There is the same termination also in other words, as 
Rich-ard (which originally meant a very rich man)^ dot'ord, and 
the French veiU-ard, 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLCS, CHAP, %in. 411 

him Saul, wd now, do sooner has he mentioned the 
name of Paul, than Saul becomes so pblitert^ted that 
we no where find it used again either by Luke^ Pe- 
ter, or Paul in his Epistles. 

Others suppose that Saul himself changed his 
name after his conversion^ because it would have 
been odious to those whom he had persecuted ; and 
that he abandoned the honourable name Saul (which 
denotes desirable)^ to take the less honourable name 
Paul (which signifies litilejy out of modesty ! But, 
if that be true> why did he not use the name from 
his conversion? which it seems he did not: for 
Luke calls him Saul after that conversion ; as in 11, 
25 & 30. 12, 25. 18, 1. 2, 7 & 9. 

Others again (as Hammond), on the authority of 
Jerom, maintain that he took the name Paul out 
of deference to the Proconsul, his first eminent Gen- 
tile convert. But this is not very consistent with 
the modes^ of the Apostle. Besides (as is observed 
by Wets.) Luke calls nim Paul before he has made 
any mention of the conversion of Sergius Paulus. 
fKuin.) Kuinoel adopts the hypothesis brought 
forward by Beza and Grotius (as also does Dod- 
dridge), that having conversed hitherto chiefly with 
Jews and Syrians, to whom the name of Saul was 
familiar, and now coming among Romans and 
Greeks, they would naturally pronounce his name 
Paul ; as one whose Hebrew name was Jochanan,. 
would be called by the Greeks and Latins Johannes^ 
by the French Jean, by the Dutch Hans, and by the 
English John. 

I would, however, venture to suggest another 
conjecture, namely, that Saul, finding the inconve- 
nience cf his present name, had resolved, on this 
solemn mission, to adopt that of Paul, which, from 
its similarity, would suggest itself, and which, as 
being a Roman one, would be so much the more 
suitable to one who was a Roman citizen. 

9* 7rXT]<r&ti^ nwixarop ayiw. This expression is 



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41^ ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAK Xtlf. 

as usualy perverted by many recent foreign Theolo- 
gians. It must, however, have its foil sense; and 
morever seems to have been used (as Chrysostom and 
CEcumenius suggest) to shew that the words of Paul 
were not dictated by anger^ but a sincere desire to 
convert the Procurator to the truth- For this rea- 
son, I cannot approve of the mode of rendering art- 
viVay, adopted by Menochius and others, " iracundis 
et ardentibus oculis/* It merely means, ** having 
fixed his eyes steadily upon him.*' 

10. ir'KriqriS' iraitrl^ OoXow — oahou^iag. Schleusner 
and Breitschneider render 8oW impietas. But there 
seems no reason to deviate from the common signi- 
fication, frauds guile. For he who is called \|wSo- 
wpo^ijTTjy, who abused bis knowledge of natural phi- 
losophy to deceive others by sophistical arts, and 
who, by calumnies, studied to turn the Proconsul 
from Christianity, surely well merited that epithet. 

Ta^ioupy/a signifies properly facility of action; 
as in Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 34. ; and also levity and care- 
lessness (i. e. whether any action be good or evil). 
Hence it denotes temerity of action, improbity of 
every kind. (See T. Mag. and Etym. Mag.) That 
iElius Dionys. ap. Eustath. on Hom. Od. S. p. 1506., 
explains pai^oopyia by ^ v€pi ttov i^iycopla Ka\ Bpounrnif, 
see Raphel, Munthe, and Wets. (Kuin.) 

Tahoypyia may be paralleled by our expression 
to be light fingered; and there is a reference to the 
astutia, or S^lioi^y, described in a powerful passa£:e 
of Thucyd. S, 82. 1, 498. 

In the above sense the word occurs not only in 
Diodor. Siculus and Polvbius (cited by the Com- 
mentators), but in Xenophon, Arrian, and Plutarch. 
Upon the whole, it corresponds to, and is the same 
with our word roguery. It was probably often applied 
to conjurers and sleight-ofhand mountebanks. And 
this the Apostle may have had in view ^ since it is very 
applicable to the character of Bar-jesus. The 8oW 
will also exactly correspond to the auack or con- 
jurer. So Plato de Legg. (cited by Wets.) SoXow 8^ 



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ACTS OF THE APOSTLES^ CHAP. XIII. 41S 

Koi €V€hpa9 wXiJpi] ff, €$ cSv iroLyr€i9 re KarourKeja^ovrou 
iroTOio), Koi Treoi Trourav rr\v fiayyaweiav ic€iciy)}jx€Vof« 

10. ul€ SiopoXou^ i. e. like unto the Devil. Now 
it was usual with the Hebrews to use the expression 
son ofsLiiy one, to denote a person like unto another, 
and who copied his actions. See the note on Joh. 8, 
44. Kuinoel thinks there is a reference to the name 
of the magus. But this seems extremely fanciful ; 
and indeed would have been little suitable to the 
gravity o